The Economics of Women, Men and Work / Edition 3

The Economics of Women, Men and Work / Edition 3

by Francine D. Blau
     
 

ISBN-10: 0135659795

ISBN-13: 9780135659793

Pub. Date: 07/28/1997

Publisher: Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference

/*9095B-3, 0-13-090922-X, Blau, Francine D., Economics of Women, Men and Work, 4/E*/ This single, highly accessible volume explores the most current summary and synthesis of research and data from economics and the social sciences on women, men, and work in the labor market and household. Women and Men: Changing Roles in a Changing

Overview

/*9095B-3, 0-13-090922-X, Blau, Francine D., Economics of Women, Men and Work, 4/E*/ This single, highly accessible volume explores the most current summary and synthesis of research and data from economics and the social sciences on women, men, and work in the labor market and household. Women and Men: Changing Roles in a Changing Economy. The Family as an Economic Unit. The Allocation of Time Between the Household and the Labor Market. Differences in Occupations and Earnings: Overview. Differences in Occupations and Earnings: The Human Capital Model. Differences in Occupations and Earnings: The Role of Labor Market Discrimination. Recent Developments in the Labor Market: Their Impact on Women and Men. Changing Work Roles and the Family. Policies to Balance Paid Work and Family. Gender Differences in Other Countries. Economists, Sociologists, Social Workers, Demographers, Policy Analysts, Labor Market Analysts. Also of interest to noneconomists and students who would like to learn about gender issues in the workplace and in the family but have little, if any, prior background in economics.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780135659793
Publisher:
Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference
Publication date:
07/28/1997
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
416
Product dimensions:
7.04(w) x 9.24(h) x 0.63(d)

Table of Contents

Preface xi
CHAPTER 1 Introduction
1(11)
What Economics Is About
2(1)
Uses of Economic Theory
3(2)
The Scope of Economics
5(1)
Individuals, Families, and Households
6(1)
A Note on Terminology
6(1)
Outline of the Book
7(1)
Appendix: A Review of Supply and Demand in the Labor Market
8(4)
CHAPTER 2 Women and Men: Changing Roles in a Changing Society
12(19)
The Nature of Males and Females
13(4)
Factors Influencing Women's Relative Status
17(1)
Women's Roles and Economic Development
18(2)
The U.S. Experience
20(9)
The Preindustrial Period
20(1)
Industrialization
21(1)
Industrialization and the Evolution of the Family
22(4)
Women in the Labor Market
26(3)
Conclusion
29(1)
Suggested Readings
30(1)
CHAPTER 3 The Family as an Economic Unit
31(45)
The Simple Neoclassical Model: Specialization and Exchange
33(6)
Comparative Advantage
34(1)
Specialization and Exchange: Numerical Examples
35(2)
Gains to Specialization and Exchange
37(2)
Other Advantages of Families
39(1)
The Disadvantages of Specialization
40(5)
Sharing of Housework
40(1)
Life Cycle Changes
41(1)
Costs of Interdependence
42(1)
Tastes and Bargaining Power
43(1)
Disadvantages of Specialization: A Summary
44(1)
Transaction Cost and Bargaining Approaches
45(6)
Nonmarket Work
51(7)
Work at Home
51(5)
Volunteer Work
56(2)
Policy Issue: Specialization and Taxes
58(4)
Income Taxation Policy
59(1)
Social Security System
60(2)
The American Family in the 1990s
62(6)
Family Structure
63(4)
Fertility and Immigration
67(1)
Conclusion
68(1)
Appendix: Specialization and Exchange
68(7)
Suggested Readings
75(1)
CHAPTER 4 The Allocation of Time Between the Household and the Labor Market
76(47)
The Labor Force: Some Definitions
77(2)
Trends in Labor Force Participation
79(5)
Trends in Labor Force Attachment
84(2)
The Labor Supply Decision
86(20)
The Budget Constraint
87(2)
Indifference Curves
89(3)
The Participation Decision
92(1)
The Value of Nonmarket Time (w*)
93(3)
The Value of Market Time (w)
96(3)
The Hours Decision
99(2)
Empirical Evidence on Income and Substitution Effects
101(1)
Economic Conditions
102(1)
Some Applications of the Theory: Taxes, Child Care Costs, and Labor Supply
103(3)
Analyzing Trends in Women's Participation: An Overview
106(5)
Factors Influencing the Value of Market Time (w)
107(1)
Factors Influencing the Value of Nonmarket Time (w*)
108(3)
The World War II Experience
111(1)
The Post-World War II Baby Boom
112(1)
The 1960s to the 1990s: A Period of Change
113(2)
Analyzing Trends in Men's Participation
115(1)
Black and White Participation Differentials: An Analysis
116(2)
Conclusion
118(2)
Appendix: Income and Substitution Effects: A Closer Look
120(1)
Suggested Readings
121(2)
CHAPTER 5 Differences in Occupations and Earnings: Overview
123(18)
Occupational Differences
124(7)
Occupational Segregation
125(4)
Hierarchies Within Occupations
129(1)
Evaluating the Extent of Occupational Segregation
130(1)
Trends in Occupational Segregation
131(3)
Earnings
134(6)
Conclusion
140(1)
CHAPTER 6 Differences in Occupations and Earnings: The Human Capital Model
141(44)
What Is Human Capital?
143(1)
Gender Differences in Educational Attainment
144(4)
The Educational Investment Decision
148(4)
Education and Productivity
152(1)
Gender Differences in Educational Investment Decisions
153(14)
Expected Work Life
153(5)
Societal Discrimination
158(6)
Policy Issue: The Role of Government in Combating Discrimination in Educational Institutions
164(3)
On-the-Job Training
167(1)
Gender Differences in Labor Market Experience
168(2)
The On-the-Job Training Investment Decision
170(2)
General Training
170(1)
Firm-Specific Training
171(1)
Experience and Productivity
172(1)
Gender Differences in Training Investment Decisions
173(3)
Expected Work Life
173(3)
Discrimination
176(1)
Occupations and Earnings
176(1)
Other Supply-Side Factors
177(2)
The Human Capital Explanation: An Assessment
179(4)
Conclusion
183(1)
Suggested Readings
183(2)
CHAPTER 7 Differences in Occupations and Earnings: The Role of Labor Market Discrimination
185(49)
Labor Market Discrimination: A Definition
186(1)
Empirical Evidence
187(12)
Earnings Differences
188(7)
Occupational Differences
195(4)
Models of Labor Market Discrimination
199(16)
Tastes for Discrimination
199(8)
Statistical Discrimination
207(2)
The Overcrowding Model
209(2)
Institutional Models
211(2)
Feedback Effects
213(2)
Policy Issue: The Government and Equal Employment Opportunity
215(12)
Equal Employment Opportunity Laws and Regulations
216(4)
Effectiveness of the Government's Antidiscrimination Effort
220(1)
Affirmative Action
221(3)
Comparable Worth
224(3)
Conclusion
227(1)
Appendix: Regression Analysis and Empirical Estimates of Labor Market Discrimination
228(5)
Suggested Readings
233(1)
CHAPTER 8 Recent Developments in the Labor Market: Their Impact on Women and Men
234(36)
Trends in Female and Male Wages
235(8)
The Declining Gender Pay Gap
236(3)
Trends in Real Earnings and Earnings Inequality Within Groups
239(3)
Summary
242(1)
Changing Labor Market Dynamics: Restructuring and Job Loss
243(11)
Restructuring in the 1980s and 1990s
243(3)
Unemployment
246(1)
Other Indicators of Employment Problems
247(1)
Gender Differences in Unemployment and Related Measures
248(4)
Economic Consequences of Restructuring and Layoffs
252(2)
Summary
254(1)
The Rise of the Nonstandard Work Force
254(7)
Definition of the Nonstandard Work Force
255(2)
Differences Among Nonstandard Workers
257(1)
Explanations Behind the Rise of Nonstandard Workers
258(1)
Consequences for Workers and Their Families
259(1)
Summary
260(1)
The Growth in Self-Employment
261(1)
The Changing Face of Labor Unions
262(6)
Representation of Women in Labor Unions
263(1)
Benefits of Union Membership for Workers
264(1)
Reasons for the Underrepresentation of Women in Unions
265(1)
The Glass Ceiling in Union Leadership
266(1)
Improved Prospects for Women in Unions
267(1)
Summary
268(1)
Conclusion
268(1)
Suggested Readings
269(1)
CHAPTER 9 Changing Work Roles and the Family
270(37)
Economic Explanations for Family Formation
271(15)
Marriage
271(3)
Divorce
274(5)
Cohabitation
279(2)
Fertility
281(5)
Changing Family Structure and Economic Well-Being
286(10)
Dual-Earner Families
287(3)
Maternal Employment and Children's Outcomes
290(1)
Single-Parent Families
291(4)
Family Structure and Children's Outcomes
295(1)
Welfare and Alleviating Poverty
296(10)
Background on AFDC
297(2)
The Iron Triangle of Welfare
299(1)
Employment Strategies
300(2)
The 1996 Welfare Legislation
302(2)
The Earned Income Tax Credit
304(1)
Child Support Enforcement
305(1)
Conclusion
306(1)
Suggested Readings
306(1)
CHAPTER 10 Policies to Balance Paid Work and Family
307(25)
The Competing Demands of Work and Family
307(3)
Who Is Responsible for Children?
310(3)
Family-Friendly Policies
313(17)
Family Leave
314(4)
Alternative Work Schedules
318(4)
Flexible Benefit Plans
322(1)
Policies for Couples
322(4)
Child Care
326(4)
Conclusion
330(1)
Suggested Readings
331(1)
CHAPTER 11 Gender Differences in Other Countries
332(45)
The Economic Status of the World's Women
333(12)
Labor Force Participation
333(5)
Occupations
338(1)
Earnings
338(1)
Educational Attainment
338(1)
Fertility
339(2)
Housework
341(1)
Women's Role in Government and Before the Law
341(1)
Interpretations and Implications
342(3)
A Comparison of the United States to Other Economically Advanced Nations
345(17)
Labor Force Participation
348(2)
Occupations
350(3)
The Gender Wage Gap
353(5)
Demographic Trends
358(3)
Housework
361(1)
Summary
362(1)
Developing Countries
362(10)
Education as a Pathway to Empowerment
363(2)
Fertility and Population Control
365(6)
Conclusion
371(1)
Countries of the Former Soviet Bloc
372(2)
Conclusion
374(1)
Suggested Readings
375(2)
Epilogue 377(2)
Author Index 379(8)
Subject Index 387

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