The Elements of Reasoning / Edition 5

The Elements of Reasoning / Edition 5

by Ronald Munson, Andrew Black
     
 

Intended to help readers improve their reasoning skills, this textbook begins with a broad discussion of the nature of argument, then classifies different types of arguments, and identifies various ways that arguments can go wrong. It concludes with discussions of linguistic and rhetorical aspects of argument and persuasion. The authors teach philosophy at the… See more details below

Overview

Intended to help readers improve their reasoning skills, this textbook begins with a broad discussion of the nature of argument, then classifies different types of arguments, and identifies various ways that arguments can go wrong. It concludes with discussions of linguistic and rhetorical aspects of argument and persuasion. The authors teach philosophy at the University of Missouri-St. Louis. Annotation ©2004 Book News, Inc., Portland, OR

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780495006985
Publisher:
Cengage Learning
Publication date:
03/24/2006
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
240
Product dimensions:
6.40(w) x 9.20(h) x 0.50(d)

Table of Contents


Preface. Briefing. Basic Assumptions. Organization. Using This Book. 1. RECOGNIZING ARGUMENTS. What Is an Argument? Three General Considerations. Recognizing Arguments. Multiple Conclusions and Complex Arguments. Exercises. 2. ANALYZING ARGUMENTS. Showing the Structure of Arguments. Strategies of Analysis. Two Special Problems. Analyzing a Complex Argument: An Example. Exercises. 3. EVALUATING ARGUMENTS. Deductive Arguments. Exercises. Nondeductive Arguments. Complex Arguments. Exercises. Overall Argument Evaluation. Exercises. 4. SOME VALID ARGUMENT FORMS. Sentential Form. Exercises. Valid Argument Forms. Two Invalid Argument Forms. Exercises. Using the Forms to Show Validity. Exercises. Conditionals. Equivalent Forms. Exercises. Using Inference and Equivalence Rules. Deductive Proof Strategies. Exercises. 5. MORE VALID ARGUMENT FORMS: CATEGORICAL REASONING AND VENN DIAGRAMS. Categorical Statements. Exercises. Categorical Syllogisms. Exercises. 6. CAUSAL ANALYSIS. Basic Causal Relationships. Contributing Factors as "Causes." Causal Explanations. Testing Causal Claims. Experimental Trials. Exercises. 7. ARGUMENT BY ANALOGY AND MODELS. Analogical Arguments. Models. Evaluating Analogical Reasoning. Exercises. 8. ERRORS IN REASONING: FALLACIES. Fallacies in Supporting a Claim. Fallacies of Criticism and Response. Exercises. 9. DEFINITION. Definition of "Definition." Two Types of Definition. Methods of Definition. Standards of Definition. Working Out a Definition. Exercises. 10. VAGUENESS AND AMBIGUITY. Vagueness. Ambiguity. Exercises. 11. REASONABLE BELIEFS. Granted Claims and Acceptable Beliefs. New Claims, Background Beliefs, and Rationality. Exercises. 12. RULES FOR WRITING. Structure. Style. Exercises: Some Answers, Hints, and Comments. Index.

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