The Future of U. S. Ocean Policy: Choices for the New Century / Edition 1

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<p>Despite nearly three decades of efforts intended to protect the nation's waters, and some success against certain forms of chemical and organic contamination, many of our nation's waterways continue to be seriously degraded. The call of the 1972 Clean Water Act - "to restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters" - remains unanswered.<p>Restoring Life in Running Waters discusses freshwater ecosystems in the United States and the need for using biology to understand their present condition. The book makes a case for using indexes that integrate measurements of many biological attributes to assess and communicate environmental health. In a unique and innovative format, the authors present 37 premises and 7 myths that explore the theory and practice of biological monitoring and the use of multimetric indexes.<p>The book explains:<ul> <li>why biological monitoring and assessment are needed <li>the historical evolution of biological monitoring <li>how and why living systems give the best signals for diagnosing environmental degradation <li>what multimetric indexes do and why they are effective <li> how multimetric indexes can be used and common pitfalls to avoid in using them <li>why many criticisms of biological indexes are not valid <li> how the principles of biological monitoring and multimetric indexes can be expanded beyond aquatic systems to other environments <li>how information from indexes can be integrated into the regulatory and policy framework</ul><p>Restoring Life in Running Waters provides practical and effective tools for managers and scientists seeking to understand the impact of human activities on natural systems and to determine proper action to remedy problems. It is an essential handbook for conservation biologists; agency personnel at all levels, including technical staff, policymakers, and program managers; and for anyone working to protect and restore the health of the nation's waters.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781559636766
  • Publisher: Island Press
  • Publication date: 1/28/2000
  • Edition description: 1
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 416
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Table of Contents

List of Figures and Tables
1 Introduction: A Time for Reassessment of U.S. Ocean Policy 1
2 From the Founding of the Republic to the 1960s: The Background of American Ocean Policy 31
The Evolution of International and National Ocean Policy 31
The Role of the Ocean in the Historical Development of the United States 35
The Evolution of Resource Management Regimes for Oil and Gas, Fisheries, Wildlife, and Coastal Areas 38
The Politics of Managing Ocean and Coastal Resources: Separate "Iron Triangles" 48
The Beginning of Change: Expanded Governmental Attention to Ocean and Coastal Issues in the 1960s 49
3 The 1970s: The Enactment of the Innovative Body of Marine Law 53
The Political Dynamics of Policy Initiation and Formulation 53
The National and International Context of the Early 1970s 57
Managing the Nation's Coasts 60
Protecting Marine Mammals 68
Promoting Fisheries: The Adoption of the 200-Mile Limit 77
Adding Environmental Considerations to Offshore Oil and Gas Development 84
Other Major Laws Enacted During the 1970s 91
Characteristics of the Ocean Laws of the 1970s 95
The Politics of Enactment 100
4 The 1970s to the 1990s: A Mixed Record of Success in Ocean Policy Implementation 103
The Political and Policy Context of the Period 103
Coastal Management: Successes and Shortcomings 116
Fisheries Management: Fisheries Depletion Overshadows Positive Institutional Changes 129
Marine Mammal Protection: Has this Single-Purpose Law Been the Most Successful? 149
Offshore Oil and Gas Policy: Continued Policy Stalemate in Most of the Country 168
Controlling Water Pollution: Unresolved Issues 176
Marine Protected Areas: Putting the Program on a Stronger Footing 184
Taking Stock: Some Successes, Some Failures, and No Overall Vision 198
5 The Context of the Late 1990s: Challenges to U.S. Ocean Policy at the Dawn of the New Century 203
The Changed Context of the Late 1990s 203
Challenges to be Faced in the New Century 205
The Overall Ocean and Coastal Wealth of the Nation: The Need for More Information 208
Navigating the U.S. and World Waters 210
Ocean Resource and Space Utilization Issues 216
Issues in Coastal Management 235
6 The United States and the World: Regaining Leadership in International Ocean and Coastal Affairs 255
Ratifying the Law of the Sea Convention 256
Implementation of UNCED 262
Suggestions for Regaining U.S. Leadership 276
7 Today: Toward a New System of Ocean Governance 279
Basic Problems with the Existing System 279
A Conceptual Framework for Multiple-Use Ocean Governance 284
Needed Ocean Governance Improvements 287
Operationalizing Suggestions for Improvement 296
Some Experiences from Other Nations 305
Building a Coalition for Change 308
Concluding Remarks: Looking to the Future 327
Appendix 329
Notes 337
References 345
Glossary 375
Acronyms 379
Index 383
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