The Intercultural City: Planning for Diversity Advantage

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Overview

In a world of increasing mobility, how people of different cultures live together is a key issue of our age, especially for those responsible for planning and running cities. New thinking is needed on how diverse communities can cooperate in productive harmony instead of leading parallel or antagonistic lives. Policy is often dominated by mitigating the perceived negative effects of diversity, and little thought is given to how a 'diversity dividend' or increased innovative capacity might be achieved.

The Intercultural City, based on numerous case studies worldwide, analyses the links between urban change and cultural diversity. It draws on original research in the US, Europe, Australasia and the UK. It critiques past and current policy and introduces new conceptual frameworks. It provides significant and practical advice for readers, with new insights and tools for practitioners such as the 'intercultural lens', 'indicators of openness', 'urban cultural literacy' and 'ten steps to an Intercultural City'.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
'This book reminds us - with both proof and passion - that there can be no truly creative or competitive cities without first having curiosity, compassion, conviviality and cooperation.'
Richard Florida, author of The Rise of the Creative Class

'A much-needed addition to the literature.'
Kathy Pain, director of Globalization and World Cities Spatial Planning Unit, Loughborough University

'Wood and Landry have emerged as the leading exponents in the UK of the path from multiculturalism to interculturalism... Their refreshingly grounded approach builds on actual examples and provides inspiring stories of the social and economic benefits of embracing diversity. A must-read for those involved in city building, community development and place making.'
Leonie Sandercock, professor in urban planning and social policy, University of British Columbia

'This is a highly topical area and with increasing concern about ghettos in our cities this would provide useful material.'
Clive Harridge, President of RTPI

'This book is a fantastic achievement ... a valuable, and highly useful study.'
Macroscopio

'This book is a fantastic achievement by the authors. It offers a concise overview of extant literature and policies, as well as hands-on recommendations for local administration. A must-read study.'
Orhan Kaya, alderman for participation and culture, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

'This book is a welcome celebration of urban cultural diversity that lays out new concepts and policies to enhance recognition across the social and cultural divide, but without ducking the very real challenges.'
Professor Ash Amin, Department of Geography, Durham University

'This book is an important addition to the existing literature and a valuable resource for all the professionals in the built environment.'
Institution of Civil Engineers

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781844074372
  • Publisher: Taylor & Francis
  • Publication date: 11/28/2007
  • Edition description: 1
  • Pages: 384
  • Product dimensions: 5.60 (w) x 8.30 (h) x 1.50 (d)

Meet the Author

Phil Wood has been a partner in the urban policy think-tank Comedia since 2000. He worked for 20 years in local government, community and cultural development and has advised the UK Governments Commission on Integration and Cohesion. Charles Landry founded Comedia in 1978, which seeks to rethink the major global issues for cities. An international authority on urban futures and city revitalization, he is the author of The Creative City and The Art of City-Making.

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Table of Contents


List of Boxes     x
List of Figures     xii
Acronyms and Abbreviations     xiii
Introduction: Setting the Scene     1
Who are we?     1
Why interact?     4
Acknowledging conflict     5
Rules of engagement     7
From diversity deficit to diversity advantage     10
And thanks...     13
The Urge to Define, Sort and Categorize     15
A world of distinctions     15
Sorting and categorizing     16
Values and hierarchies     19
Simplicity and complexity     21
Breaking the unified canon     22
Diversity: The central dilemma of the age     23
The Context of Diversity     25
People on the move     25
The irrepressible urge for cross-pollination     29
Exploring the landscape of diversity     34
The cosmopolitan city     35
Diversity in organizations     39
Innovation, networks and knowledge diffusion     45
Culture shock: Absorbing difference and diversity     48
Cultural diversity and public policy     53
International approaches     54
The UKapproach     59
Managing the city of difference     62
Living Apart: Segregation     66
A history of segregation     67
The classic ghetto     69
Ghettos, enclaves and citadels     70
The assimilationist city     71
The underclass     75
International variations     76
Good and bad segregation?     77
Emerging forms of segregation     80
A place in the sun?     80
Segregation in cyberspace?     85
The ecology of micro-segregation     88
Living Together Then: A Short History of Urban Encounter     93
Intercultural cities in history     93
Persepolis     94
Rome     96
T'ang Dynasty China     97
Umayyid Cordoba     98
Constantinople     100
The Dutch Golden Age     102
Living Together Now: Modern Zones of Encounter     105
Why interact?     105
The case for social mixing     105
Contact hypothesis     107
The interaction cycle     110
Zones of encounter     114
Housing and neighbourhoods      114
Education     127
The classroom environment     131
School twinning     133
Carrot or stick?     137
The workplace     139
The market place     147
A history of intercultural trade     147
The nature of modern retailing     149
Shopping as social linking     150
Ethnicity and shopping behaviour     152
The intercultural service encounter     153
The market as meeting place     156
The language of food     158
Friends and relations     163
Intimate interactions     164
Preconditions of contact     168
Meeting places     169
The public domain     170
Publicspace     170
On the beach     174
Out of town     175
In the park     178
Third spaces     183
Public institutions     184
Museums     184
Libraries     187
Sport     192
Arts     195
Cyberspace     201
Computer mediated communication     202
Social software     206
Of urban UbiComp and MMOGs     207
Summary     213
Diversity Advantage: The Benefits of Cross-cultural Interaction     219
Hybridity as a driver of innovation     219
Hybrid innovators stateside     221
Hybrid innovators in the UK     229
Preconditions of diversity advantage     235
The City Through an Intercultural Lens     244
Cultural literacy     245
Seeing the world through an intercultural lens     250
A capacity to listen and consult     251
City-making through an intercultural lens     255
Masterplanning interculturally     258
A new skill set     259
Making intercultural spaces     260
Education through an intercultural lens     261
A New Intercultural Citizenship     268
A system in crisis     269
Open society under threat     271
Forging a local intercultural citizenship     273
Harmony through conflict     278
Bridgers and mixers: Intercultural city leadership     285
Indicators of Openness and Interculturalism     293
Apples with pears? Comparing the approaches of international cities to diversity     294
The need for new indicators      298
Indicators of openness     299
The openness of the institutional framework     299
The openness of the business environment     300
The openness of civil society     301
The openness of public space     303
Indicators of interculturalism     304
New questions and answers     304
Conclusions: The Ecology of the New Civics     317
A journey to the intercultural city     317
Five principles of an intercultural city     321
Ten steps to an intercultural city policy     324
Bibliography     328
Appendix     352
Index     357
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  • Posted January 22, 2009

    A reviewer

    The authors acknowledge that their 'view [for the open, multicultural city] is prescriptive, culturally bound, and Western'. Their view is that the 'secular humanism position' which has led to general peace and prosperity throughout Western society has become 'drained of confidence, feels exhausted, and consequently is mistakenly accused of being 'wishy-washy' or as having an 'anything goes' ethos with no apparent point of view'. They do not take pains to defend this secular humanism which has been used to characterize and often malign Western culture or persuade readers that it is inherently desirable in any philosophical or sociological sense. Wood and Landry, both connected with the urban policy think-tank Commedia, however, see secular humanism's main tenets as necessary for peaceful and fruitful cities in this era of globalization. Such cities are inevitably multicultural. The authors present perspectives, ideas, policies, and means to ensure that multicultural cities are open and are equitable regarding ethnic differences and desires. The authors' take a comprehensive approach ranging from a master plan to behavior between individuals of different ethnicities. For most of its inhabitants, harmony in a multicultural, economically successful, satisfying city requires a way of life which maintains the essentials of one's ethnic or historical identity while at the same time enables and in some cases permits one to hold a job and thus earn a living and also take part in a city's political activities. This of course is an ideal of democratic, American, life often held out. But it has become clouded and problematic of late as well as widely disparaged with the resurgence of fundamentalist religions and growth of terrorism. Besides going into the many and various aspects of a model multicultural city, Wood and Landry identify signposts readers can use to estimate how their own city measures up. And they outline steps for moving toward the ideal modern-day city. Their concept is summed up in their term 'new civics', with 'civics' a concept or principle which cannot be dismissed or marginalized by any body of persons of varied backgrounds who desire to and intend to live in harmony for the good of all.

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