The Elements of Inductive Logic

The Elements of Inductive Logic

by Thomas Fowler
     
 
This is an EXACT reproduction of a book published before 1923. This IS NOT an OCR'd book with strange characters, introduced typographical errors, and jumbled words. This book may have occasional imperfections such as missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. that were either part of the original artifact, or were introduced by the scanning process.

Overview

This is an EXACT reproduction of a book published before 1923. This IS NOT an OCR'd book with strange characters, introduced typographical errors, and jumbled words. This book may have occasional imperfections such as missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. that were either part of the original artifact, or were introduced by the scanning process. We believe this work is culturally important, and despite the imperfections, have elected to bring it back into print as part of our continuing commitment to the preservation of printed works worldwide. We appreciate your understanding of the imperfections in the preservation process, and hope you enjoy this valuable book.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
2940023865225
Format:
NOOK Book
File size:
660 KB

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CHAPTER III. On the Inductive Methods. INDUCTION has been defined to be a legitimate inference from the known to the unknown. But the unknown must not be entirely unknown. It must be known to agree in certain circumstances with the known, and it is in virtue of this agreement that the inference is made. Now, how are we to ascertain what are the common circumstances which justify the inductive inference ? X and Y may both agree in exhibiting the circumstances a, b, c, but it will not follow because X exhibits the quality m, that therefore this quality will also necessarily be found in Y. Nor even, if twenty, thirty, a hundred, or a thousand cases could be adduced in which the circumstances a, b, c were found to be accompanied by the circumstance m, would it follow necessarily (it might not even follow probably) that the next case in which we detected the circumstances a, b, c would also exhibit the quality m. We might pass through a field containing thousands of blue hyacinths, but this fact would not justify us in expecting that the next time we sawa hyacinth, it would be a blue one. This form of induc- tion (Inductio per Enumerationem Simpliceni) may have no value whatever. In most cases, the condemnation passed on it by Bacon1 is perfectly just: ' Inductio quae pro- cedit per enumerationem simplicem, res puerilis est, et precario concludit, et periculo exponitur ab instantia con- tradictoria, et plerumque secundum pauciora quam par eet, et ex his tantummodo quae prassto sunt, pronunciat.' But when we have reason to think that any instances to' the contrary, if there were such, would be known to us, the argument may possess considerable value, and when, as in the case of theLaws of Causation and of the Uniformity of Nature, we feel certain, from a wide and uncontra- dicted ...

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