The Elements of Inductive Logic: Designed Mainly for the Use of Students in the Universities

The Elements of Inductive Logic: Designed Mainly for the Use of Students in the Universities

by Thomas Fowler
     
 

Unlike some other reproductions of classic texts (1) We have not used OCR(Optical Character Recognition), as this leads to bad quality books with introduced typos. (2) In books where there are images such as portraits, maps, sketches etc We have endeavoured to keep the quality of these images, so they represent accurately the original artefact. Although occasionally…  See more details below

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Unlike some other reproductions of classic texts (1) We have not used OCR(Optical Character Recognition), as this leads to bad quality books with introduced typos. (2) In books where there are images such as portraits, maps, sketches etc We have endeavoured to keep the quality of these images, so they represent accurately the original artefact. Although occasionally there may be certain imperfections with these old texts, we feel they deserve to be made available for future generations to enjoy.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
2940023865218
Publisher:
At the Clarendon press
Format:
NOOK Book
File size:
640 KB

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CHAPTER III. On the Inductive Methods. INDUCTION has been defined to be a legitimate inference from the known to the unknown. But the unknown must not be entirely unknown. It must be known to agree in certain circumstances with the known, and it is in virtue of this agreement that the inference is made. Now, how are we to ascertain what are the common circumstances which justify the inductive inference ? X and Y may both agree in exhibiting the circumstances a, b, c, but it will not follow because X exhibits the quality m, that therefore this quality will also necessarily be found in Y. Nor even, if twenty, thirty, a hundred, or a thousand cases could be adduced in which the circumstances a, b, c were found to be accompanied by the circumstance m, would it follow necessarily (it might not even follow probably) that the next case in which we detected the circumstances a, b, c would also exhibit the quality m. We might pass through a field containing thousands of blue hyacinths, but this fact would not justify us in expecting that the next time we sawa hyacinth, it would be a blue one. This form of induc- tion (Inductio per Enumerationem Simpliceni) may have no value whatever. In most cases, the condemnation passed on it by Bacon1 is perfectly just: ' Inductio quae pro- cedit per enumerationem simplicem, res puerilis est, et precario concludit, et periculo exponitur ab instantia con- tradictoria, et plerumque secundum pauciora quam par eet, et ex his tantummodo quae prassto sunt, pronunciat.' But when we have reason to think that any instances to' the contrary, if there were such, would be known to us, the argument may possess considerable value, and when, as in the case of theLaws of Causation and of the Uniformity of Nature, we feel certain, from a wide and uncontra- dicted ...

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