The History of English Law before the Time of Edward I: In Two Volumes / Edition 2

The History of English Law before the Time of Edward I: In Two Volumes / Edition 2

by Frederick Pollock, Frederic William Maitland

ISBN-10: 0865977496

ISBN-13: 9780865977495

Pub. Date: 07/06/2010

Publisher: Liberty Fund, Incorporated

Pollock and Maitland "have endeavoured to draw a slight sketch, which becomes filler as time goes on, of the general outlines of that part of English legal history which lies on the other side of the accession of Edward I" and "to set forth at some length the doctrines and rules of English law which prevailed... under Henry II., his sons and grandson." The chapters

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Pollock and Maitland "have endeavoured to draw a slight sketch, which becomes filler as time goes on, of the general outlines of that part of English legal history which lies on the other side of the accession of Edward I" and "to set forth at some length the doctrines and rules of English law which prevailed... under Henry II., his sons and grandson." The chapters of the first book correspond to periods of history, and those of the second book, to branches of law.

Leaving constitutional law and ecclesiastical law for others, Pollock and Maitland write that a work that said nothing of "the history of ownership, possession, contract, agency, trust, legal proof and so forth," or "marriage, last wills, the fate of an intestate's goods, the punishment of criminous clerks, ... would be an exceedingly fragmentary book." The present work "has been shaped by a desire to avoid ... vain repetition," but "we have at times devoted several pages to the elucidation of some question, ... which seemed to us difficult and unexplored and worthy of patient discussion."

The text of the Liberty Fund edition is that of the second edition of 1898, with the bibliography and notes by historian S. F. C. Milsom, written for the Cambridge reissue 1968, supplied here as an appendix.

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Table of Contents

Preface to the Second Edition, xix Preface to the First Edition, xxi List of Abbreviations, xxiii
List of Texts Used, xxv Additions and Corrections, xxxi Introduction, xxxiii

Boo k  I

Sketch of Early English Legal History

C h a p t e r I .  The Dark Age in Legal History, pp. 3–28

The difficulty of beginning, 3    Proposed retrospect, 3    The classical age of Roman law, 4    The beginnings of ecclesiastical law, 4    Third century. Decline of Roman law, 5    Fourth century. Church and State, 5   Fifth century. The Theodosian Code, 7    Laws of Euric, 8    Sixth century.
The century of Justinian, 8    The Lex Salica, 9    The Lex Ribuaria, and Lex Burgundionum, 10    The Lex Romana Burgundionum, 10    The Lex Romana Visigothorum, 10    Importance of The Breviary, 11    The Edict of Theod- eric, 11    The Dionysian collection of canons, 11    Justinian’s books, 12
Justinian and Italy, 13    Laws of Æthelbert, 14    Seventh and eighth

vi    C O N T E N T S

centuries. Germanic laws, 15    System of personal laws, 16    The vulgar Roman law, 17    The latent Digest, 18    The capitularies, 18    Growth of canon law, 19    Ninth and tenth centuries. The false Isidore, 20
The forged capitularies, 20    Church and State, 21    The darkest age, 22
Legislation in England, 23    England and the Continent, 24    Eleventh century. The Pavian law-school, 24    The new birth of Roman law, 25
The recovered Digest, 27    The influence of Bolognese jurisprudence, 27

C h a p t e r I I .  Anglo-Saxon Law, pp. 29–69

Imperfection of written records of early Germanic law, 29    Anglo-Saxon dooms and custumals, 31    Anglo-Saxon land-books, 32    Survey of Anglo-Saxon institutions, 33    Personal conditions: lordship, 34    The family, 35    Ranks: ceorl, eorl, gesíð, 37    Thegn, 37    Other distinctions,
39    Privileges of the clergy, 39    Slavery and slave trade, 39    Manumis- sion, 40    Courts and justice, 42    Procedure, 43    Temporal and spiritual jurisdiction, 45    The king’s jurisdiction, 45    The Witan, 46    County
and hundred courts, 47    Private jurisdiction, 48    Subject-matter of
Anglo-Saxon justice, 48    The king’s peace, 49    Feud and atonement, 51
Wer, wíte and bót, 53    Difficulties in compelling submission to the courts, 55    Maintenance of offenders by great men, 55    Why no trial by battle, 56    Treason, 56    Homicide, 58    Personal injuries: misadventure, 59    Archaic responsibility, 60    Theft, 61    Property,
62    Sale and other contracts, 63    Claims for stolen goods: warranty,
65    Land tenure, 66    Book-land, 66    Læ´ n-land, 67    Folk-land, 67
Transition to feudalism, 69

Ch apte r I I I .  Norman Law, pp. 70–85

Obscurity of early Norman legal history, 70    Norman law was
French, 72    Norman law was feudal, 72    Feudalism in Normandy, 73
Dependent land tenure, 75    Seignorial justice, 78    Limits of ducal power,
79    Legal procedure, 80    Criminal law, 80    Ecclesiastical law, 81
The truce of God, 82    Condition of the peasantry, 82    Jurisprudence,
83    Lanfranc of Pavia, 84

CO N T E N T S    vii

C h a p t e r I V.  England under the Norman Kings, pp. 86–118

Effects of the Norman Conquest, 86    No mere mixture of national laws,
86    History of our legal language, 87    Struggle between Latin, French and English, 89    The place of Latin, 90    Struggle between French and English, 90    Victory of French, 91    French documents, 93    French
law-books, 94    Language and law, 94
Preservation of Old English law, 95    The Conqueror’s legislation, 95
Character of William’s laws, 96   Personal or territorial laws, 98    Mainte- nance of English land law, 99    The English in court, 100    Norman ideas and institutions, 101    Legislation: Rufus and Henry I., 102    Stephen,
104    The law-books or Leges, 105    Genuine laws of William I., 106
The Quadripartitus, 106    Leges Henrici, 107    Consiliatio Cnuti, 109
Instituta Cnuti, 109    French Leis of William I., 110    Leges Edwardi
Confessoris, 111    Character of the law disclosed by the Leges, 113
Practical problems in the Leges, 114    Practice of the king’s court,
116    Royal justice, 117

C h a p t e r V.  Roman and Canon Law, pp. 119–144

Contact of English with Roman and Canon law, 119    Cosmopolitan claims of Roman law, 120    Growth of Canon law, 120    Gratian, 120
Decretales Gregorii, 121    The Canonical system, 122    Relation of Canon to Roman law, 124    Roman and Canon law in England, 125    Vacarius,
126    English legists and canonists, 128    Scientific work in England,
129    The civilian in England, 130
Province of ecclesiastical law, 133    Matters of ecclesiastical economy,
134    Church property, 135    Ecclesiastical dues, 135    Matrimonial causes, 136    Testamentary causes, 136    Fidei laesio, 137    Correction of sinners, 138    Jurisdiction over clerks, 139    Miserabiles personae, 139
The sphere of Canon law, 140    Influence of Canon upon English law,
140    English law administered by ecclesiastics, 142    Nature of canonical influence, 143.

viii    C O N T E N T S

C h a p t e r V I .  The Age of Glanvill, pp. 145–184

The work of Henry II., 145    Constitutions of Clarendon, 146    Assize of Clarendon, 146    Inquest of Sheriffs, 147    Assize of Northampton,
147    Henry’s innovations. The jury and the original writ, 147    Essence of the jury, 147    The jury a royal institution, 149    Origin of the jury:
The Frankish inquest, 149    The jury in England, 151    The jury and fama publica, 151    The inquest in the Norman age, 152    Henry’s use of the
inquest, 153    The assize utrum, 154    The assize of novel disseisin,
155    Import of the novel disseisin, 155    The grand assize, 156
The assize of mort d’ancestor, 157    The assize of darrein presentment,
157    Assize and jury, 158    The system of original writs, 159
The accusing jury, 161
   Structure of the king’s courts, 162    The central court, 164    Itinerant justices, 165    Cases in the king’s court, 166    Law and letters, 170
Richard Fitz Neal, 171    Dialogue on the Exchequer, 172    Ranulf Glanvill: his life, 172    Tractatus de Legibus, 173    Roman and Canon law in Glanvill, 175    English and continental law-books, 177
The limit of legal memory, 179    Reigns of Richard and John, 179
The central court, 179    Itinerant justices, 181    Legislation, 181
The Great Charter, 181    Character of the Charter, 183

C h a p t e r V I I .  The Age of Bracton, pp. 185–239

Law under Henry III., 185    General idea of law, 185    Common law,
187    Statute law. The Charters, 189    Provisions of Merton, Westminster and Marlborough, 190    Ordinance and Statute, 192    The king and the law, 193    Unenacted law and custom, 194    Local customs, 196    Kentish customs, 197    Englishry of English law, 200    Equity, 201
The king’s courts, 202    The exchequer, 202    Work of the exchequer,
203    The chancery, 205    The original writs, 207    The chancery not a tribunal, 209    The two benches and the council, 210    Council and parliament, 211    Itinerant justices, 212    Triumph of royal justice,
215    The judges, 216    Clerical justices, 217
Bracton, 218    His book, 219    Character of his work: Italian form,
219    English substance, 221    Later law books, 222    Legal literature, 223

CO N T E N T S    ix

   The legal profession, 224    Pleaders, 224    Attorneys, 225    Non- professional attorneys, 226    Professional pleaders, 226    Regulation of pleaders and attorneys, 228    Professional opinion, 230    Decline of Romanism, 230   Notaries and conveyancers, 231   Knowledge of
the law, 233.
English law in Wales, 234    English law in Ireland, 234    English and
Scottish law, 235    Characteristics of English law, 238

Boo k  I I

The Doctrines of English Law in the Early Middle Ages

C h a p t e r I .  Tenure, pp. 243–429

Arrangement of this book, 243    The medieval scheme of law, 243
The modern scheme, 244    Our own course, 245

§ 1. Tenure in General, pp. 246–254
Derivative and dependent tenure, 246    Universality of dependent tenure, 248    Feudal tenure, 249   Analysis of dependent tenure, 250
Obligations of tenant and tenement, 252    Intrinsec and forinsec service, 252    Classification of tenures, 254

§ 2. Frankalmoin, pp. 254–266
Free alms, 254    Meaning of “alms,” 256    Spiritual service, 257
Gifts to God and the saints, 258    Free alms and forinsec service, 259
Pure alms, 260   Frankalmoin and ecclesiastical jurisdiction, 260
The assize Utrum, 262    Defeat of ecclesiastical claims, 262    Frankalmoin in the thirteenth century, 265

§ 3. Knight’s Service, pp. 266–298
Military tenure, 266    Growth and decay of military tenure, 267   Units of military service, 268    The forty days, 269    Knight’s fees, 271    Size of knight’s fees, 271    Apportionment of service, 272    Apportion-
ment between king and tenant in chief, 273    Honours and baronies,

x    C O N T E N T S

274    The barony and the knight’s fee, 275    Relativity of the knight’s fee,
276    Duty of the military tenant in chief, 278    Position of military sub- tenants, 278    Knight’s service due to lords who owe none, 280   Scutage,
282    Scutage between king and tenant in chief, 283    Scutage and fines for default of service, 285    Scutage and the military sub-tenants,
287    Tenure by escuage, 288    The lord’s right to scutage, 290    Reduction in the number of knight’s fees, 291    Meaning of this reduction, 292
Military combined with other services, 293    Castle-guard, 294
Thegnage and drengage, 295    Tenure by barony, 295    The baronage,
296    Escheated honours, 297

§ 4. Serjeanty, pp. 299–307
Definition of serjeanty, 299    Serjeanty and service, 299    Types of serjeanty owed by the king’s tenants in chief, 299    Serjeanties due to mesne lords, 302    Military serjeanties due to mesne lords, 303    Essence of serjeanty, 304    The serjeants in the army, 304    Serjeanty in Domesday Book, 305    Serjeanty and other tenures, 306

§ 5. Socage, pp. 308–313
Socage, 308    Types of socage, 308    Extension of socage, 310    Fee farm,
310    Meaning of “socage,” 311    Socage in contrast to military tenure,
311    Socage as the residuary tenure, 312    Burgage, 12    Burgage and borough customs, 312    One man and many tenures, 313

§ 6. Homage and Fealty, pp. 314–324
Homage and fealty, 314    Legal and extra-legal effects of homage, 314
The ceremony of homage, 314    The oath of fealty, 315    Liegeance, 315
Vassalism in the Norman age, 317    Bracton on homage, 318    Homage and private war, 319    Sanctity of homage, 320    Homage and felony, 321
Feudal felony, 322    Homage, by whom done and received, 323   The lord’s obligation, 323

§ 7. Relief and Primer Seisin, pp. 324–336
The incidents of tenure, 324    Heritable rights in land, 325    Reliefs, 326
Rights of the lord on the tenant’s death, 327    Prerogative rights of the king, 329    Earlier history of reliefs, 330    Relief and heriot, 330
Heritability of fees in the Norman age, 332    Mesne lords and heritable fees, 334    History of the heriot, 334    Relief on the lord’s death, 336

CO N T E N T S    xi

§ 8. Wardship and Marriage, pp. 337–348
Bracton’s rules, 337    Wardship of female heirs, 338    Priority among lords, 339    What tenures give wardship, 339    Prerogative wardship, 340
The lord’s rights vendible, 340    Wardship and the serjeanties, 341
The law in Glanvill, 342    Earlier law, 343    Norman law, 344
The Norman apology, 345    Origin of wardship and marriage, 346

§ 9. Restraints on Alienation, pp. 348–369
Historical theories, 348    Modes of alienation, 348    Preliminary distinctions, 350    Glanvill, 351    The Great Charter, 351    Bracton, 351
Legislation as to mortmain, 352    Alienation of serjeanties, 353
Special law for the king’s tenants in chief, 354    Growth of the prerogative right, 355    Quia emptores, 356    Disputed origin of the prerogative right,
357    Summary of law after the Charter, 359    Older law, 359    Anglo- Norman charters, 360    Discussion of the charters, 361    Conclusions as to law of the Norman age, 363    Usual form of alienation, 364
General summary, 365    Gifts by the lord with his court’s consent, 366
Alienation of seignories, 366    Law of attornment, 367    Practice of alienating seignories, 368

§ 10. Aids, pp. 369–371
Duty of aiding the lord, 369

§ 11. Escheat and Forfeiture, pp. 371–377
Escheat, 371    The lord’s remedies against a defaulting tenant, 372
Action in the king’s court, 372    Distress, 373    Proceedings in the lord’s court, 374    Survey of the various free tenures, 375

§ 12. Unfree Tenure, pp. 377–405
Freehold tenure, 377    Technical meaning of “freehold,” 378    Villeinage as tenure and as status, 379    Villein tenure: unprotected by the king’s court, 379    Want of right and want of remedy, 380    Protection by manorial courts, 381    Evidence of the “extents,” 382    Attempt to define villein tenure, 383    The manorial arrangement, 383    The field system,
384    The virgates, 385    Villein services, 386    A typical case of villein services, 387    Week work and boon days, 388    Merchet and tallage, 389
Essence of villein tenure, 390    The will of the lord, 391    Villeinage and labour, 391    Uncertainty of villein services, 392    Tests of villeinage,

xii    C O N T E N T S

393    Binding force of manorial custom, 398    Treatment of villein tenure in practice, 398   Heritable rights in villein tenements, 401    Unity of the tenement, 403   Alienation of villein tenements, 404    Villein tenure and villein status, 404

§ 13. The Ancient Demesne, pp. 405–429
The ancient demesne and other royal estates, 405    Immunities of the ancient demesne, 406    Once ancient demesne, always ancient demesne,
407    Peculiar tenures on the ancient demesne, 407    The little writ of right, 407    The Monstraverunt, 410    The classes of tenants, 411
Bracton’s theory, 411    Theory and practice, 414    Difficulties of classification, 415    Sokemanry and socage, 417    Later theory and practice, 419    Why is a special treatment of the ancient demesne necessary? 419    The king and the conquest settlement, 421    Royal protection of royal tenants, 423    Customary freehold, 424    No place for a tenure between freehold and villeinage, 427    The conventioners,
427    Conclusion, 429

C h a p t e r I I . The Sorts and Conditions of Men, pp. 430–554

Law of personal condition, 430    Status and estate, 431

§ 1. The Earls and Barons, pp. 431–434
The baronage, 431    Privileges of the barons, 432

Knighthood, 434

§ 2. The Knights, pp. 434–435

§ 3. The Unfree, pp. 435–456
The unfree, 435    General idea of serfage, 436    Relativity of serfage, 438
The serf in relation to his lord, 439    Rightlessness of the serf, 439
Serfdom de iure and serfdom de facto, 440    Covenant between lord and serf, 441    The serf in relation to third persons, 442    The serf’s property,
443    Difficulties of relative serfdom, 420    The serf in relation to the state, 444    How men become serfs, 446    Servile birth, 446    Mixed mar- riages, 447    Influence of the place of birth, 448    Villeins by confession,
448    Serfdom by prescription, 449    How serfdom ceases, 451
Manumission, 451    The freedman, 452    Modes of enfranchisement,

C O N T E N T S    xiii

453    Summary, 453    Retrospect. Fusion of villeins and serfs, 454    The levelling process, 455   The number of serfs, 455   Rise of villeins, 456

§ 4. The Religious, pp. 457–463
Civil death, 457    Growth of the idea of civil death, 457    Difficulties arising from civil death, 459    The monk as agent, 460    The abbatial monarchy, 461    Return to civil life, 462    Civil death as a development of the abbot’s mund, 462

§ 5. The Clergy, pp. 463–483
Legal position of the ordained clerk, 463    The clerk under temporal law, 464    Exceptional rules applied to the clerk, 464    Benefit of clergy,
465    Trial in the courts of the church, 467    Punishment of felonious clerks, 469    What persons entitled to the privilege, 469    What offences within the privilege, 470    The Constitutions of Clarendon, 472
Henry II.’s scheme, 472    Henry’s scheme and past history, 473
Henry’s allegations, 474    Earlier law: the Conqueror’s ordinance,
474    The Leges Henrici, 475    Precedents for the trial of clerks, 475
Summary, 477   Henry’s scheme and the Canon law, 479    The murderers of clerks, 481

§ 6. Aliens, pp. 483–493
The classical common law, 483    Who are aliens? 483    Disabilities of the alien, 484    Naturalization, 485    Law of earlier times, 485    Growth of the law disabling aliens, 486    The king and the alien, 488    The kinds of aliens, 489    The alien merchants, 490    The alien and the common law,
490    Has the merchant a peculiar status? 492    The law merchant, 493

§ 7. The Jews, pp. 493–501
General idea of the Jew’s position, 493    The exchequer of the Jews, 495
Relation of the Jew to the king, 497    Relation of the Jew to the world at large, 498    Law between Jew and Jew, 499    Influence of the Jew upon English law, 500

§ 8. Outlaws and Convicted Felons, pp. 501–503
Outlawry, 501    Condition of the outlaw, 503

§ 9. Excommunicates, pp. 503–506
Excommunication, 504    Spiritual leprosy, 504    Excommunication and civil rights, 506

xiv    C O N T E N T S

§ 10. Lepers, Lunatics and Idiots, pp. 506–508
The leper, 506    The idiot, 507    The lunatic, 507

§ 11. Women, pp. 508–512
Legal position of women, 508    Women in private law, 508    Women in public law, 509    Married women, 512

§ 12. Corporations and Churches, pp. 512–538
The corporation, 512    Beginnings of corporateness, 514    Personality
of the corporation, 514    The anthropomorphic picture of a corporation,
515    Is the personality fictitious? 516    The corporation at the end of the middle ages, 516    The corporation and its head, 517    The corporation in earlier times, 519    Gradual appearance of the group-person, 520    The law of Bracton’s time, 521    The universitas and the communitas, 521
Bracton and the universitas, 522    No law as to corporations in general, 523
Church lands, 523    The owned church, 524    The saints as persons,
525    The saint’s administrators, 527    Saints and churches in Domesday Book, 527    The church as person, 528    The church as universitas and persona ficta, 528    The temporal courts and the churches,
530    The parish church, 530    The abbatial church, 531    The episcopal church, 532    Disintegration of the ecclesiastical groups, 533    Communal groups of secular clerks, 534    Internal affairs of clerical groups, 535
The power of majorities, 536    The ecclesiastical and the temporal communities, 537    The boroughs and other land communities, 537

§ 13. The King and the Crown, pp. 538–554
Is there a crown? 538    Theories as to the king’s two bodies, 538
Personification of the kingship not necessary, 539    The king’s rights as intensified private rights, 539    The king and other lords, 540
The kingship as property, 540    The king’s rights can be exercised
by him, 542    The king can do wrong but no action lies against him,
542    King’s land and crown land, 545    Slow growth of a law of “capaci- ties,” 546    No lay corporations sole, 547    Is the kingdom alienable?
548    The king can die, 549    The king can be under age, 550    Germs of a doctrine of “capacities,” 551    Personification of the crown, 552
Retrospect, 553

CO N T E N T S    xv

C h a p t e r I I I .  Jurisdiction and the Communities of the Land, pp. 555–725

Place of the law of jurisdiction in the medieval scheme, 555    All
temporal jurisdiction proceeds from the king, 556    The scheme of courts,
557    Division of the land, 557    The county court, 558    The hundred court, 558    The sheriff’s turn, 558    Seignorial courts, 559    Feudal courts,
559    Franchise courts, 560    Leets, 560    Borough courts, 560    The king’s courts, 560

§ 1. The County, pp. 561–585
The county, 561    The county officers, 561    The county community, 563
The county court, 564    Identity of county and county court, 564
Constitution of the county court, 565    Suit of court no right, but a burden, 565    Suit of court is laborious, 566    Sessions of the court, 566
Full courts and intermediate courts, 567    The suitors, 569    Suit is a
“real” burden, 569    “Reality” of suit, 570    The vill as a suit-owing unit,
571    Inconsistent theories of suit, 572    The court in its fullest form, 573
The communal courts in earlier times, 574    Struggle between various principles, 575    Suit by attorney, 575    Representative character of the county court, 576    The suitors as doomsmen, 576    A session of the county court, 578    The suitors and the dooms, 579    Powers of a majority, 581    The buzones, 582    Business of the court, 582    Outlawry in the county court, 583    Governmental functions, 583    Place of session, 584

§ 2. The Hundred, pp. 585–589
The hundred as a district, 585    The hundred court, 586    Hundreds in the king’s hands, 586    Hundreds in private hands, 587    Duties of the hundred, 587    The sheriff’s turn, 588

§ 3. The Vill and the Township, pp. 589–597
England mapped out into vills, 589    Vill and parish, 590    Discrete vills, 590    Hamlets, 591    Vill and village, 592    Vill and township, 593
Ancient duties of the township, 593    Statutory duties, 594    Contribution of township to general fines, 595    Exactions from townships, 595
Miscellaneous offences of the township, 596    Organization of the township, 597

xvi    C O N T E N T S

§ 4. The Tithing, pp. 597–601
Frankpledge, 597    The system in the thirteenth century, 597    Township and tithing, 598    The view of frankpledge, 599    Attendance at the view,
600    Constitution of tithings, 600

§ 5. Seignorial Jurisdiction, pp. 601–625
Regalities and feudal rights, 601    Acquisition of regalities, 602
Theories of royal lawyers, 602    Various kinds of franchises, 604    Fiscal immunities, 604    Immunities from personal service, 604    Immuni-
ties from forest law, 604    Fiscal powers, 605    Jurisdictional powers,
606    Contrast between powers and immunities, 607    Sake, soke, toll and team, 608    Sake and soke in the thirteenth century, 609    View of frankpledge, 610    The leet, 610   The vill and the view, 611    The assize of bread and beer, 612    High justice, 612    High franchises claimed by prescription, 614    The properly feudal jurisdiction, 615    The feudal court is usually a manorial court, 615    Jurisdiction of the feudal court,
617    Civil litigation: personal actions, 617    Actions for freehold land,
618    Actions for villein land, 619    Litigation between lord and man,
619    Presentments, 620    Governmental powers and by-laws, 620
Appellate jurisdiction, 621    Constitution of the feudal court, 622
The president, 622    The suitors, 623

§ 6. The Manor, pp. 625–636
The manor, 625    “Manor” not a technical term, 626    Indefiniteness of the term, 627    A typical manor, 627    The manor house, 628
Occupation of the manor house, 629    Demesne land, 630    The freehold tenants, 631    The tenants in villeinage, 632    The manorial court, 633    Size of the manor, 634    Administrative unity of the manor,
635    Summary, 636

§ 7. The Manor and the Township, pp. 637–667
Coincidence of manor and vill, 637    Coincidence assumed as normal,
638    Coincidence not always found, 639    Non-manorial vills, 640
Manors and sub-manors, 640    The affairs of the non-manorial vill,
642    Permanent apportionment of the township’s duties, 642
Allotment of financial burdens, 643    The church rate, 644
Apportionment of taxes on movables, 647    Actions against the hundred,

CO N T E N T S    xvii

648    Economic affairs of the non-manorial vill, 649    Intercommoning vills, 651    Return to the manorial vill, 652    Rights of common, 652
Rights of common and communal rights, 653    The freeholder’s right of common, 653    The freeholder and the community, 654    Freedom of
the freeholder, 655    Communalism among villeins, 656    The villein community, 657   Communalism and collective liability, 660    The community as farmer, 661    Absence of communal rights, 662
Communal rights disappear upon examination, 662    Co-ownership and corporate property, 662    The township rarely has rights, 664
The township in litigation, 665   Transition to the boroughs, 666

§ 8. The Borough, pp. 667–725
Cities and boroughs, 667    The vill and the borough, 667    The borough and its community, 668    Sketch of early history, 669    Borough and shire,
669    The borough as vill, 670    The borough’s heterogeneity, 670    The borough and the king, 671    The borough and the gilds, 672    Transition to the thirteenth century, 673
Inferior limit of burgality, 673   Representation in parliament,
674    The typical boroughs and their franchises, 676    Jurisdictional privileges, 676    Civil jurisdiction, 677    Criminal jurisdiction, 678
Return of writs, 678    Privileged tenure, 678    Mesne tenure in the boroughs, 679   Seignorial rights in the boroughs, 680    Customary private law, 680    Emancipation of serfs, 682    Freedom from toll, 683
The firma burgi, 684    What was farmed, 684    The farm of the vill and the soil of the vill, 686    Lands of the borough, 687    Waste land, 687
The borough’s revenue, 689    Chattels of the borough, 690    Elective officers, 691    Borough courts and councils, 692    By-laws and self- government, 694    Limits to legislative powers, 695    Enforcement of
by-laws, 696    Rates and taxes, 697    The borough’s income, 698   Tolls,
698    The gild merchant, 699    The formation of a gild, 699    The gild and the government of the borough, 700    Objects of the gild, 701    The gild and the burgesses, 702    The gild courts, 702    The borough as a
franchise-holder, 703
   Corporate character of the borough community, 703    Corporateness not bestowed by the king, 704    Gild-like structure of the community,
705    Admission of burgesses, 706    The title to burgherhood, 706
The “subject” in the borough charters, 708    Discussion of the
charters, 708    Charters for the borough, the county and the whole land,
709    Charters and laws, 710    The burgesses as co-proprietors, 711
The community as bearer of rights, 712    Inheritance, succession and organization, 712    Criminal liability of the borough, 713    Civil liability,
715    The communities in litigation, 716    Debts owed to the community,
717    The common seal, 719    The borough’s property, 721    The borough’s property in its tolls, 721    The ideal will of the borough,
722    The borough corporation, 722    The communities and the nation, 724

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