The Everything Psychology Book: Explore the Human Psyche and Understand Why We Do the Things We Do

Overview

Have you ever wondered what your dreams mean or why certain smells bring back memories? The Everything Psychology Book provides the answers to these questions and more. Covering all aspects of the human psyche and unraveling the theories of the great psychoanalytical thinkers, such as Freud, Jung, and Adler, this easy-to-follow guide explains how the brain works and how genetics and environment can affect an individual's thinking and behavior. Scientific information is followed by real-life examples to help you ...
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The Everything Psychology Book: Explore the Human Psyche and Understand Why We Do the Things We Do

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Overview

Have you ever wondered what your dreams mean or why certain smells bring back memories? The Everything Psychology Book provides the answers to these questions and more. Covering all aspects of the human psyche and unraveling the theories of the great psychoanalytical thinkers, such as Freud, Jung, and Adler, this easy-to-follow guide explains how the brain works and how genetics and environment can affect an individual's thinking and behavior. Scientific information is followed by real-life examples to help you understand the principles that have shaped modern psychology. Cowritten by noted psychologist Lynda L. Warwick, Ph.D., The Everything Psychology Book walks you through the complexities. Exhaustively researched and filled with concise definitions of psychological jargon, The Everything Psychology Book is the one book you need to help you figure out if it's "all in the mind."
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781593370565
  • Publisher: Adams Media Corporation
  • Publication date: 7/12/2004
  • Series: Everything Series
  • Pages: 304
  • Sales rank: 569,150
  • Product dimensions: 8.00 (w) x 9.22 (h) x 0.86 (d)

Table of Contents

Top Ten Reasons to Study Psychology x
Introduction xi
1 Psychology--Yesterday and Today 1
What Is Psychology? 2
Psychology in the Early Years 6
Psychoanalysis 7
Behaviorism 8
Humanistic Psychology and Positive Psychology 10
Cognitive Psychology 11
Biological Psychology 12
Culture, Ethnicity, and Diversity in Modern Psychology 12
How to Become a Psychologist 14
2 How Psychologists Know What They Know 15
Experiments--The Cornerstone of Psychology 16
Observational Studies 18
Case Histories and Interviews 19
Self-Report Questionnaires and Surveys 20
Psychological Tests 21
The Essential Role of Statistics 22
Ethics in Psychological Research 24
3 The Biology of Psychology 27
Neurons and What They Do 28
The Central Nervous System 29
The Peripheral Nervous System 30
The Endocrine System 32
Genes and What They Do 33
Gene Expression 34
Evolution and Humans 37
4 Brain and Mind--What Makes Us Human 39
Origins of the Human Brain 40
The Forebrain's Structures and Functions 41
The Cerebrum 42
Traditional Approaches to Studying the Brain 43
Neuroscience and Brain Imaging--The Modern Approach 44
What Is Mind--Earlier Views 46
What Is Mind--Views Based on Neuroscience 47
5 How We Experience Our World 49
Sensation and Perception 50
The Eyes and Visual Sensation 51
Visual Perception 54
The Ears and Auditory Sensation 57
Auditory Perception 59
Smell and Taste--The Chemical Senses 60
The Skin Senses 61
Kinesthesis and Equilibrium 62
6 Emotions--Feeling Up, Feeling Down 63
Emotions Versus Motives 64
The Physiology of Emotion 66
The Brain's Role in Emotion 67
Varieties of Emotions 68
Explanations of Emotionality 69
Aggressive Behavior 70
Do We All Have the Same Emotions? 73
7 Motives--Why We Do the Things We Do 75
Varieties of Motives 76
The Brain's Role in Motivation 76
The Physiology of Motivation 78
The Hunger Motive 80
Eating Disorders 82
The Motive for Sex 84
Sexual Orientation 86
8 Altered States of Consciousness 87
Levels of Consciousness 88
Sleep 89
Sleep Disorders 91
Why Do We Dream? 92
Hypnosis and Its Uses 93
Meditation 95
Psychoactive Drugs and Their Effects 95
Drug Abuse and Dependence 97
9 Conditioning and Learning 99
Habituation--The Most Basic Form of Learning 100
Conditioning 101
Classical Conditioning 101
Applications of Classical Conditioning 103
Operant Conditioning 104
Applications of Operant Conditioning 106
Learning Through Observation and Imitation 109
10 How We Remember, Why We Forget 111
Memory--An Overview 112
Sensory Memory and Incoming Stimulation 113
Short-Term Memory and Working Memory 114
Long-Term Memories and How They Are Stored 116
Explanations of Forgetting 118
The Repression Debate 121
Techniques for Improving Your Memory 122
11 Language and Communication 125
Grammar and the Vocabulary of Language 126
Phonetics and Phonology--The Sound System 127
Morphology--The Formation of Words 129
Syntax--How We Create Phrases and Sentences 131
Semantics and Pragmatics--Meaning and Language in Social Contexts 132
Gestures and Other Nonverbal Communication 136
Can Other Animals Learn Human Language? 137
12 Thinking, Knowing, and Solving Problems 139
The Cognitive Perspective 140
Units of Knowledge 141
Formal Reasoning 143
Informal Reasoning 144
Strategies in Problem Solving 146
13 Personality and Personality Tests 149
What Is Personality? 150
Heredity, Environment, and Personality 151
Traits 154
Psychodynamic Views 156
Psychoanalytic Approach 157
Humanistic Views 159
Popular Personality Tests 160
14 Coping with Life's Difficulties and Achieving Well-Being 163
Stressors and Stress 164
How Stress Affects Physical Health 167
How Stress Affects Mental Health 169
Adjustment Disorders 171
Job Burnout 172
Better Ways of Coping with Stress 174
Defense Mechanisms 175
Positive Psychology and Subjective Well-Being 176
15 Disorders: When Thinking and Emotionality Go Awry 177
What Is Abnormal? 178
Anxiety Disorders 181
Mood Disorders 184
Schizophrenia 187
Personality Disorders 189
Causes of Mental Disorders 191
16 Psychotherapy and Other Approaches to Treatment 195
Psychoanalysis and Psychodynamic Approaches 196
Medical Approaches 198
Humanistic Approaches 202
Cognitive-Behavioral Approaches 203
Group Therapy 206
Helping Yourself 208
17 Social Cognition--Thinking about Yourself and Others 211
Humans as Social Beings 212
Beliefs and Attitudes 213
Social Schemata and Scripts 215
Forming Impressions 216
Interpreting Others' Behavior--And Your Own 218
Stereotyping and Prejudice 220
18 Social Interactions and Interpersonal Behavior 223
The Person and the Situation 224
Compliance 226
Conformity and Peer Pressure 227
Obedience 228
Friendships and Romantic Relationships 229
Altruism 231
Aggression and Its Causes 232
The Mentality of Groups 233
19 Human Development--Conception to Birth 235
Genes, Gametes, and Conception 236
The Embryonic Period 238
The Fetal Period 239
The Birth Process 240
Maternal Health and Nutrition 241
Maternal Diseases and Drug Use 244
20 Human Development--Infancy and Childhood 247
Physical Growth 248
Development of Motor Skills 249
Cognitive Development--How Infants and Children Think 250
Language Development--Part Prewired, Part Learned 252
Developing a Sense of Self 254
Social and Emotional Development 256
21 Human Development--Adolescence 259
The Growth Spurt and Entrance into Puberty 260
Cognitive Development--How Adolescents Think 261
Developing a Sense of Identity 263
Discovering Sexuality 264
Teenage Pregnancy 265
22 Human Development--Adulthood, Aging, and Dying 267
Physical Health 268
Changes During Middle Adulthood 269
Changes in Sexuality 271
Cognitive Growth and Decline 272
Retirement 275
Death--The Final Stage in Development 276
Appendix A Glossary of Psychological Terms 277
Appendix B Resources 283
Index 285
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