The Essential Guide to Telecommunications, 1st Edition

Overview

Telecommunications for everyone! The essential guide for all telecom users!


In today's "wired" world, practically everyone needs to understand telecommunications. With The Essential Guide to Telecommunications, you can-even if you have no technical background at all!


Leading consultant Annabel Z. Dodd begins with the fundamental concepts you need to know to understand the industry. You'll learn the differences between analog and digital ...

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Overview

Telecommunications for everyone! The essential guide for all telecom users!


In today's "wired" world, practically everyone needs to understand telecommunications. With The Essential Guide to Telecommunications, you can-even if you have no technical background at all!


Leading consultant Annabel Z. Dodd begins with the fundamental concepts you need to know to understand the industry. You'll learn the differences between analog and digital signals; what bandwidth is; why protocols and architectures matter; what multiplexing and compression are; and much more including local and wide area networks.


Next, she covers all the basics of business telephone systems, including PBXs, key systems, computer-telephony integration, voicemail, ACDs, wiring, and Centrex central-office alternatives. Learn what the Telecommunications Act of 1996 will-and won't-do to promote competition among phone companies, cable and wireless firms, and others.


Discover today's advanced public network services- and tomorrow's. Understand the technology and business advantages associated with:



  • ATM

  • DSL

  • ISDN

  • Frame relay

  • SONET


The Essential Guide to Telecommunications includes detailed, common-sense explanations of the Internet and wireless services, including intranets, extranets, PCS services, wireless data, wireless local telephony, Low Earth Orbit Satellites (LEOS), Internet and wireless security, cable modems, and more.


No industry will shape the 21st century as profoundly as telecommunications. Whether you're a technical, financial, sales, marketing or PR professional-or simply a citizen who communicates-this book makes sense of it all!


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Editorial Reviews

Jack Woehr

The Essential Guide to Telecommunications, Second Edition, by Annabel Dodd, enters my workspace serendipitously. I'm currently contracted to US West (or "US QWest" as the office wag has taken to calling it), so I'm in some position to benefit from the perusal of this volume and to evaluate its content. Executive summary: It's a professional and accurate volume suitable to be presented to novice employees their first day on the job at any company whose core business involves stuffing bits up the line.

There's metal in this book. At a high level, Dodd provides overviews of the myriad of empowering technologies that are heaped together into the telecommunications grid of this continent and our planet. The discussion ranges over switched services, dedicated services, signaling, T-1 to T-3, ISDN, DSL, Frame Relay, ATM, SONET, lines, modems, set-top boxes, the Internet, virtual private networks, PCS, wireless and mobile, satellites, convergence (of telephone and PC, not harmonic), and a good deal more.

There's also wetware interest here. Politics are inseparable from technical evaluation of the network. Legislatures and regulatory bodies dictate to the carriers in the name of preserving the public interest within institutions that inherently possess tremendous powers over access. The Essential Guide contains sections on "Local and Long Distance Providers,""The Bell System Prior to and After 1984," "Evolution from CAPs to CLECs," and a whole chapter on "Local Competition and The Telecommunications Act of 1996." Dodd allows herself a few judicious observations into social implications, such as the effects that merger mania and "cream skimming" are likely to have on universal service. Al Gore even makes a couple of appearances in quotation.

The Essential Guide is pretty current. The map of the surviving RBOCs correctly shows US West's 14-state region, accompanied by the (now erroneous) legend "Purchase by Global Crossing, Ltd. pending)." Which goes to show you that the industry holds surprises even for the experts.

The glossary is adequate in relation to the book, though the bibliography is a little too sparse for a second edition. There's no paucity of telecommunications literature; having delved (for instance) into SONET in sufficient detail to note sideband signaling, the author might have deigned to cite a few tech pieces on this and other protocols, rather than merely list eight other telecom overview books.

Dodd seems to have progressed from industry to academia, rather than the other way around. Her professional bio, (former marketing manager at Bell Atlantic, current faculty member at Northeastern University) suggests that her insights may have been arrived at empirically rather than in the ivory tower. Her book accurately imparts the freighted technical context and dynamic economic and social ambiance of the telecommunications industry in these exiting times from the perspective of a well-informed and technically astute insider. It's a good read.
Electronic Review of Computer Books

Booknews
Provides an understanding of telecommunications for those with no technical background. Overviews technologies, explains the structure of the telecommunications industry, and profiles industry segments and vendor types. Technologies important in competition for local calling, high-capacity communication, and Internet access are clarified. Intertwined with technical explanations are examples of how the various vendors interconnect their networks. For nontechnical people working in telecommunications, and for people responsible for the administration of telecommunications services for their organizations. The author is affiliated with Northeastern University. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780132590112
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference
  • Publication date: 11/1/1997
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Pages: 251
  • Product dimensions: 6.99 (w) x 9.22 (h) x 0.76 (d)

Meet the Author

Annabel Z. Dodd is an adjunct professor at both Northeastern University and New York University. Formerly a marketing manager at Bell Atlantic and Telecommunications Manager at a Fortune 500 company, she consults widely with major corporations and institutions in the Greater Boston and New England area, advising on the design of Internet, local and long distance services, and the selection and implementation of telephone systems.
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Read an Excerpt

8: The Internet

The Internet is a medium that has fundamentally changed the pace of business processes and the way organizations exchange information with each other. Businesses sell, place orders, receive orders, collaborate, train employees, provide customer service and bid for products over the Internet. Consumers commonly use the Internet to exchange electronic mail with family members, pay bills, conduct online stock transactions, calculate income tax returns, make travel reservations, shop and conduct research. They also spend time on the Internet playing games, listening to music and viewing entertainment.

The Internet is a connection of multiple networks. The networks communicate with each other over a suite of standardized protocols, Transmit Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), in which data is broken up into "envelopes" called packets. For the most part, network operators use high-speed routers to transmit these packets. Internet traffic is sent at gigabit speeds. The high-speed lines are the backbone of the Internet. They carry the greatest amount of Internet traffic. The Internet backbone transmits requests for information, entertainment, audio and video broadcasts, email and business-to-business transactions. The different carriers that operate Internet backbone exchange traffic with each other at metropolitan area exchanges (MAEs) and network access points (NAPs).

The Web is a vehicle for multimedia presentation of information in the form of music, audio, video and text. The World Wide Web is not separate from the Internet. It is a way to navigate from resource to resource on the Internet by clicking on high-lighted text or graphics from within browsers. As long as they use World Wide Web browsers, all PCs are compatible with the Web. Users point and click their way from computer to computer on the Internet. Before the World Wide Web was developed, documents on the Internet were available only as text. There were no pictures, no "buttons" to click on to issue commands and no advertising banners. There was also no color; everything was black and white.

Individuals and organizations connect their locations to the Internet via many types of telecommunications services including T-1, T-3, analog lines, digital subscriber line (DSL) services, integrated services digital network (ISDN) and cable TV facilities. Internet service providers (ISPs) aggregate traffic from many users and send it over high-speed lines to the Internet backbone. ISPs maintain routers and servers at their sites. The servers, powerful PCs that can be accessed by many users, perform various functions. They contain customer email, businesses' e-commerce applications and home pages for consumers as well as specialized content such as sports information and online games. Servers are located at hosting sites as well as ISP data centers. Hosting sites, where Web content such as corporate, ecommerce and entertainment sites are kept, have servers with information from, for example, search companies such as AltaVista and online retailers.

The popularity of the Web has made the creation and implementation of technologies that enable sites to handle spikes in traffic and large amounts of traffic imperative. One of these techniques is caching, which spreads content among servers at the "edge" of the Internet, closer to end users. In addition to lowering traffic at each server, caching lowers the cost of bandwidth. It lowers the amount of distance packets travel to access Web pages.

Innovations also have occurred in search engine techniques and formatting email for marketing. Search engines are an important tool for organizing sources of online information. They have become faster and the results are more accurate. Corporations use them in their own Web pages to help employees, potential customers and trading partners find information on the corporate Web. Email is now used as a way to disseminate spam, marketing announcements and newsletters that look similar to Web pages. These email messages use the same method, Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), as used to apply formatting and insert graphics on Web sites.

Despite the technological improvements in the Internet, Internet companies are struggling to find profits. Scores of businesses that operated Web sites have gone out of business. Moreover, it has been generally agreed that advertising as a primary vehicle for underwriting the Internet is not viable. To date, gambling (which is illegal in most states), auctions, pornography, music and games are popular and often profitable on the Internet. While commercial organizations depend on the Internet for contact with customers and vendors, e-commerce where businesses exchange purchase orders and pay bills directly to one another's order entry and accounting systems are in their infancy.

Because the World Wide Web is new, legal, privacy and security questions are being raised that previously have not been addressed in this context. For example, freedom of speech for adults sometimes conflicts with protecting children from unsuitable online material. Online sharing of music and copyrighted articles may interfere with authors' and musicians' rights to earn royalties. In other instances, Microsoft's control of PC operating systems and browsers and AOL Time Warner's market share in instant messaging (IM) may give both companies unfair advantages on the Internet. All of these issues raise interesting questions about privacy, free enterprise and free speech.

World Wide Web technology is used by commercial organizations to create extranets and intranets. Extranets use Web technology to create platforms from which trading partners and customers can communicate. Intranets use the technology for internal portals and browser access to corporate data. The adoption of Internet technologies and protocols for internal use by commercial organizations represents a major impact of the Internet. It has led to faster, more convenient access by employees to corporate information.

The History of the Internet

The Department of Defense's Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) started the Internet in 1969, in a computer room at the University of California, Los Angeles. It wanted to enable scientists at multiple universities to share research information. Advanced Research Projects Agency NETwork (ARPANET), the predecessor to the Internet, was created 12 years after Sputnik, during the Cold War. DARPA's original goal was to develop a network secure enough to withstand a nuclear attack.

The first communications switch that routed messages on the ARPANET was developed at Bolt Beranek and Newman (BBN) in Cambridge, Massachusetts. (BBN was bought by GTE. Bell Atlantic acquired GTE, changed its name to Verizon and spun off BBN as Genuity.) ARPANET's network used packet switching developed by Rand Corporation in 1962. Data was broken up into "envelopes" of information that contain addressing, error checking and user data. One advantage of packet switching is that packets from multiple computers can share the same circuit. A separate connection is not needed for each transmission. Moreover, in the case of an attack, if one computer goes down, data can be rerouted to other computers in the packet network. TCP/IP, the protocol still used on the Internet, was developed in 1974 by Vint Cerf and Robert Kahn. It supports a suite of services such as email, file transfer and logging onto remote computers.

In 1984, as more sites were added to ARPANET, the term Internet started to be used. The ARPANET was shut down in 1984, but the Internet was left intact. In 1987, oversight of the Internet was transferred from the Department of Defense to the National Science Foundation.

While still used largely by universities and technical organizations, applications on the Internet expanded from its original defense work. In particular, newsgroups used by computer hobbyists, college faculty and students, were formed around special interests such as cooking, specialized technology and lifestyles. The lifestyles newsgroups included sexual orientation (gay and lesbian), religion and gender issues. Computer-literate people were also using the Internet to log onto computers at distant universities for research and to send electronic mail.

The Internet was completely text prior to 1990. There were no graphics, pictures or color. All tasks were done without the point-and-click assistance of browsers, such as Netscape and Internet Explorer. Rather, people had to learn, for example, UNIX commands. UNIX is a computer operating system developed in 1972 by Bell Labs. UNIX commands include: m for Get Mail, j for Go to the Next Mail Message, d for Delete Mail and u for Undelete Mail. The Internet was not for the timid or for computer neophytes.

The advent of the World Wide Web in 1989 and browsers in 1993 completely changed the Internet. The World Wide Web is a graphics-based vehicle to link users to sources of information. It is based on a method whereby users "click" on graphics or text to be transferred to a site where information can be accessed. In 1993, the Mosaic browser was developed at the University of Illinois as a point-and-click way to access the World Wide Web. This opened up the Internet to users without computer skills. It is no longer necessary to learn arcane commands to open mail, to navigate from site to site for research or to join chat or newsgroups.

In 1995, the National Science Foundation turned the management of the Internet backbone over to commercial organizations. Commercial networks such as Sprint, UU-NET (now part of WorldCom) and Cable & Wireless carry a large portion of the back-bone Internet traffic. Backbones are analogous to highways that carry high-speed traffic.

Bulletin Board Systems (BBSs)

Bulletin boards were used independently from the Internet. They allowed people with modems connected to their computers to read information and post information on a PC.

Users throughout the 1980s used modems, personal computers, communications software and telephone lines to dial into information on other computers. Many bulletin boards were used for "chats" and to exchange ideas around specific hobbies. For example, callers would dial in and type ideas or experiences they had with new software or computer equipment. The World Wide Web has largely replaced bulletin boards.

Who Runs the Internet?

The Internet is run informally by a number of organizations. Following is an overview of the key ones...
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Table of Contents

Preface
Acknowledgments
I: Fundamentals
1: Basic Concepts
Analog and Digital
Analog Signals
Digital Signals
Bauds, Bits, Bytes and Codes-Getting Down to Basics
Overview
Baud Rate vs. Bits per Second-Electrical Signal Rates vs. Amount of Information Sent
Codes-Adding Meaning to Bits
A Byte = A Character
Bandwidth-Measuring Capacity
Narrowband vs. Wideband-Slow and Fast
Compression and Multiplexing
Compression-Manipulating Data for More Capacity
Streaming Media
Multiplexing-Let's Share
Protocols and Architectures
Architectures-A Framework for Multiple Networks to Communicate
LANs, MANs and WANs
LANs-Local Area Networks
LAN and WAN Devices
Home LANs-Sharing Printers and High-Speed Internet Access-A Lack of Technical Support
MANs-Metropolitan Area Networks
WANs-Wide Area Networks
Higher Speed Services for LAN Traffic
New Devices for Carrier and Internet Service Provider Networks
2: Telephone Systems, Peripherals and Cabling
Telephone Systems-PBXs, Centrex and Key Systems
What Is a PBX?
PBX Trunks
Demarcation-The Location Where Telcos Wire Trunks
PBX Telephones
Centrex-Telephone Company Supplied Service
Key Systems
Wireless PBX and Key System Telephones-On-Site Mobility
Direct-Inward Dialing-Bypassing the Operator for Incoming Calls
Convergence and Telephone Systems
Add-on Peripherals for Key Systems, PBXs and Centrex Systems
Call Accounting-Tracking Calls and Usage
ACDs-Specialized Equipment to Handle Large Volumes of Calls
Network-Based ACD Functions
LAN/PBX/ACD Connectivity to Enhance Productivity
Customer Relationship Management (CRM) for Call Centers
Integrated Voice Response Units-Using the Telephone as a Computer Terminal
Computer Telephony Integration (CTI)-Routing Callers More Intelligently
Media: Wireless, Fiber and Unshielded Twisted Pair Copper
Wireless LANs
Electrical Properties of Copper Cabling
Fiber Optic Cabling-High Capacity and High Costs
II: Industry Overview
3: The Bell System and Regulatory Affairs
The Bell System Prior to and after 1984
Divestiture of the Bell System from AT&T in 1984
Regional Bell Operating Companies (RBOCs) after 1996
Transporting Calls Between Carriers
Local Competition Prior to the Telecommunications Act of 1996
Uneven Competition for Local Telephone Service Throughout the U.S.
Competitive Access Providers (CAPs) to Competitive Local Exchange Carriers (CLECs)
The Evolving View of the Feasibility of Local Competition
Factors Leading to Passage of the Telecommunications Act of 1996
Regional Bell Companies' Desire to Expand Their Offerings
Interexchange Carriers', Utility and Cable TV Companies' Desires to Enter New Markets
Demand for High-Speed Telecommunications Services
Technological Capabilities to Provide High-Speed Services at Low Costs
The Viability of Wireless Services for Local Exchange Service
The Desire for a Uniform National Policy on Local Competition
The Telecommunications Act of 1996
Major Features of the Act
Post Telecommunications Act of 1996 Developments
FCC Rulings, Legal Challenges and Progress Toward Deregulation
Permission for RBOCs to Sell In-Region Long Distance
Unbundled Network Elements (UNEs)-Competitors Leasing Parts of RBOCs' Networks
Fines Levied on Incumbents for Failure to Provide Timely Access to Competitors
Reciprocal Payments
Local Access Fees-A Shift in Balance Between Local and Long Distance Costs
Local Number Portability
Creating an Equal Playing Field and Conserving Numbers
Four Types of Telephone Number Portability
Impact of the Telecommunications Act of 1996
Appendix
4: Network Service Providers and Local Competition
Local Competition
Strategies for Entering the Local Calling Market-Resale, Wireless, Cable TV and Construction of Facilities
Carriers
Interexchange Carriers-IEXs
Bandwidth Trading: The Commoditization of Bandwidth
Merchants-Managing Risk for Carriers
Exchanges-A Place to Make Trades
Master Trading Agreements-Shortening the Transaction Cycle
Local Service Providers
AT&T
Competitive Local Exchange Carriers (Integrated Communications Providers)
Resellers and Switchless Resellers
Building Local Exchange Carriers (BLECs)
Agents
Summary
5: The Public Network
Switched Services-Local and Long Distance Calling
Attributes of Real-Time Switching Services
DTMF: Access to Voice Mail and Computers
Store-and-Forward Switching-Nonsimultaneous Sending and Receiving
Dedicated Services
Overview of Dedicated Services
Network Topologies-The View from the Top
Declining Sales of Private Lines
Virtual Private Networks-Connectivity for Remote Access, Intranets and Extranets
VPNs (Virtual Private Networks) for Electronic Commerce
VPNs for Intranet Service
Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) for Remote Access
Security on Virtual Private Networks
“The Last Mile” or Access Networks
End and Tandem Central Offices
Digital Loop Carrier Systems-Fiber Optics and Copper Cabling in the Last Mile
Carrier Hotels-Interconnecting Carriers and Providing Secure Space for Equipment
Optical Networking
Passive Optical Networks
Optical Add and Drop Multiplexers (OADM)
Optical Cross Connects (OXC)-Optical Switches
Network Intelligence and Signaling
Overview of Signaling
Background
Common Channel Signaling, Efficiency and Redundancy
Signaling System 7-The Glue for Links Between Carriers
SS7 Components
Convergence-Technical Advances Leading to Improvements in IP Networks
Improvements in Routers
Digital Signal Processors (DSPs)
Voice Compression
Higher Capacity Networks-Optical Technologies
Softswitches-Programmable Switches
The Quality of Service Issue for Voice over IP
SS7 in Packet Networks
Examples of Converged Networks
Free Calls or Low Priced Calls over the Internet
H
323-A Way to Make Telephone Calls over IP
Prepaid Calls over the Internet
Document Sharing and Click to Talk
Document Sharing
Summary
III: Advanced Technologies, the Internet and Wireless
6: Specialized Network Services
T-1-24 Voice or Data Paths over One Telephone Circuit
Channel Banks-Connecting T-1 to Analog PBXs and Central Offices
DS-0 and DS-1-64,000 or 56,000 vs. 1,544,000 bps
Media Used for T-1 Signals
European vs. American and Japanese T-1-24 vs. 30 Channels
A Sampling of T-1 Configurations Using T-1 for Combining Voice, Fax, Video and Data
Fractional T-1-When 24 Paths Are Not Required
T-3-The Capacity of 28 T-1 Lines, 672 Channels
An Explanation of Time Division Multiplexing and Its Limitations
ISDN-Integrated Services Digital Network
Basic Rate Interface ISDN-Two Channels at 64,000 Bit per Second
Primary Rate Interface ISDN-24 Channels
Digital Subscriber Line Technology
Competitive local exchange carriers (CLECs) and DSL
Incumbent Telephone Company DSL Offerings
DSLAMs-Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexers
Obstacles to Digital Subscriber Line Availability-Cost, Ease of Implementation and Availability
DSL Lite-Lower Cost Service
DSL-A Technical Explanation
Frame Relay-A Shared Wide Area Network Service
Connections to Frame Relay-Frame Relay Access Devices and Access Line Speeds
Frame Relay for Transmitting Voice
Frame Relay Pricing-Ports, Circuits and Committed Information Rate
Potential Congestion on Frame Relay
Interfacing Between Carriers' Frame Relay Networks
Gigabit Ethernet-Ethernet over Fiber in Metropolitan Areas
Gigabit Ethernet Providers-OLECs
Gigabit Ethernet Through Partners
Gigabit Ethernet Availability
The Advantages of Using Ethernet
Speed Options-Bandwidth on Demand
Gigabit Ethernet Features at Lower Prices
A Sample Metropolitan Area Gigabit Ethernet Configuration
ATM-Asynchronous Transfer Mode
Fixed-Sized Cells-Less Processing
Switching in Hardware-Less Address Lookup
Asynchronous Switching-Improving Network Utilization
Bursting-Selling More Than the Total Capacity
Scalability-The Ability to Use ATM for High- and Low-Speed Applications and IP Traffic
Elements of an ATM Network
SONET-Synchronous Optical Network
SONET Rings-For Greater Reliability
Telephone Company SONET Offerings
SONET Connections to Wave Division Multiplexers
Meshed Optical Technology-Lower Costs, More Suitable for Data than SONET
7: Analog, Cable TV and Digital Modems and Set-Top Boxes
Transferring Data from Computers to Telephone Lines
DCE-Connections to Telephone Lines
Modems-Analog Telephone Lines for Transmitting Data from Digital Devices
Fax Modems
56-Kbps Modems to Achieve Higher Speeds
PCMCIA Modems-Smaller Is Better
NT1S-CONNECTING DEVICES TO AN ISDN LINE
CSU/DSUs-Connecting Devices to a Digital Line
Cable Modems-Using Cable TV Facilities for Data Communications
Reverse Channels for Two-Way Data Communications
Cable Modems
Cable Modems for Business and for Remote Access
Set-Top Boxes
Interoperable Set-Top Boxes
Digital Cable TV
Appendix: Modem Standards
8: The Internet
The History of the Internet
Bulletin Board Systems (BBSs)
Who Runs the Internet?
Who Owns the Internet?
Peering-A Way to Exchange Data Between Networks
Content Delivery Networks (CDNs) and Caching-Solving the Problem of Bogged-Down Web Sites
Internet Services
The World Wide Web-Linking and Graphics
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)-Formatting Web Pages
Home Pages
Hosting-Computers Connected to the Internet with Home Pages
Browsers-Moving from Web Site to Web Site
Email-Computers that Send, Store and Receive Messages
Email Attachments-To Aid Collaborative Projects
HTML Email as a Marketing Tool
Instant Messaging-Real-Time Text Chats
Internet Service Providers, Application Service Providers and Portals
Dialup and Dedicated Internet Access
Application Service Providers (ASPs)
Portals-Content as Well as Internet Access
Search Engines
Internet Addresses
Registries-Management of Entire Top-Level Domains
Registrars
Numeric IP Addresses
The Structure of Internet Addresses and Adding Capacity for More Addresses
New Generic Top-Level Domains (gTLDs)
Country Code Top-Level Domain Names (ccTLDs)
Electronic Commerce and Advertising on the Web
Advertising on the Web-A Source of Revenue
Online Commerce-What Is Profitable and Sells?
Privacy on the World Wide Web
Opt-out vs. Opt-in-Different Approaches to Protecting Privacy
Legal Issues
Post-Napster Music Industry Online Efforts
The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA)-Royalties for Radio over the Internet
Anti-pornography Laws and Freedom of Speech
Filtering Software-Policing Corporate Browsing and Email
Open Cable-Cable Companies as Both ISPs and Network Service Providers
ISP Service for Cable TV
Open Cable Service-Trialing Connections to Other IPS
Intranets and Extranets
Intranets-Impact of Web Technology on Internal Operations
Extranets-Using Internet Technology with Customers, Partners and Vendors
Security on the World Wide Web- Establishing Trust
Public and Private Keys and Digital Certificates
Firewalls and Tunneling
Making the Internet a Trusted Place to Do Business
Conclusion
9: Wireless Services
Historical Background of Mobile and Cellular Services
Spectrum Allocation
Spectrum for Higher Speed 3G Services
Cellular Telephone Service-Technologies
Advanced Mobile Phone Services (AMPS)
Digital-Advanced Mobile Phone Service-D-AMPS
PCS-Personal Communications Services
GSM Service
Specialized Mobile Frequencies for Voice-Nextel
Cellular Vendors
Verizon Wireless
Cingular Wireless
AT&T Wireless
GSM Providers
Sprint PCS
The Structure of Cellular Networks
The Cellular Market
Efforts to Improve Service-Antenna Improvements
Health Concerns
Safety on the Road
Privacy and Advertising Intrusions on Cellular E911
Called Party Pays-An Impediment to Cellular Usage
Limited Mobility Wireless for Local Telephone Service
Wireless Number Portability-Keeping the Same Number When Changing Carriers
Limitations of Circuit-Switched Cellular for Data Communications
CDPD-Cellular Digital Packet Data, IP Wireless
The Transition from Second to Third Generation Cellular Networks
The Transition to W-CDMA - GPRS-Data Carried as Packets in 2
5G Networks
EDGE-Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution
Upgrades to W-CDMA from GSM-Costly
The Transition to cdma2000-1xRTT (First Generation cdma2000) and HDR (High Data Rate)
A Comparison Between W-CDMA and cdma2000
Handsets for 3G and 2
5G Services
All-Packet Cellular Networks for Voice and Data
4G-Futures
Mobile Internet Access, Messaging Services and Bluetooth
Mobile Commerce
Short Messaging Service (SMS)
Bluetooth
The Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)
i-mode Service Worldwide
Specialized Mobile Radio-Originally Voice, Later Data
Private Networks over Mobile Radio Frequencies
Specialized Mobile Radio-Packetized Data Networks for Two-Way Email and Field Services
Paging Services
Paging vs. Wireless Telephone Service
Two-Way Paging Using Narrowband PCS
Satellites
VSAT Service-Small Satellite Dishes
Vendors of LEOs
Time Division Multiple Access, GSM and Code Division Multiple Access Air Interfaces
Code Division Multiple Access
Time Division Multiple Access and GSM
10: Globalization The Impetus to Deregulate
Steps in Deregulation
Challenges
Trends in Global Markets
Latin America
Brazil
Mexico
Argentina
Impact of Poverty
Asia
China
Japan
The Internet
Cellular Service
Europe
The European Union
Cellular Service
Germany
The United Kingdom
France
Africa and the Middle East-Emerging Markets
Africa
The Middle East
Conclusion
Glossary
Bibliography
Index
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Preface

Enormous changes in telecommunications occurred in the two years between the second and third editions of The Essential Guide to Telecommunications. The Essential Guide to Telecommunications is intended as a road map clarifying technologies, history and trends in telecommunications. Technological innovations in fiber optics and attendant lower costs has led to the construction of vast networks. The book contrasts the glut of these fiber optic networks in long distance routes and some urban areas with their scarcity in developing countries, rural and most suburban regions.

The Essential Guide to Telecommunications explains how technology and regulatory factors impact each other. Deregulation and the presence of competition have resulted in the development of technological innovations. These innovations, particularly those in gigabit Ethernet and optical switching, are examined.

Cellular service has grown tremendously in the last decade. It is a key technology for providing basic voice service in large parts of the world. The book examines technologies used to provide greater capacity for basic voice service in fast growing urban areas, rural communities and tall skyscrapers. It also explains the advanced cellular technologies for transmitting higher speed data and accessing the Internet over wireless networks. It also addresses the concerns about safety. It is not known what impact fears about cancer and driving safety will have on the cellular market.

The Essential Guide to Telecommunications, third edition reviews telecommunications in Europe, Asia and Latin America, as well as in developing countries, and the wide-reaching impact of wireless technology in these areas. Deregulation of local long distance and international services, as well as industry structure and major carriers, are covered. The structure of the telecommunications industry and steps in deregulation are examined in key areas of the world. The pace of adoption of technologies, such as high-speed Internet access, also is highlighted. The significance of a strong telecommunications infrastructure on the economy and on international trade is widely recognized and has prompted governments' attention worldwide.

The Essential Guide to Telecommunications, third edition presents profiles of industry segments and vendor types to provide readers an understanding of the industry. The roles of Internet service providers, backbone Internet providers, competitive local exchange carriers, utilities and cable TV companies are explained. The number of network providers and resellers and the fast pace of mergers has created new layers of complexity. In addition, regulatory rulings and the Telecommunications Act of 1996 are examined in light of their impact on consumers, commercial organizations and carriers.

The language and significance of important telecommunications technologies are explored. The Essential Guide to Telecommunications, third edition is not intended to be a deeply technical book. Rather, it is an overview of technologies and an explanation of the structure of the telecommunications industry. Technologies important in competition for local calling, high-capacity communications, third generation wireless services and Internet access are clarified. Intertwined with high-level technical explanations are examples of how the various vendors interconnect their networks. The book explains key technologies and options available for small and large organizations and consumers. It further explores significant trends, applications and the impact of the Internet.

This book is intended for non-technical people working in the field of telecommunications, laymen interested in learning more about the field and people responsible for the administration of telecommunications services for their organizations. They include regulatory staff, salespeople, law firms, research organizations, marketing personnel, human resources professionals, project managers, telecommunications managers and high-level administrators.

The Essential Guide to Telecommunications, third edition starts out with interpretations of fundamental concepts so that readers will have a basis for understanding more complex, new telecommunications services. It examines the structure of the industry, local competition, regulatory proceedings, the Internet, convergence and wireless services.

Along with explanations of technology are examples of applications and historical highlights. How the industry evolved and how the technology changed is explained. The stories and descriptions that accompany the technical details are key to the book.

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