The Insects: An Outline of Entomology / Edition 4

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Overview

This established, popular textbook provides a stimulating and comprehensive introduction to the insects, the animals that represent over half of the planet's biological diversity. In this new fourth edition, the authors introduce the key features of insect structure, function, behavior, ecology, and classification, placed within the latest ideas on insect evolution. Much of the book is organized around major biological themes: living on the ground, in water, on plants, in colonies, and as predators, parasites/parasitoids, and prey. A strong evolutionary theme is maintained throughout. The ever growing economic importance of insect is emphasized in new boxes on insect pests, and in chapters on medical and veterinary entomology, and pest management. Updated 'Taxoboxes' provide concise information on all aspects of each of the 28 major grouping (orders) of insects, plus the three orders of non-insect hexapods.

The authors maintain the tradition of clarity and conciseness set by earlier editions, and the text is illustrated profusely with specially commissioned hand-drawn figures. The illustrations and the informative text aim to encourage the scientific study of insects, either as a vocation or as a hobby. This book is intended as the principal text for students studying entomology, as well as a reference text for undergraduate and graduate courses in fields of ecology, agriculture, fisheries and forestry, paleontology, zoology, and medical and veterinary science.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"Importantly, the text, illustrations and features such as text Boxes are written and presented in such a stimulating way as to represent an appealing outline of entomology to undergraduates, amateurs, or specialists in related fields including conservation, and the book comes with a high recommendation ." (J Insect Conserv, 2010)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781444330366
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 2/22/2010
  • Edition number: 4
  • Pages: 584
  • Sales rank: 154,601
  • Product dimensions: 7.60 (w) x 9.80 (h) x 1.30 (d)

Meet the Author

Penny Gullan and Peter Cranston are adjunct professors in Evolution, Ecology and Genetics, in the Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia, where they conduct research on the biodiversity and systematics of Coccoidea and Chironomidae, respectively. Both maintain emeritus connections with the Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of California, Davis, USA.

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Table of Contents

List of boxes viii

Preface to the fourth edition ix

Preface to the third edition xi

Preface to the second edition xiii

Preface and acknowledgments for first edition xv

1 The Importance, Diversity and Conservation of Insects 1

1.1 What is entomology? 2

1.2 The importance of insects 2

1.3 Insect biodiversity 4

1.4 Naming and classification of insects 8

1.5 Insects in popular culture and commerce 9

1.6 Insects as food 11

1.7 Culturing insects 14

1.8 Insect conservation 15

Further reading 22

2 External Anatomy 23

2.1 The cuticle 24

2.2 Segmentation and tagmosis 30

2.3 The head 32

2.4 The thorax 41

2.5 The abdomen 49

Further reading 52

3 Internal Anatomy and Physiology 53

3.1 Muscles and locomotion 54

3.2 The nervous system and co-ordination 60

3.3 The endocrine system and the function of hormones 63

3.4 The circulatory system 66

3.5 The tracheal system and gas exchange 69

3.6 The gut, digestion, and nutrition 74

3.7 The excretory system and waste disposal 82

3.8 Reproductive organs 84

Further reading 89

4 Sensory Systems and Behavior 91

4.1 Mechanical stimuli 92

4.2 Thermal stimuli 101

4.3 Chemical stimuli 103

4.4 Insect vision 113

4.5 Insect behavior 118

Further reading 120

5 Reproduction 121

5.1 Bringing the sexes together 122

5.2 Courtship 124

5.3 Sexual selection 124

5.4 Copulation 126

5.5 Diversity in genitalic morphology 132

5.6 Sperm storage fertilization and sex determination 135

5.7 Sperm competition 138

5.8 Oviparity (egg-laying) 140

5.9 Ovoviviparity and viviparity 145

5.10 Atypical modes of reproduction 145

5.11 Physiological control of reproduction 148

Further reading 149

6 Insect Development and Life Histories 151

6.1 Growth 152

6.2 Life-history patterns and phases 156

6.3 Process and control of molting 164

6.4 Voltinism 167

6.5 Diapause 168

6.6 Dealing with environmental extremes 170

6.7 Migration 173

6.8 Polymorphism and polyphenism 175

6.9 Age-grading 176

6.10 Environmental effects on development 178

6.11 Climate and insect distributions 183

Further reading 187

7 Insect Systematics: Phylogeny and Classification 189

7.1 Systematics l90

7.2 The extant Hexapoda 198

7.3 Class Entognatha: Protura (proturans), Collembola (springtails), and Diplura (diplurans) 201

7.4 Class Insecta (true insects) 201

Further reading 221

8 Insect Biogeography and Evolution 223

8.1 Insect biogeography 224

8.2 The antiquity of insects 225

8.3 Were the first insects aquatic or terrestrial? 230

8.4 Evolution of wings 231

8.5 Evolution of metamorphosis 234

8.6 Insect diversification 236

8.7 Insect evolution in the Pacific 237

Further reading 239

9 Ground-Dwelling Insects 241

9.1 Insects of litter and soil 242

9.2 Insects and dead trees or decaying wood 248

9.3 Insects and dung 249

9.4 Insect-carrion interactions 251

9.5 Insect-fungal interactions 251

9.6 Cavernicolous insects 254

9.7 Environmental monitoring using ground-dwelling hexapods 255

Further reading 256

10 Aquatic Insects 257

10.1 Taxonomic distribution and terminology 258

10.2 The evolution of aquatic lifestyles 258

10.3 Aquatic insects and their oxygen supplies 263

10.4 The aquatic environment 268

10.5 Environmental monitoring using aquatic insects 271

10.6 Functional feeding groups 272

10.7 Insects of temporary waterbodies 273

10.8 Insects of the marine intertidal and littoral zones 274

Further reading 275

11 Insects and Plants 277

11.1 Coevolutionary interactions between insects and plants 279

11.2 Phytophagy (or herbivory) 279

11.3 Insects and plant reproductive biology 298

11.4 Insects that live mutualistically in specialized plant structures 303

Further reading 306

12 Insect Societies 307

12.1 Subsociality in insects 308

12.2 Eusociality in insects 312

12.3 Inquilines and parasites of social insects 330

12.4 Evolution and maintenance of eusociality 332

12.5 Success of eusocial insects 336

Further reading 336

13 Insect Predation and Parasitism 339

13.1 Prey/host location 340

13.2 Prey/host acceptance and manipulation 346

13.3 Prey/host selection and specificity 349

13.4 Population biology: predator/parasitoid and prey/host abundance 359

13.5 The evolutionary success of insect predation and parasitism 361

Further reading 362

14 Insect Defense 365

14.1 Defense by hiding 366

14.2 Secondary lines of defense 370

14.3 Mechanical defenses 371

14.4 Chemical defenses 372

14.5 Defense by mimicry 377

14.6 Collective defenses in gregarious and social insects 380

Further reading 384

15 Medical and Veterinary Entomology 385

15.1 Insect nuisance and phobia 386

15.2 Venoms and allergens 386

15.3 Insects as causes and vectors of disease 388

15.4 Generalized disease cycles 389

15.5 Pathogens 390

15.6 Forensic entomology 404

Further reading 405

16 Pest Management 407

16.1 Insects as pests 408

16.2 The effects of insecticides 413

16.3 Integrated pest management 417

16.4 Chemical control 418

16.5 Biological control 422

16.6 Host-plant resistance to insects 433

16.7 Physical control 437

16.8 Cultural control 437

16.9 Pheromones and other insect attractants 438

16.10 Genetic manipulation of insect pests 439

Further reading 440

17 Methods in Entomology: Collecting Preservation Curation and Identification 443

17.1 Collection 444

17.2 Preservation and curation 447

17.3 Identification 456

Further reading 459

Taxoboxes 461

1 Entognatha: non-insect hexapods (Collembola, Diplura and Protura) 461

2 Archaeognatha (or Microcoryphia; bristletails) 463

3 Zygentoma (silverfish) 464

4 Ephemeroptera (mayflies) 465

5 Odonata (damselflies and dragonflies) 466

6 Plecoptera (stoneflies) 468

7 Dermaptera (earwigs) 469

8 Embioptera (Embiidina; embiopterans or webspinners) 470

9 Zoraptera (zorapterans) 471

10 Orthoptera (grasshoppers, locusts, katydids and crickets) 471

11 Phasmatodea (phasmids, stick-insects or walking sticks) 472

12 Grylloblattodea (Grylloblattaria or Notoptera; grylloblattids, or ice or rock crawlers) 474

13 Mantophasmatodea (heelwalkers) 474

14 Mantodea (mantids, mantises, or praying mantids) 476

15 Blattodea: roach families (cockroaches or roaches) 476

16 Blattodea: epifamily Termitoidae (former order Isoptera; termites) 478

17 Psocodea: "Psocoptera" (bark lice and book lice) 479

18 Psocodea: "Phthiraptera" (chewing lice and sucking lice) 480

19 Thysanoptera (thrips) 481

20 Hemiptera (bugs, cicadas, leafhoppers, planthoppers, spittle bugs, treehoppers, aphids, jumping plant lice, scale insects, and whiteflies) 482

21 Neuropterida: Neuroptera (lacewings, owlflies, and antlions), Megaloptera (alderflies, dobsonflies, and fishflies) and Raphidioptera (snakeflies) 484

22 Coleoptera (beetles) 487

23 Strepsiptera (strepsipterans) 488

24 Diptera (flies) 490

25 Mecoptera (hangingflies, scorpionflies, and snowfleas) 491

26 Siphonaptera (fleas) 492

27 Trichoptera (caddisflies) 494

28 Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) 495

29 Hymenoptera (ants, bees, wasps, sawflies, and wood wasps) 497

Glossary 499

References 527

Index 535

Appendix: A reference guide to orders 559

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