The Human Record: Sources of Global History, Volume I: To 1700 / Edition 4

The Human Record: Sources of Global History, Volume I: To 1700 / Edition 4

by Alfred J. Andrea, James H. Overfield, James Overfield

Unlike some other world history texts that center on the West, The Human Record provides balanced coverage of the global past. The book features both written and artifactual sources that are placed in their full historical contexts through introductory essays, footnotes, and focus questions. The text sheds light on the experiences of women and non-elite groups… See more details below


Unlike some other world history texts that center on the West, The Human Record provides balanced coverage of the global past. The book features both written and artifactual sources that are placed in their full historical contexts through introductory essays, footnotes, and focus questions. The text sheds light on the experiences of women and non-elite groups while maintaining overall balance and a focus on the major patterns of global historical developments through the ages.

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Cengage Learning
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6.90(w) x 9.82(h) x 0.39(d)
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11 - 17 Years

Table of Contents

VOLUME I I. The Ancient World Prologue: Primary Sources and How We Read Them What Is History? Primary Sources: Their Value and Limitations Examining the Sources You and the Sources Interpreting Columbus's Letter Unwritten Sources Interpreting the Woodcut 1. The First Civilizations Mesopotamia: The Land of Two Rivers The Search for Eternal Life in Mesopotamia 1. The Epic of Gilgamesh Bringing Order to an Uncertain World 2. The Judgments of Hammurabi Egypt: The Land of Two Lands The Search for Eternal Life in Egypt 3. Three Funerary Texts Making a Living in Ancient Egypt 4. A Scribal Exercise Book China: The Land of the Yellow River The Mandate of Heaven 5. The Classic of History Zhou Viewed from Above and Below 6. The Classic of Odes Mute Testimony Bringing in the Sheaves 7. A Tassili Rock Painting Cultural Impressions 8. Indus, Mesopotamian, and Cretan Seals Sacred Kingship Along the Nile 9. Two Temple Reliefs The Were-Jaguar 10. Four Olmec Statuettes 2. Newcomers: From Nomads to Settlers The Indo-Europeans Life, Death, and the Gods in Aryan India 11. The Rig Veda A Journey to the Underworld 12. Homer, The Odyssey The Hebrews and Their Neighbors Establishing a Covenant with Humanity 13. The Book of Genesis Establishing a Covenant with the Chosen People 14. The Book of Deuteronomy Keeping and Breaking the Covenant 15. The Book of Judges 3. Transcendental Reality: Developing the Spiritual Traditions of India and Southwest Asia: 800-200 B.C.E. The Emergence of Brahminical Hinduism The Hindu Search for Divine Reality 16. The Upanishads Dharma: The Imperative of Caste Law 17. The Bhagavad Gita Challengers of Caste: The Mahavira and the Buddha A Call to the Heroic Life 18. The Book of Good Conduct The Path to Enlightenment 19. The Buddha, Two Lessons Admitting Women to the Mendicant Life 20. The Discipline Basket Persians, Israelites, and Their Gods The Struggle Between Good and Evil 21. Zarathustra, Gathas A New Covenant for All Peoples 22. The Book of Isaiah 4. The Secular Made Sacred: Developing the Humanistic Traditions of China and Hellas: 600-200 B.C.E. China: Thought in Search of Harmony Daoism: The Way That Is and Is Not 23. Laozi, The Classic of the Way and Virtue Confucianism: The Way of the Superior Man 24. Confucius, The Analects Legalism in Theory and Practice: The Way of the State 25. Han Fei, The Writings of Master Han Fei, and Sima Qian, The Records of the Grand Historian Yin and Yang and the Dao of Good Health 26. The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Medicine Hellenic Civilization: A Rational Inquiry into Life Hellenic Medicine 27. Hippocrates, On the Sacred Disease The Athenian as Citizen 28. Thucydides, The History of the Peloponnesian War An Alienated Woman 29. Euripides, Medea Socrates and the Laws of Athens 30. Plato, Crito Art and the Human Form 31. Three Hellenic Works of Art 5. Regional Empires and Afro-Eurasian Interchange: 300 B.C.E.-500 C.E. The Greco-Roman World Images of the Hellenistic World 32. Four Hellenistic Sculptures Rome Viewed from the Underworld 33. Virgil, The Aeneid Three Women in the Age of the Pax Romana 34. Three Funerary Monuments Han China Establishing an Imperial Confucian Academy 35. Sima Qian, The Records of the Grand Historian A Woman's Place as Viewed by a Female Confucian 36. Ban Zhao, Lessons for Women India in the Age of Empires The Softening Effects of Dharma 37. Asoka, Rock and Pillar Edicts Sacred Law in Classical India 38. The Laws of Manu Gupta India as Viewed by a Chinese Monk 39. Faxian, Travels in India and Ceylon Long-Distance Travel and Exchange Faxian's Homeward Voyage 40. Faxian, Travels The Transit of Images Along Trade Routes 41. Five Robed Statues II. Faith, Devotion, and Salvation: Great World Religions to 1500 C.E. 6. New Developments in Three Ancient Religions Hinduism: The Way of Devotion Vishnu, Destroyer of Sin 42. The Vishnu Purana Shiva, Auspicious Destroyer 43. Shiva Nataraja Mahayana Buddhism: A Religion of Infinite Compassion Perceiver of the World's Sounds: A Universal Bodhisattva 44. The Lotus Sutra Images of Compassion 47. Three Bodhisattvas Rabbinical Judaism A Defense of the Law 46. Flavius Josephus, Against Apion Persecution and Messianic Hope 47. Maimonides, Letter to Yemen 7. Christianity: Conquering the World for Christ The Foundations of Christianity Becoming Spiritually Perfect 48. The Gospel of St. Matthew The Path to Righteousness: The Law or Faith? 49. St. Paul, The Epistle to the Romans Christianity and the Roman World Persecution and Deliverance 50. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History The Christian Empire 51. The Theodosian Code The Christian Emperor 52. The Barberini Ivory The Origins of Christian Monasticism 53. St. Ephraem of Edessa, The Life of St. Mary the Harlot Religious Exchange and Interchange Gnostic Christianity: The Secret Knowledge of Jesus 54. The Gospel of Thomas Manichaeism: Enlightening the World 55. The Parable About the World-Ocean 8. Islam: Universal Submission to God The Foundations of Islamic Life The Word of God 56. The Qur'an The Tales of Tradition 57. Imam Nawawi, Gardens of the Righteous Muhammad's Night Journey and Ascent to Heaven 58. Muhammad ibn Ishaq, The Life of the Messenger of God Shari'a: God's Law 59. Ibn Abi Zayd al-Kayrawani, The Treatise on Law Variety and Unity in Islam God's Martyrs: The Party of Ali 60. Ibn Babawayh al-Saduq, Creed Concerning the Imams Sufi Mysticism 61. Abu Hamid Muhammed al-Ghazali, The Alchemy of Happiness An African Pilgrim to Mecca 62. Mahmud Kati, The Chronicle of the Seeker Islam and Unbelievers The Dhimma 63. Ibn Muslama's Pact with the Christians of Tiflis and The Pact of Umar The Jewish Community of Twelfth-Century Baghdad 64. Benjamin of Tudela, Book of Travels Fourteenth-Century Hindu Dhimmis 65. The Deeds of Sultan Firuz Shah Part III. Continuity, Change and Interchange: 500-1500 9. Asia: Change in the Context of Tradition Japan: Creating a Distinctive Civilization History in Service to State-Building 66. Yasumaro, Preface to Records of Ancient Matters An Aristocratic Woman in Eleventh-Century Japan 67. Murasaki Shikibu, Diary The Ideal Samurai 68. Chronicle of the Grand Pacification China: The Ages of Tang and Song Open to the World: Christianity in Tang China 69. Bishop Adam, The Christian Monument Troubles in Late Tang 70. Du Fu, Poems The Dao of Agriculture in Song China 71. Chen Pu, The Craft of Farming Thirteenth-Century Hangzhou 72. A Record of Musings on the Eastern Capital Buddhism in East Asia: Acceptance, Rejection and Accommodation A Conflict of Values: Foreign Religions in Late-Tang China 73. Han Yu, Memorial on Buddhism, and Emperor Tang Wuzong, Proclamation Ordering the Destruction of the Buddhist Monasteries The Neo-Confucian Response to Buddhism 74. Zhu Xi, Conversations of Master Zhu, Arranged Topically Zen Buddhism in Japan 75. Dogen, On Life and Death Southwest Asia: Crossroads of the Afro-Eurasian World The Arrival of the Turks 76. Al-Jahiz, The Merits of the Turks and of the Imperial Army as a Whole The Arrival of the Franks 77. Usamah ibn Munqidh, The Book of Reflections Sinbad's First Voyage 78. A Thousand and One Arabian Nights India: Continuity and Change Islam and Hindu Civilization: Cultures in Conflict 79. Abu'l Raihan al-Biruni, Description of India The Perfect Wife 80. Dandin, Tales of the Ten Princes A Sati's Sacrifice 81. Vikrama's Adventures 10. Two Christian Civilizations: Byzantium and Western Europe Justinian the Great: The First Byzantine Emperor Two Imperial Portraits: Justinian and Theodora 82. The Mosaics of San Vitale Justinian: God's Deputy or a Devil? 83. Procopius, On the Buildings and The Secret History Charles the Great: Europe's First Emperor A Papal Protrait: Leo III and Charles the Great 84. Pope Leo III's Lateran Mosaic A Carolingian Vision of Reality 85. Charles the Great, A Letter to Pope Leo III and The Capitulary on the Missi Constantinople and Rome: Beacons of Christianity Bringing Christianity to the Rus' 86. The Russian Primary Chronicle Bringing Christianity to the Magyars 87. Pope Sylvester II, Letter to Saint Stephen of Hungary A Conflict of Authorities A Papal Rejoinder to the Byzantine Emperor 88. Pope Innocent III, Solitae A Middle Ground 89. John of Paris, A Treatise on Royal and Papal Power Byzantium and the West in the Age of the Crusades: The Dividing of Christendom The West and the First Crusade from a Byzantine Perspective 90. Anna Comnena, The Alexiad The Fourth Crusade from a Byzantine Perspective 91. Nicetas Choniates, Annals The Fourth Crusade from a Western Perspective 92. Gunther of Pairis, A Constantinopolitan History 11. Africa and the Americas Africa The Land of Zanj: Tenth-Century East Africa 93. Abu'l-Hasan Ali al-Mas'udi, Meadows of Gold The Land of Ghana: Eleventh-Century Western Sudan 94. Abu Ubaydallah al-Bakri, The Book of Rotes and Realms The Land of Seyon: Fourteenth-Century Ethiopia 95. The Glorious Victories of 'Amda Seyon A Yoruba Woman of Authority? 96. Seated Female Figure The Americas The God Who Descended from the Mountains 97. A Moche Ceramic Taino Culture 98. Ramon Pane, A Report Concerning the Antiquities of the Indians Quiche Mayan Gods and Monarchs 99. The Book of the Community Governing the Inca Empire 100. Pedro de Cieza de Leon, Chronicles IV. Travel, Encounter and Exchange: 1000-1700 12. Adventurers, Merchants, Diplomats, Pilgrims, and Missionaries: A Half Millennium of Travel and Encounter, 1000-1500 The World Perceived A Chinese View of the World 101. Zhau Rugua, A Description of Foreign Peoples A European View of the World 102. John Mandeville, Travels A Korean View of the World 103. The Kangnido Travel in the Age of the Pax Mongolica Traveling Among the Mongols 104. William of Rubruck, Journey to the Land of Tartars Traveling the Silk Road 105. Marco Polo, Description of the World A European Missionary Travels to China 106. John of Monte Corvino, Letter to the West A Chinese Traveler Among the Khmer 107. Zhou Daguan, Recollections of the Customs of Cambodia Advice for Merchants Traveling to Cathay 108. Francesco Pegolotti, The Practice of Commerce Travel Beyond the Mongol Ecumene A Moroccan Visitor in Sub-Saharan Africa 109. Ibn Battuta, A Donation to Those Interested in Curiosities Zheng He's Western Voyages 110. Ma Huan, The Overall Survey of the Ocean's Shores The Origins of Portugal's Overseas Empire 111. Gomes Eannes de Azurara, Chronicle of Guinea 13. Transoceanic Encounters: 1500-1700 Europeans in the Americas The Battle for Tenochtitlán: An Aztec Perspective 112. Bernardino de Sahagun, General History of the Things of New Spain The "Mountain of Silver" and the Mita System 113. Antonio Vazquez de Espinosa, Compendium and Description of the West Indies African Reactions to the European Presence An African Voice of Ambivalence? 114. Nzinga Mbemba (Afonso I), Letters to the King of Portugal Images of the Portuguese in the Art of Benin 115. A Benin-Portuguese Saltcellar and A Benin Wall Plaque The Economics of the West African Slave Trade 116. James Barbot, Voyage to New Calabar River in the Year 1699 Chinese and Japanese Reactions to the West The Jesuits in China 117. Matteo Ricci, Journals The Seclusion of Japan 118. Tokugawa Iemitsu, Closed Country Edict of 1635 and Exclusion of the Portuguese, 1639 The Great Mughals and the West Dealing with the Faringis 119. Abu'l Fazl, Akbarnama Seventeenth-Century Commerce in India 120. Jean-Baptiste Tavernier, Travels in India VOLUME II Prologue: Primary Sources and How We Read Them What Is History? Primary Sources: Their Value and Limitations Examining the Sources You and the Sources Interpreting Columbus's Letter Unwritten Sources Interpreting the Woodcut I. The World in the Era of Western Expansion: 1500-1650 1. Europe in an Age of Conflict and Expansion Protestant Revolt and Catholic Response Luther's Views of Christianity and Society 1. Martin Luther, Table Talk A Blueprint for Catholic Revival 2. Decrees of the Council of Trent Art as Protestant Propaganda 3. Lucas Cranach the Younger, Two Kinds of Preaching, and Mattias Gerung, The Chariot of the Pope and the Turk Spanish Perspectives on the New World The Uncivilized Have Been Justly Conquered 4. Juan Gines de Sepulveda, Democrates Secundus, or The Just Causes of War Against the Indians "They Are Our Brothers" 5. Bartolome de Las Casas, In Defense of the Indians Women's Roles in Early Modern Europe A Woman of Virtue and Piety 6. John Mayer, "A Pattern for Women" Two Sixteenth-Century Images of Women 7. Anton Woensam, Allegory of a Wise Woman and Erhard Schön, No More Precious Treasure Is on the Earth Than a Gentle Wife Who Longs for Honor Midwives and Their Duties 8. Nuremberg Ordinances Concerning Midwives, 1522, 1579 An Expanding Intellectual Universe Who Is the True Barbarian? 9. Michel de Montaigne, On Cannibals Science and the Claims of Religion 10. Galileo Galilei, Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina 2. Africa and the Americas The Diversity of African Societies Africa's Sudanic Kingdoms 11. Leo Africanus, History and Description of Africa Africa's Cosmopolitan East Coast 12. Duarte Barbosa, An Account of the Countries Bordering the Indian Ocean The Portuguese in Africa An African Voice of Protest 13. Nzinga Mbemba (Afonso I), Letters to the King of Portugal The Zimba and the Portuguese 14. João dos Santos, Eastern Ethiopia Images of Europeans in the Art of Benin 15. A Benin-Portuguese Saltcellar and A Benin Wall Plaque Encounters in the Americas The Battle for Tenochtitlán 16. Bernardino de Sahagun, General History of the Things of New Spain Amerindian Perspectives on French Civilization 17. A Mi'kmaq Elder's Speech to French Settlers Land and Labor in Spanish America Exploitation Versus Amerindian Rights in the Encomienda System 18. Encomienda Regulations in Paraguay The "Mountain of Silver" and the Mita System 19. Antonio Vazquez de Espinosa, Compendium and Description of the West Indies The Evils of Cochineal 20. Deliberations of the Tlaxcalan Municipal Council, March 1553 3. The Islamic Heartland and India Rulers and Their Challenges in the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empires A European Diplomat's Impressions of Suleiman I 21. Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq, Turkish Letters A Carmelite Friar's View of Shah Abbas I 22. Father Paul Simon, Report to Pope Paul V A Self-Portrait of Jahangir 23. Jahangir, Memoirs Religion and Society in South and Southwest Asia Sunni Versus Shi'ite in the Early Sixteenth Century 24. Sultan Selim I, Letter to Shah Ismail of Persia A Muslim's Description of Hindu Beliefs and Practices 25. Abu'l Fazl, Akbarnama Women in Ottoman Society 26. Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq, Turkish Letters The Beginnings of Sikhism in India 27. Nanak, Sacred Hymns from the Adi-Granth 4. Continuity and Change in East and Southeast Asia Confucianism in China and Japan "Doing Good" in Seventeenth-Century China 28. Meritorious Deeds at No Cost Teaching the Young in Tokugawa Japan 29. Kaibara Ekiken, Common Sense Teachings for Japanese Children and Greater Learning for Women Chinese Merchants in a Confucian World 30. Wan Daokun, Biographies of Zhu Jiefu and Gentleman Wang Humanity and Nature in Chinese Painting 31. Zhang Hung, Landscape of Shixie Hill, and Sheng Maoye, Scholars Gazing at a Waterfall Political Decline and Recovery in China and Japan Symptoms of Ming Decline 32. Yang Lien, Memorial to Emperor Ming Xizong Concerning Eunuch Wei Zhongxian The Tokugawa Formula for Japan 33. Tokugawa Hidetada, Laws Governing the Military Households Europeans in East and Southeast Asia The Seclusion of Japan 34. Tokugawa Iemitsu, Closed Country Edict of 1635 Siamese-Dutch Tensions in the Seventeenth Century 35. Letter to the Dutch East India Company Board of Directors II. A World of Transformation and Tradition: From the Mid Seventeenth to Early Nineteenth Century 5. Europe and the Americas in an Age of Science, Economic Growth, and Revolution Science, Reason, and Progress The Promise of Science 36. Francis Bacon, The New Organon Two Images of Seventeenth-Century Science 37. Sebastien Le Clerc, The Royal Academy and Its Protectors and A Dissection at the Jardin des Plantes An Affirmation of Human Progress 38. Marquis de Condorcet, Sketch of the Progress of the Human Mind From Mercantilism to Laissez-Faire The Advantages of Mercantilism 39. Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Memorandum on English Alliances and Memorandum to the King on Finances Capitalism's Prophet 40. Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations Russia and the West in the Eighteenth Century Peter the Great's Blueprint for Russia 41. Peter the Great, Edicts and Decrees A Russian Critic of Westernization 42. Mikail Shcherbatov, On the Corruption of Morals in Russia Revolutions in England and France The Foundations of Parliamentary Supremacy in England 43. English Bill of Rights A Program for Revolutionary Change in France 44. Cahier of the Third Estate of the City of Paris Women's Issues on the Eve of the French Revolution 45. Petition of Parisian Women of the Third Estate to Louis XVI Anticolonialism and Revolution in the Americas "Simple Facts, Plain Arguments, and Common Sense" 46. Thomas Paine, Common Sense Bolivar's Dreams for Latin America 47. Simon Bolivar, The Jamaica Letter 6. Africa, Southwest Asia, and India in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries Africa's Curse: The Slave Trade The Path to Enslavement in America 48. Olaudah Equiano, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano Written by Himself The Economics of the Slave Trade 49. James Barbot, A Voyage to the New Calabar River Rules for Slaves and Masters 50. The Black Code Political Change in the Islamic World Ottoman Decline: An Insider's View 51. Mehmed Pasha, The Book of Counsel for Viziers and Governors Fatal Flaws of the Mughal Empire 52. François Bernier, Letter to Jean-Baptiste Colbert on the Mughal Empire The Continuing Vitality of Islam A Call to Recapture Islam's Purity 53. 'Abdullah Wahhab, The History and Doctrines of the Wahhabis Jihad in the Western Sudan 54. Usman dan Fodio, Selections from His Writings 7. Change and Continuity in East Asia and Oceania China's Revival under the Qing Emperor Kangxi Views His World 55. Kangxi, Self-Portrait China Rejects Increased Western Trade 56. Emperor Qianlong, Letter to King George III Social and Economic Change in Tokugawa Japan A Japanese Merchant Views His World 57. Mitsui Takafusa, Some Observations on Merchants The Social Ills of Tokugawa Japan 58. Honda Toshiaki, A Secret Plan of Government The Opening of Oceania Early Reports from New Zealand 59. Committee of Church of England Missionary Society, Memorandum to the Earl of Bathurst, Secretary of State of the Colonies The Plight of the Tasmanians 60. George A. Robinson, Report to the Lieutenant Governor-General of Tasmania III. The World in the Age of Western Dominance: 1800-1914 8. The West in the Age of Industrialization and Imperialism Middle Class and Working Class in Early Industrial Europe English Workers in the Early Industrial Revolution 61. Testimony Before Parliamentary Committees on Working Conditions in England Middle-Class Success and How to Achieve It 62. Samuel Smiles, Self-Help and Thrift The Marxist Critique of Industrial Capitalism 63. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, The Communist Manifesto Middle-Class Women in Emerging Industrial Society Women's "Separate Sphere" 64. Sarah Stickney Ellis, The Wives of England American Women Demand Equality 65. Ohio Women's Convention of 1850, Resolutions Nationalism and Imperialism in the Late Nineteenth Century Racism, Militarism, and the New Nationalism 66. Heinrich Von Treitschke, Extracts from History of Germany in the Nineteenth Century and Historical and Political Writings A Defense of French Imperialism 67. Jules Ferry, Speech Before the French National Assembly Images of Imperialism in Great Britain 68. Advertisements and Illustrations from British Books and Periodicals Europeans on the Move: Nineteenth-Century Migrations The Lures and Pitfalls of Migration 69. Gottfried Menzel, The United States of North America, with Special Reference to German Emigration "The Gates Should No Longer Be Left Unguarded" 70. Henry Cabot Lodge, Speech to United States Senate, March 16, 1896 9. Western Pressures, Nationalism, and Reform in Africa, Southwest Asia, and India in the 1800s The European Assault on Africa "With the View of Bettering...Our Country" 71. Royal Niger Company, Standard Treaty The Fate of the Ndebele 72. Ndansi Kumalo, His Story Imperialist Economics and Rebellion in German East Africa 73. Records of the Maji-Maji Rebellion Southwest Asia under Seige Ottoman Reforms of the Tanzimat Era 74. Sultan Abdul Mejid, Imperial Rescript Persian Opposition to the Tobacco Concession 75. Sayyid Jamal ad-Din, Letter to Hasan Shirazi A Turkish Nationalist Statement 76. Proclamation of the Young Turks The Beginnings of Arab Nationalism 77. Announcement to the Arabs, Sons of Qathan India Under British Domination A Plea for Western Schools 78. Rammohun Roy, Letter to Lord Amherst Indian Railroads and the People's Welfare 79. G.V. Joshi, The Economic Results of Free Trade and Railway Extension 10. East Asia Confronts the West The Disintegration of Imperial China The Curse of Opium 80. Lin Zexu, Letter to Queen Victoria The Plight of the Emperor's Subjects 81. Zeng Guofan, Memorandum to Emperor Xianfeng A Revolutionary Formula for China's Revival 82. Sun Yat-sen, The Three People's Principles and The Future of the Chinese People The Emergence of Modern Japan Eastern Ethics and Western Science 83. Sakuma Shozan, Reflections on My Errors Patriotic Duty and Business Success 84. Iwasaki Yataro, Letter to Mitsubishi Employees Images of the West in Late Tokugawa and Meiji Japan 85. Prints and Drawings, 1853-1887 Southeast Asia in the Era of Imperialism Reform from Above in Thailand 86. King Chulalongkorn, Edicts and Proclamations The Fall of Vietnam 87. Phan Thanh Gian, Letter to Emperor Tu Duc and Last Message to His Administrators IV. Global Society and Its Challenges in the Twentieth Century 11. The Industrialized World in Crisis The Trauma of World War I The Romance of War 88. Popular Art and Poster Art from Germany, England, Australia, and France The Reality of War in Verse 89. Wilfred Owen, "Dulce et Decorum Est" and "Disabled" The Reality of War in Art 90. C.R.W. Nevinson, The Harvest of Battle and Otto Dix, Shock Troops Advancing under Gas Attack The Russian Revolution and the Foundation of the Soviet State The Basic Tenets of Leninism 91. Lenin, What Is to Be Done? The Soviet Model of Economic Planning 92. "Joseph Stalin, The Results of First Five-Year Plan" Ultranationalism in Germany and Japan Hitler's Dreams 93. Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf The Destiny of Japan 94. The Way of Subjects The Legacy of World War II "Führer, You Order. We Obey" 95. Rudolf Höss, Memoirs Scientists' Warnings on Atomic Warfare 96. The Franck Report "The Face of War Is the Face of Death" 97. Henry L. Stimson, The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb 12. Anticolonialism, Nationalism, and Revolution in Africa, Asia, and Latin America Political and Religious Currents in the Middle East Secularism and Nationalism in Republican Turkey 98. Mustafa Kemal, Speech to the Congress of the People's Republican Party The Meaning of Zionism 99. Hayyim Nahman Bialike, Speech at the Inauguration of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, January 4, 1925 A Call for Islamic Social and Political Action 100. The Muslim Brotherhood, Toward the Light Anticolonialism in India and Southeast Asia Ghandi's Vision for India 101. Mohandas Ghandi, Indian Home Rule A Vietnamese Condemnation of French Rule 102. Nguyen Thai Hoc, Letter to the French Chamber of Deputies Colonialism and the Beginnings of African Nationalism Eagles into Chickens 103. James Aggrey, Parable of the Eagle The Value of African Tradition 104. Kabaka Daudi Chwa, Education, Civilization, and "Foreignization" in Buganda White Rule and African Families in South Africa 105. Charlotte Maxeke, Social Conditions among Bantu Women and Girls Latin America in an Era of Economic Challenge and Political Change Economic Nationalism in Mexico 106. Lázaro Cárdenas, Speech to the Nation Brazilian Mass Politics and the Estado Novo 107. Getulio Vargas, Excerpts from Speeches and Interviews, 1937-1940 China in an Era of Political Disintegration and Revolution Warlord Rule in China During the 1920s 108. The Corruption and Cruelty of Zhang Zongchan Who Destroyed the Country and Deceived the People The Maoist Variant of Marxism 109. Mao Zedong, Report on an Investigation of the Peasant Movement in Hunan and Strategic Problems of China's Revolutionary War 13. The Global Community Since 1945 The End of a European-Dominated World Cold War Origins: A U.S. Perspective 110. George Kennan, The Long Telegram Cold War Origins: A Soviet Perspective 111. Nikolai Novikov, Telegram, September 27, 1946 Great Britain Lets Go of India 112. Debate in the House of Commons, March 1947 New Nations and Their Challenges The Challenge of Ethnic Tensions 113. C. Odumegwu Ojukwu, Speeches and Writings The Challenge of Religious Conflict 114. Girilal Jain, Editorials The Challenge of Underdevelopment 115. World Bank, World Development Reports: 1978-2000 Women in the Modern World Women and Islamic Fundamentalism 116. Zand Dokht, "The Revolution That Failed Women" An African Perspective on Female Circumcision 117. Association of African Women for Research and Development, A Statement on Genital Mutilation A Chinese Woman's Life Story 118. Ming, Recollections Struggles for Racial Equality Apartheid's Bitter Fruits 119. Nelson Mandela, The Rivonia Trial Speech to the Court A Cry for Justice in the United States 120. Martin Luther King, Jr., Letter from a Birmingham Jail Another New Era: The Failure of Communism and the End of the Cold War China's New Course 121. Deng Xiaoping, Speeches and Writings A Plan to Save Communism in the Soviet Union 122. Mikhail Gorbachev, Perestroika The Earth's Future: Two Perspectives "There's Plenty of Good News" 123. Julian Simon, Opening Statement from 1992 Debate at Columbia University "Environmental Degradation Is Overtaking the Planet" 124. Norman Myers, Opening Statement from 1992 Debate at Columbia University

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