The Invisible Woman: Gender, Crime, and Justice / Edition 2

The Invisible Woman: Gender, Crime, and Justice / Edition 2

by Joanne Belknap
     
 

ISBN-10: 0534542093

ISBN-13: 9780534542092

Pub. Date: 11/28/2000

Publisher: Cengage Learning

This text covers women and the criminal justice system with a focus on three major areas: (1) female offenders and their treatment by the criminal justice system; (2) female victims of crime; and (3) female employees of the agencies of the criminal justice system. This is the only text to emphasize all three aspects.

Overview

This text covers women and the criminal justice system with a focus on three major areas: (1) female offenders and their treatment by the criminal justice system; (2) female victims of crime; and (3) female employees of the agencies of the criminal justice system. This is the only text to emphasize all three aspects.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780534542092
Publisher:
Cengage Learning
Publication date:
11/28/2000
Series:
Criminal Justice Series
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
464
Product dimensions:
6.20(w) x 9.10(h) x 1.00(d)

Table of Contents

PrefaceXII
IIntroduction
1The Emergence of Gender in Criminology3
Invisibility of Women and Girls in Crime4
Sex Versus Gender11
What Is Feminism?15
What is Feminist Method?19
Effect of Societal Images on Women in Crime21
Diversity Among Women24
Summary26
IIFemale Offending
2Critiquing Criminological Theories33
The Traditional, Positivist Studies35
Strain and Subcultural Theories40
Differential Association Theory43
Labeling Theory45
Social Control Theory47
Marxist/Radical Theories52
Women's Liberation/Emancipation Hypothesis54
Biosocial and Evolutionary Psychological Theories56
Feminist and Pro-Feminist Theories58
Summary71
3The Frequency and Nature of Female Offending80
Description of Offending81
The Importance of How Crime Rates Are Measured and the Roles of Gender, Age, Race, and Class87
Female Offending in Context89
Summary117
4Processing Women and Girls in the System125
Criminal Laws and Sex Discrimination126
Sentencing Laws and Sex Discrimination129
Three Hypotheses of Sex Discrimination in Crime Processing131
Chivalry and Paternalism132
Empirical Findings on Gender Differences in Crime Processing133
Summary149
5Incarcerating, Punishing, and "Treating" Offending Women and Girls155
History of Institutionalizing Females156
Women's Prisons Today163
Rates of Imprisonment166
Who Is in Women's Prisons and Delinquent Girls' Institutions?168
Girls' "Correctional" Institutions171
Psychological Aspects of Women's Imprisonment173
Parenthood: A Gender Difference among Prisoners176
Educational, Vocational, and Recreational Programs179
Health Care Services182
The Prison Subculture186
Co-Corrections191
Women and the Death Penalty194
Summary195
IIIFemale Victims of Male Violence
6The Image of the Female Victim205
The Link between Actual Victimizations and the Fear of Crime207
Effect of Culture on Gender Roles210
Gender Disparities in Power212
Threat of Violence213
Victim Blaming215
Victimization of Women and Girls of Color218
The Victimization of Women and Girls with Disabilities220
Summary221
7Sexual Victimization227
Defining Sexual Victimization227
Historical Issues in Defining Sexual Victimization228
Statistics on Sexual Victimization230
Who Are the Victims?232
Who Are the Offenders?233
The Victim-Offender Relationship235
Child Sexual Victimization235
Date Rape240
Marital Rape246
Sexual Harassment249
Sexual Victimization and the Crime-Processing System253
Summary258
8Woman Battering and Stalking267
Defining Battering and Stalking267
History of Identifying Battering as a Social Problem270
The Frequency of Battering and Stalking272
Walker's Cycle Theory of Violence276
Why Do (Some) Men Batter?277
Who Are the Batterers and Stalkers?278
Inhibitors to Leaving a Violent Relationship281
The Constant Threat of Danger289
Woman Battering and the Crime-Processing System291
Health Professionals303
Summary305
IVWomen Workers
9Working Women: Breaking the Barriers319
Movement from the Private to the Public Sphere320
Movement Toward Gender Equality327
Legal Implications333
The History of Women's Entry into Decision-Making Positions in the Criminal-Processing System339
Summary350
10Working Women: on the Job356
Legal Pressure for Women's Employment in Crime Processing357
The Current Rate of Women's Employment in the Criminal-Processing System358
Women as Tokens in the Workplace362
Women as Tokens in Crime-Processing Jobs since the 1970s366
Institutionalized Sexism368
Institutionalized Heterosexism369
Gender Similarities and Differences in Job Performances369
Organizational, Social, and Individual Resistance and Support Regarding Women's Work in Crime-Fighting Jobs371
Prisoner Privacy and Prison Safety: A Roadblock for Women Guards in Male Prisons384
Classifications of Women Employees in Male-Dominated Jobs387
Summary391
VConclusions
11Effecting Change401
New Theories401
Changing the Treatment of Female Offenders402
Changing Responses to Male Violence Against Women409
Changes for Women Crime-Processing Professionals416
Summary419
Name Index427
Subject Index440

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