The Earth and Its Peoples: A Global History, Since 1500 / Edition 3

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Overview

The Earth and Its Peoples Brief Edition is a compact presentation of world history with a comparative approach and a global, balanced perspective. The themes of "Environment and Technology" and "Diversity and Dominance" unite the regions of the world. The Earth and Its Peoples Brief Edition offers a high level of scholarship with supportive, student-friendly format.

New To This Edition
· New! "Diversity and Dominance" features introduce students to primary sources dealing with the diversity of the humane experience. These include "Hierarchy and Conduct in the World of Confucius" and "Two Africans Recall the arrival of Europeans."
· New! "Issues in World History" essays explore complex issues of historical scholarship that do not fit neatly into any one time period or geographic region. These include "Oral Societies and the Consequences of Literacy" and "Famines and Politics."
· New! Structural updates include the reorganization of Chapters 2 and 3, a new Chapter 11, "Mongol Eurasia and Its Aftermath," which combines the chapters on western and eastern Eurasia, and a new Chapter 22, "Land Empires in the Age of Imperialism, 1800-1870" on the Ottoman Empire, the Russian Empire, and the Qing Empire.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780618471164
  • Publisher: Cengage Learning
  • Publication date: 6/1/2005
  • Edition description: Brief Edition
  • Edition number: 3
  • Product dimensions: 7.58 (w) x 9.08 (h) x 0.55 (d)

Table of Contents


Maps     xiii
Environment and Technology     xiv
Diversity and Dominance     xiv
Issues in World History     xiv
Preface     xv
About the Authors     xxi
Note on Spelling and Usage     xxiii
Introduction: The World Before 1500     xxiv
The Maritime Revolution, to 1550     337
Global Maritime Expansion Before 1450     338
The Pacific Ocean     338
The Indian Ocean     340
The Atlantic Ocean     341
Iberian Expansion, 1400-1550     342
Background to Iberian Expansion     342
Portuguese Voyages     343
Spanish Voyages     345
Encounters with Europe, 1450-1550     348
Western Africa     348
Eastern Africa     352
Indian Ocean States     353
The Americas     354
Patterns of Dominance     356
Conclusion     357
Key Terms     357
Suggested Reading     357
Notes     358
Diversity and Dominance: Kongo's Christian King     350
Issues in World History: Climate and Population, to 1500     359
The GlobeEncompassed, 1500-1800     361
Transformations in Europe, 1500-1750     364
Culture and Ideas     365
Religious Reformation     365
Traditional Thinking and Witch-Hunts     369
The Scientific Revolution     370
The Early Enlightenment     372
Social and Economic Life     372
The Bourgeoisie     373
Peasants and Laborers     375
Women and the Family     377
Political Innovations     378
State Development     379
Religious Policies     379
Monarchies in England and France     380
Warfare and Diplomacy     382
Paying the Piper     383
Conclusion     385
Key Terms     385
Suggested Reading     386
Notes     386
Environment and Technology: Mapping the World     376
The Americas, The Atlantic, and Africa, 1530-1770     387
Spanish America and Brazil     388
State and Church     388
Colonial Economies     391
Society in Colonial Latin America     392
English and French Colonies in North America     396
The South      396
New England     397
Middle Atlantic Region     398
French America     398
Plantations in the West Indies     399
Sugar and Slaves     399
Technology and Environment     401
Creating the Atlantic Economy     403
Capitalism and Mercantilism     403
The Great Circuit and the Middle Passage     404
Africa and the Atlantic     405
The Gold Coast and the Slave Coast     406
The Bight of Biafra and Angola     406
The Columbian Exchange     407
Transfers to the Americas     407
Transfers from the Americas     408
Conclusion     409
Key Terms     410
Suggested Reading     410
Notes     410
Diversity and Dominance: Race and Ethnicity in the Spanish Colonies: Negotiating Hierarchies     394
Southwest Asia and the Indian Ocean, 1500-1750     411
The Ottoman Empire     412
Expansion and Frontiers     412
Central Institutions     415
Crisis of the Military State, 1585-1650     416
Economic Change and Growing Weakness     417
The Safavid Empire      420
Safavid Society and Religion     421
Isfahan and Istanbul     421
Economic Crisis and Political Collapse     424
The Mughal Empire     424
Political Foundations     425
Hindus and Muslims     425
Central Decay and Regional Challenges     426
Trade Empires in the Indian Ocean     427
Muslims in the East Indies     427
Muslims in East Africa     429
The Coming of the Dutch     430
Conclusion     430
Key Terms     431
Suggested Reading     431
Notes     431
Diversity and Dominance: Islamic Law and Ottoman Rule     418
Northern Eurasia, 1500-1800     432
Japanese Reunification     433
Civil War and the Invasion of Korea, 1500-1603     433
The Tokugawa Shogunate, to 1800     434
Japan and the Europeans     434
Elite Decline and Social Crisis     437
The Later Ming and Early Qing Empires     438
The Ming Empire, 1500-1644     438
Ming Collapse and the Rise of the Qing     439
Trading Companies and Missionaries     440
Emperor Kangxi     440
Chinese Influences on Europe     443
Tea and Diplomacy     444
Population and Social Stress     445
The Russian Empire     445
The Drive Across Northern Asia     445
Russian Society and Politics to 1725     446
Peter the Great     449
Consolidation of the Empire     450
Comparative Perspectives     451
Political Comparisons     451
Cultural, Social, and Economic Comparisons     451
Conclusion     452
Key Terms     452
Suggested Reading     453
Notes     454
Environment and Technology: East Asian Porcelain     436
Issues in World History: The Little Ice Age     455
Revolutions Reshape the World, 1750-1870     457
Revolutionary Changes in the Atlantic World, 1750-1850     460
Prelude to Revolution: War and the Enlightenment     461
The American Revolution     462
Frontiers and Taxes     462
The Course of Revolution     464
New Republican Institutions     464
The French Revolution     465
French Society and Fiscal Crisis     465
Protest Turns to Revolution      466
Reaction and Dictatorship     468
Retrenchment, Reform, and Revolution     469
Revolution in Haiti and Latin America     469
The Haitian Revolution     469
Latin American Revolutions     471
Mexico     473
Economic and Social Liberation Movements     475
The Abolition of Slavery     475
Equal Rights for Women and Blacks     477
Conclusion     478
Key Terms     478
Suggested Reading     478
Environment and Technology: Constructing the Port of Buenos Aires, Argentina     476
The Early Industrial Revolution, 1760-1851     480
Causes of the Industrial Revolution     481
Preconditions for Industrialization     481
Britain's Advantages     482
The Technological Revolution     484
Mass Production and Mechanization     484
The Iron Industry     486
The Steam Engine     487
Railroads     488
Communication over Wires     489
The Impact of the Industrial Revolution     489
The New Industrial Cities     490
Rural Environments     490
Working Conditions      491
Changes in Society     492
New Economic and Political Ideas     493
Laissez Faire     493
Positivism and Utopian Socialism     493
Protests and Reforms     494
Emigration     494
Industrialization and the Nonindustrial World     495
Conclusion     496
Key Terms     497
Suggested Reading     497
Notes     497
Environment and Technology: The Origin of Graphs     484
Africa, India, and the New British Empire, 1750-1870     498
Changes and Exchanges in Africa     499
New African States     499
Modernization in Egypt and Ethiopia     500
European Penetration     500
Secondary Empires in Eastern Africa     504
India Under British Rule     504
Company Men     504
Raj and Rebellion, 1818-1857     506
Political Reform and Industrial Impact     507
Rising Indian Nationalism     509
Britain's Eastern Empire     510
Colonies and Commerce     510
Imperial Policies and Shipping     511
Colonization of Australia and New Zealand     512
New Labor Migrations      513
Conclusion     516
Key Terms     517
Suggested Reading     517
Notes     517
Environment and Technology: Whaling     514
Land Empires in the Age of Imperialism, 1800-1870     518
The Ottoman Empire     519
Egypt and the Napoleonic Example, 1798-1840     519
Ottoman Reform and the European Model, 1807-1853     520
The Crimean War and Its Aftermath, 1853-1877     527
The Russian Empire     529
Russia and Europe     529
Russia and Asia     531
Cultural Trends     531
The Qing Empire     532
Economic and Social Disorder, 1800-1839     533
The Opium War and Its Aftermath, 1839-1850     533
The Taiping Rebellion, 1850-1864     536
Decentralization at the End of the Qing Empire, 1864-1875     539
Conclusion     540
Key Terms     541
Suggested Reading     541
Diversity and Dominance: The French Occupation of Egypt     522
Issues in World History: State Power, the Census, and the Question of Identity     542
Global Dominance and Diversity, 1850-1949     545
The New Power Balance, 1850-1900     548
New Technologies and the World Economy     549
The Steel and Chemical Industries     549
Electricity     549
Shipping and Telegraph Cables     550
Railroads     550
World Trade and Finance     550
Social Transformations     550
Population and Migrations     552
Urbanization and Social Structures     552
Labor Movements and Socialist Politics     552
Working-Class Women and Men     553
The Victorian Age and Women's "Separate Sphere"     553
Nationalism and the Unification of Germany     557
National Identity Before 1871     557
The Unification of Germany     558
Nationalism After 1871     558
The Great Powers of Europe, 1871-1900     560
Germany at the Center of Europe     560
The Liberal Powers: France and Great Britain     560
The Conservative Powers: Russia and Austria-Hungary     560
New Great Powers: The United States and Japan     562
The United States, 1865-1900     562
The Crisis of the Tokugawa Shogunate     563
The Meiji Restoration and the Modernization of Japan, 1868-1894     564
The Birth of Japanese Imperialism, 1894-1905     565
Conclusion     567
Key Terms     567
Suggested Reading     567
Diversity and Dominance: Marx and Engels on Global Trade and the Bourgeoisie     554
The New Imperialism, 1869-1914     569
The New Imperialism: Motives and Methods     570
Political Motives     570
Cultural Motives     572
Economic Motives     574
The Tools of the Imperialists     574
Colonial Agents and Administration     575
The Scramble for Africa     577
Egypt     577
Western and Equatorial Africa     579
Southern Africa     580
Political and Social Consequences     581
Cultural Responses     582
Asia and Western Dominance     583
Central Asia     583
Southeast Asia and Indonesia     583
Hawaii and the Philippines, 1878-1902     587
Imperialism in Latin America     589
Railroads and the Imperialism of Free Trade     590
American Expansionism and the Spanish-American War, 1898     591
American Intervention in the Caribbean and Central America, 1907-1914     591
The World Economy and the Global Environment     592
Expansion of the World Economy     592
Transformation of the Global Environment     593
Conclusion     594
Key Terms     594
Suggested Reading     594
Notes     595
Diversity and Dominance: Two Africans Recall the Arrival of the Europeans     584
The Crisis of the Imperial Order, 1900-1929     596
Origins of the Crisis in Europe and the Middle East     597
The Ottoman Empire and the Balkans     597
Nationalism, Alliances, and Military Strategy     597
The "Great War" and the Russian Revolutions     601
Stalemate, 1914-1917     601
The Home Front and the War Economy     603
The Ottoman Empire at War     603
Double Revolution in Russia, 1917     604
The End of the War in Western Europe, 1917-1918     605
Peace and Dislocation in Europe     605
The Impact of the War     605
The Peace Treaties     606
Russian Civil War and the New Economic Policy     606
An Ephemeral Peace     607
China and Japan: Contrasting Destinies     608
Revolution in China     608
Japan and World War I     609
China in the 1920s     609
The New Middle East     610
The Rise of Modern Turkey     610
Arab Lands and the Question of Palestine     612
Society, Culture, and Technology in the Industrialized World     612
Class and Gender     613
Revolution in the Sciences     614
The New Technologies of Modernity     614
Technology and the Environment     615
Conclusion     617
Key Terms     617
Suggested Reading     617
Environment and Technology: Cities Old and New     598
The Collapse of the Old Order, 1929-1949     619
Stalin's Revolution     620
Five-Year Plans     620
Collectivization of Agriculture     620
Terror and Opportunities     622
The Depression     623
Economic Crisis     623
Depression in Industrial Nations     623
Depression in Nonindustrial Regions     623
The Rise of Fascism     626
Mussolini's Italy     626
Hitler's Germany     627
The Road to War, 1933-1939     628
East Asia, 1931-1945     629
The Manchurian Incident of 1931     629
The Chinese Communists and the Long March     629
The Sino-Japanese War, 1937-1945     630
The Second World War     631
The War of Movement     631
War in Europe and North Africa     631
War in Asia and the Pacific     632
The End of the War     634
Chinese Civil War and Communist Victory     634
The Character of Warfare     635
The War of Science     635
Bombing Raids     637
The Holocaust     637
The Home Front     638
War and the Environment     638
Conclusion     639
Key Terms     639
Suggested Reading     639
Diversity and Dominance: Women, Family Values, and the Russian Revolution     624
Striving for Independence: Africa, India, and Latin America, 1900-1949     641
Sub-Saharan Africa, 1900-1945     642
Colonial Africa: Economic and Social Changes     642
Religious and Political Changes     644
The Indian Independence Movement, 1905-1947     646
The Land and the People     646
British Rule and Indian Nationalism     647
Mahatma Gandhi and Militant Nonviolence     648
India Moves Toward Independence     649
Partition and Independence     651
The Mexican Revolution, 1910-1940     652
Mexico in 1910     652
Revolution and Civil War, 1911-1920     654
The Revolution Institutionalized, 1920-1940     654
Argentina and Brazil, 1900-1949     656
The Transformation of Argentina     657
Brazil and Argentina, to 1929     657
The Depression and the Vargas Regime in Brazil     658
Argentina After 1930     659
Mexico, Argentina, and Brazil: A Comparison     660
Conclusion     660
Key Terms     661
Suggested Reading     661
Notes     661
Environment and Technology: Gandhi and Technology     650
Issues in World History: Famines and Politics     662
The Perils and Promises of a Global Community, 1945 to the Present     665
The Cold War and Decolonization, 1945-1975     668
The Cold War     669
The United Nations     669
Capitalism and Communism     670
West Versus East in Europe and Korea     672
U.S. Defeat in Vietnam     673
The Race for Nuclear Supremacy     674
Decolonization and Nation Building     675
New Nations in Southern Asia     675
The Struggle for Independence in Africa     675
The Quest for Economic Freedom in Latin America     678
Challenges of Nation Building     679
Beyond a Bipolar World     679
The Third World     679
Japan and China     683
The Middle East     684
The Emergence of Environmental Concerns     687
Conclusion     687
Key Terms     687
Suggested Reading     687
Diversity and Dominance: Race and the Struggle for Justice in South Africa     680
Crisis, Realignment, and the Dawn of the Post-Cold War World, 1975-1991     689
Postcolonial Crises and Asian Economic Expansion, 1975-1991     690
Revolutions, Repression, and Democratic Reform in Latin America     690
Islamic Revolutions in Iran and Afghanistan     693
Asian Transformation     696
The End of the Bipolar World, 1989-1991     699
Crisis in the Soviet Union     699
The Collapse of the Socialist Bloc     700
The Persian Gulf War, 1990-1991     702
The Challenge of Population Growth      703
Demographic Transition     703
The Industrialized Nations     704
The Developing Nations     705
Unequal Development and the Movement of Peoples     706
The Problem of Growing Inequality     706
Internal Migration: The Growth of Cities     706
Global Migration     707
Technological and Environmental Change     708
New Technologies and the World Economy     708
Conserving and Sharing Resources     709
Responding to Environmental Threats     709
Conclusion     710
Key Terms     710
Suggested Reading     711
Notes     711
Diversity and Dominance: The Struggle for Women's Rights in an Era of Global Political and Economic Change     694
Globalization at the Turn of the Millennium     712
Global Political Economies     714
The Spread of Democracy     714
Global Politics     716
Arms Control and Terrorism     717
The Global Economy     718
Managing the Global Economy     720
Trends and Visions     722
A New Age?     722
Militant Islam     722
Universal Rights and Values     723
Women's Rights     725
Global Culture     726
The Media and the Message     727
The Spread of Pop Culture     729
The Emerging Global Elite Culture     730
Enduring Cultural Diversity     731
Conclusion     732
Key Terms     732
Suggested Reading     733
Notes     733
Environment and Technology: Global Warming     726
Glossary     G-1
Index     I-1
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