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The Future of Children is a new semiannual publication that provies research and analysis to promote effective policies and programs for children. This first issue focuses on "School Readiness: Closing Racial and Ethnic Gaps."
For more than 30 years, researchers have seen white children outperform black and other minority children in tests of reading and math skills. Though there is evidence that the gap has narrowed somewhat, the very persistence of this "racial and ethnic gap" remains a source considerable concern for academics, policy professionals and parents. The ethnic and racial gaps appear to reach back to the preschool years. When children reach the school door, minority children exhibit lower school readiness skills, at least those measured by standardized tests, than their white counterparts. From that point forward, the achievement gap only widens.
If policy professionals are to address this disparity in academic achievement (and the consequent disparity in later opportunity), the racial and ethnic gap must be examined in the very earliest years, before students begin school with embedded inequalities. This volume critically summarizes the research on the origin and trajectory of the racial and ethnic gap in the early years from several theoretical perspectives. In particular, research is analyzed to determine when these differences start to emerge, in what areas they appear, what factors contribute to their development by the time children enter grade school and what are the long term effects.
Introducing the Issue of Test Score Ethnic and Racial Disparities
Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Sara McLanahan, and Cecilia Elena Rouse
Identifying Racial and Ethnic Differences in School Readiness
Donald Rock and Jack Stenner
Test Score Gaps: The Contribution of Family and Neighborhood Characteristics
Greg Duncan and Katherine Magnuson
Genetic Differences and School Readiness
William T. Dickens
Neuroscience Perspectives on Disparities in School Readiness
Kim Noble, B. J. Casey, and Nim Tottenham
Low Birth Weight and School Readiness
The Impact of Health on School Readiness
Jeanne Brooks-Gunn and Lisa Markman
Childcare and Early Education
Katherine Magnuson and Jane Waldfogel