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The Energy Mistake
Plasma and the Electrical Solar System
By Hans-Joachim Zillmer
Trafford PublishingCopyright © 2013 Hans-Joachim Zillmer
All rights reserved.
Large Quantities of Carbon and Methane
False dogmas are blocking the development of human society. Humankind is at a dead end, and only a true world view can still save our future! Energy resources are increasingly becoming more expensive, allegedly because the natural reserves of prestigious fossil fuels will soon be depleted. The dramatic increase in prices of fossil fuels leads to shifts in the wealth of nations, and wars are consequently risked to ensure access to oilfields. All of these facts result from the prediction of a shortage of energy resources which are mixtures of hydrocarbons called "fossil fuels". However, spacecraft data from recent past years has provided evidence of the existence of hydrocarbons such as methane and ethane which exist in large amounts in our solar system. There evolvement is however not a consequence of biological processes. Nevertheless, hydrocarbons on Earth are still regarded as pure biological products.
Dinosaurs and Soft Coal
In my previous books, the fossilization of biological materials was controversially discussed. These processes of fossilisation can only happen within a relatively short period of time, but do not take place over millions of years, because biological material would be disintegrated during a fossilization process which is going on imperceptive slowly, with the precondition that an absolute exclusion of air was not present. Such fossilization processes have to evolve quickly, otherwise, fossilized eggs with fully preserved respectively non decomposed embryos inside or also fossilized droppings — so-called coprolites — would for example not be possible.
With these facts in mind let's have a look at fossils encased in black coal. In general, coal fossils represent "infusion fossils". This means that the structure of an organism has remained preserved, but its substance, however, was replaced to a large extent by liquids or gases which must have penetrated the biological structure. In principle, these fossils contain carbon with a percentage of about 90 — such as the coal itself. The thereby obtained fossil may be structurally almost perfect, although sometimes fiercely compressed, and not uncommon, under a microscope it is possible to clearly recognize fine details, even up to the cell structure. Nevertheless this biological structure is filled out with the same coal concentrate which is also surrounding the fossils.
The German botanist Henry Potonié (1905), based on a study of fossilized higher plants, concluded that black coal has a biological origin, "because the plant cells can be recognized immediately; and this without further special preparation" (ibid., p. 9). This was a turning point, as scientists previously believed; "the black coal is a mineral in the sense of something like quartz, feldspar, and mica, having originated in the same way" (ibid., p. 8). If, however, black coal had come into being in the same way as peat and lignite (ibid., p. 10), this would result in a coal–paradox.
Why does a single finely structured leaf of a tree remain preserved within a carbonaceous mass, whereas there is not a little bit left of the rest of the leaves? What is the reason that the branch or trunk belonging to the leaf had not remained? In structural terms, black coal therefore sharply differs from peat and brown coal (lignite), which certainly evolved from organic materials. How could such a coal-fossil evolve? Since the fine–segmented structure remained intact, today's homogeneous black coal must have once been a liquid or gas! Generally, a carbon or silicon containing mineral or fluid has to fill out the organic structure due to a kind of infusion process to start fossilization in this way. This chemical process must have taken place very quickly, since otherwise a leaf or even a fragile egg would have been rotten long time before the end of the process.
It is important to ascertain that petrified impressions of footprints can only be formed in soft mud layers, and not in the solid rock in which it can be found today. This soft mud which contain the footprints must have been hardened very quickly, like the prints of hands and foots celebrated in soft cement of the Walk of Fame in Beverly Hills, Los Angeles, because otherwise the prints would have been quickly destroyed by different erosion factors.
Fossilized footprints of dinosaurs were found at the ceiling of many coal mines in the Western United States — a still largely unknown phenomenon. In Utah, there are several coal mines in the vicinity of Helper and Price, In certain areas the soft peat surface had been heavily bioturbated by dinosaur activities with many footprints partly overlapping and obscuring previous tracks (e.g. Balsley / Parker, 1983, p. 279).
Also in other coal mines footprints of dinosaurs have been often documented, among others in the Castlegate Mine in the Rocky Mountains area (Peterson, 1924), in Wyoming, in the western part of Colorado, in Utah near Rock Springs and in New Mexico near Cuba (Gillette /Lockley, 1989). The very different sized footprints originate from carnivorous dinosaurs (theropods), officially regarded as bipedal dinosaurs — as well as four—legged herbivorous dinosaurs (sauropods), which roamed together in the same area. Isolated individual footprints are seldom documented, some of which are very large. The largest known to me is 1.36 meters long, but one has revealed to me a location that entails even larger ones. Interesting are, however, also 50 approximately 15-centimeter-long fossilized bird–like footprints that span across an area of approximately five square meters (Gillette / Lockley, 1989).
The previously described coal deposit that as a whole stretches from Wyoming over Utah and Colorado up to New Mexico belongs to the geologically very "young" black coal deposits, originated in the cretaceous age (Blackhawk Formation). Normally black coal was created in the Carboniferous, a geological period ending 50 million years before the beginning of the Dinosaur era.
If black coal, according to conventional interpretation, should definitely have been originated out of organic material, it is surprising that some coal formations entail very few fossils or even none at all. Fossil free black coal can be found in Alaska for example. Overall wherever there are more fossils in the black coal, there are reported large variations in quantity. Also, the distribution of fossils in coal-seams itself is not homogeneous, because fossils are rare in the interior, but rather often found at or in other words on the ceiling of the coal seam. Therefore, the footprints of dinosaurs and birdlike animals are thus on and not within the coal seam.
These animals once walked on a thin layer of peat and sand of a fresh water swamp; underneath there was a still soft but hardening layer of coal. In this, dinosaurs sank down up to 30 centimeters deep. The feet were thereby vertically pulled out again as the shape of the fossilized footprints shows. There is evidence of long trails of footprints, whereby the dinosaurs mostly only sank after several steps. This is why castings exist in the seam.
Are softly coal seams a result of a uniform development respectively transformation which starts with swamps which become increasingly thicker and this slowly with time to emerge as denser black coal? On the contrary those coal seams were formed relatively quickly within a short timespan as a whole, because dinosaurs and bird-like animals could run over still soft coal layers? In the Kenilworth coal mine in Utah, fossilized footprints left by small animals were found on the ceiling of the coal layer. But it is amazing that exactly the same fossilized footprints were also found at the bottom of the coal seam or in other words under the coal seam (Gillette / Lockley, 1989). Therefore, this species must have thus existed at the beginning and also at the end of the coal development.
This brings us to the little–known fact that dinosaur prints were found not only on the ceiling, but also under the coal seams. These footprints are down there, even though not in the coal seam itself, but on the surface of the sediment layer which is located just beneath the coal layer and before hardening the soft carbonaceous substance — not swamp material — fills in these footprints. Thus the dinosaurs once walked on a soft sediment layer that consisted of sand in the over-area of a stream, however mixed with coal like components of the coal seam. These layers are located mostly in the upper part of the coal seam in the form of bulged humps caused by upwelling hydrocarbons. In contrast, there was no superimposed load and therefore not enough pressure to start coalification.
In the western part of North America on top of the sandstone layers — respectively under the coal seams — also fossilized remains of plants do exist and among others petrified fragments of palm trees in addition to footprints. It is believed that this sandstone was formed at the bottom of brackish water behind the coast lines (Gillette / Lockley, 1989). Consequently these coal layers were formed as a carbon deposit to its full height by a uniformly process once in a time period — which will to be discussed later on. Dinosaurs on the other hand walked around on the coal seam, where plentiful plant fossils can be found. On top of these coal seams there exist often thin layers of sediments, which must have been formed shortly one after another, because these layers were deformed synchronistically in an elastic—plastic state at once, because these today's hardened layers do not show any cracks. Due to their composition, it seems that these layers must have been quickly spread over each other, similar to what has been demonstrated during the outbreak of the volcano Mount St. Helens on 19 March 1982: At this time, numerous thin layers were formed on top of each other in a timespan of just a few hours and for example there was suddenly originated an eight meter thick, and over the entire height thinly banded geological formation (Zillmer, 2005, p. 114).
It is therefore technical possible, that foots of the dinosaurs had deformed several superimposed soft layers simultaneously.
We can draw the conclusion that the soft coal seam was formed during the lifetime of a particular species in its full height by a single process; since such animals existed prior and after the formation of the carbonaceous mass. The coal seam — like the sandstone layer underneath — was soft, so that dinosaurs partly sank into these layers. The carbon deposit with a thin cover of fluvial sediments forms the primeval sea or river floor in these regions — an almost unknown fact that does not quite correspond to conventional theories.
Now the question arises, how these previous soft coal seams have developed? Certainly not from plant and wood remains in the form of a peat bogs! In this case, one should also be able to find footprints and / or leaves in different heights of the coal layer. According to the conventional theory, the initial organic material was transformed and compressed under high pressure, temperatures and the absence of air. This process must had been lasted until a fixed composite of carbon was originated, in which water and fire–resistant forms of ash respectively charcoal were implemented. Indeed, sometimes large lumps of charcoal can be found within a compact black coal layer, what it needs air! But the coalification should take place under absence of air (Fig. 2a).
Also, the theory of coalification cannot explain that coal seams had built softly submarine grounds so that animals could walk over? But, because an assumed developing coalification process needs absence of air, it remains unclear why at the same time such a layer could built a submarine ground, on which animals were running around?
But also, there could force no great pressure which is supposedly required for a coalification process. The pressure was almost ridiculously low, because if dinosaurs and birds could left footprints in the submarine ground, this body of water was not very deep, and the sedimentary layers overlying the coal layer were still not existent at this time or very thin! Similarly, the required heat could hardly had evolved, because otherwise palm leaves and other plant parts would hardly have remain preserved: The only possibility is, this coal seams must have developed as low temperatures prevailed.
Conclusion: As evidenced in case of footprints of dinosaurs and birds, there was no thick sedimentary layer above the coal seam at this time. Accordingly the required pressure and temperature conditions and the required airtightness to start a process of coalification did not exist, because hard coal could not develop in the way as conventional thought, this Cretaceous coal could not originate from organic material. Coalification did not take place! A new theory is absolutely necessary.
Even as seen from a biogeographically viewpoint, the plant material to build coal deposits cannot originate from tropical forests. Hoch much land area this trees should had covered in order to build the basis for the formation of all known coal seams? If we assume that a hectare land area was able to produce 700 solid cubic meters of wood. In such a wood mass, a certain amount of energy is included. Therefore we can figure out which area the forests would have had to overstretch that the resulting wood mass is matching the energy contained in all known coal deposits. As expected, the result is a huge area, twice as large as the current total land area. In this calculation we have assumed that all land areas were covered with forests, and that the wood deposits in their entirety would be buried airtight and that was ruling enough pressure and sufficient heat during the coalification process. Should all these "ideal" conditions not be present, the required land area accordingly increases.
But there will be still other controversial issues, because coal contains substances whose presence cannot be explained from a biological origin orientated perception. The fact that all coal and petroleum products contain radioactive uranium and up to four percent sulfur is not discussed. How these can occur worldwide in significant quantities in coal seams? Also why such deposits often contain a lot of methane, which would have to be degassed over the millions of years?
And Suddenly it Goes Down
Several mysterious plane crashes have occurred off the U.S. northeast coast. On 17th July 1996, the Trans World Airline Flight TWA 800 started to fly from JFK International Airport in New York to Paris. Only twelve minutes later the plane exploded, broke in half and crashed into the Sea, south of Long Island. All 230 passengers and crew members died. On 2nd September 1998, the Swissair Flight 111 was flying from the same airport heading northbound. 14 minutes after take-off both gadgets, the NYTRACON (New York Terminal Radar Approach and Departure Control) and the NYARTCC (New York Air Route Traffic Control Center), lost radio contact with the plane, a little later a Canadian air traffic controller was able to establish radio contact with the plane. There was a report of in-flight smoke in the cockpit, before the Swissair McDonnell Douglas MD-11 impacted the Atlantic. All 215 passengers and 14 crew members were killed in the aircraft's collision with water.
Also at JFK International Airport the Egypt Air Flight 990 took-off for a regularly flight to Cairo in Egypt on 31st October 1999. Over international waters, about 100 kilometers south of Nantucket Island, Massachusetts, the Boeing 767-366ER aircraft autopilot disconnected. The cockpit voice recorder recorded the First Officer saying "I rely on God." A minute later, the autopilot was disengaged. Three seconds later, the throttles for both engines were reduced to idle, and both elevators were moved three degrees nose down. The First Officer repeated "I rely on God" seven more times before the Captain is suddenly heard to ask repeatedly, "What's happening, what's happening?" The plane dropped 14,600 feet (4,500 m) in 36 seconds The flight data recorder reflected that the elevators then moved into a split condition, with the left elevator up and the right elevator down; a condition which is expected to result when the two control columns are subjected to at least 50 lbs. of opposing force. At this point, both engines were shut down by moving the start levers from run to cutoff. The Captain asked, "What is this? What is this? Did you shut the engines?" and repeatedly stated, "Pull with me". But the elevator surfaces remained in a split condition and after climbing up some thousand feet the plane crashed into the Atlantic Ocean, killing all 217 people on board. The engines operated normally for the entire flight until they were shut down.
In the aforementioned cases a sudden event must have in each case led to the subsequent crash, at least in so far that the pilots had no chance to establish a radio contact. At the time of plane crashes in July 1996 and October 1999, gas flames and fireballs had been observed near the coast. Thomas Gold (1999) comes to the conclusion that the cause of these plane crashes may have been a result of those slight earthquakes that had released methane from the submarine ground. In this region, there are deposits of dense layers of methane hydrates (also called methane ice) of up to 500 meters height on the ocean floor. Critics doubt whether methane gas can go through such thick layers of ice. But it is to take account of a large and not very small amount of methane. This gas is gushing out of the ocean floors and stored in freezing water if high water pressure is present to build a natural gas hydrate in which a large amount of methane is trapped within a crystal structure of water, forming a solid similar to crystalline ice.
Excerpted from The Energy Mistake by Hans-Joachim Zillmer. Copyright © 2013 by Hans-Joachim Zillmer. Excerpted by permission of Trafford Publishing.
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