The Images of the Medieval Peasant

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Overview

The medieval clergy, aristocracy, and commercial classes tended to regard peasants as objects of contempt and derision. In religious writings, satires, sermons, chronicles, and artistic representations peasants often appeared as dirty, foolish, dishonest, even as subhuman or bestial. Their lowliness was commonly regarded as a natural corollary of the drudgery of their agricultural toil.

Yet, at the same time, the peasantry was not viewed as “other” in the manner of other condemned groups, such as Jews, lepers, Muslims, or the imagined “monstrous races” of the East. Several crucial characteristics of the peasantry rendered it less clearly alien from the elite perspective: peasants were not a minority, their work in the fields nourished all other social orders, and, most important, they were Christians. In other respects, peasants could be regarded as meritorious by virtue of their simple life, productive work, and unjust suffering at the hands of their exploitive social superiors. Their unrewarded sacrifice and piety were also sometimes thought to place them closest to God and more likely to win salvation.

This book examines these conflicting images of peasants from the post-Carolingian period to the German Peasants’ War. It relates the representation of peasants to debates about how society should be organized (specifically, to how human equality at Creation led to subordination), how slavery and serfdom could be assailed or defended, and how peasants themselves structured and justified their demands.

Though it was argued that peasants were legitimately subjugated by reason of nature or some primordial curse (such as that of Noah against his son Ham), there was also considerable unease about how the exploitation of those who were not completely alien—who were, after all, Christians—could be explained. Laments over peasant suffering as expressed in the literature might have a stylized quality, but this book shows how they were appropriated and shaped by peasants themselves, especially in the large-scale rebellions that characterized the late Middle Ages.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"Freedman's command of material drawn from all over Europe is impressive and anyone interested in the medieval or early modern German peasantry will profit greatly from reading this book."—Central European History
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780804733731
  • Publisher: Stanford University Press
  • Publication date: 1/28/1999
  • Series: Figurae: Reading Medieval Culture Series
  • Edition description: 1
  • Pages: 484
  • Sales rank: 1,293,816
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 1.30 (d)

Meet the Author

Paul Freedman is Professor of History at Yale University and the author, most recently, of Church, Law, and Society in Catalonia, 900-1500.

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Table of Contents

List of Illustrations
A Note on Translations
Abbreviations
Introduction: Marginality and Centrality of Peasants 1
Ch. 1 Peasant Labor and the Limits of Mutuality 15
Ch. 2 The Breakdown of Mutuality: Laments over the Mistreatment of Peasants 40
Ch. 3 Equality and Freedom at Creation 59
Ch. 4 The Curse of Noah 86
Ch. 5 National Myths and the Origins of Serfdom 105
Ch. 6 Representations of Contempt and Subjugation 133
Ch. 7 Peasant Bodies, Male and Female 157
Ch. 8 Peasant Warriors and Peasant Liberties 177
Ch. 9 Pious and Exemplary Peasants 204
Ch. 10 The Problem of Servitude: Arbitrary Mistreatment, Symbolic Degradation 239
Ch. 11 Peasant Rebellions of the Late Middle Ages 257
Conclusion: Harmony and Dissonance 289
Notes 307
Bibliography 403
Index 451
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