The Jet Paradigm: From Microquasars to Quasars / Edition 1

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These Lecture Notes focus on the physics of relativistic jet sources in the universe, from galactic microquasars to active galactic nuclei (AGN). The early 21st century is an epoch in which a large number of high-energy astronomical missions are underway (RossiXTE, Chandra, XMM-Newton, INTEGRAL, Swift, Suzaku). The wealth of X-ray and gamma-ray data, coupled with ground-based observations in the optical/IR/radio bands, provides an increasing amount of information on microquasars, allowing the investigation of the physical process for the information and the evolution of relativistic jets, as well as their relation to the accretion process. The information obtained from galactic relativistic jet systems is particularly important in that it can be compared with that from active galactic nuclei. The comparative study of these two classes of objects allows us to overcome their separate intrinsic limitations and is the only way to arrive at a comprehensive understanding of the accretion/ejection phenomenon.

This book covers the topic of accretion/ejection in relativistic jet sources with a broad approach, from microquasars to AGN, discussing both observational and theoretical aspects. The aim is to present a broad view of the field and the current standpoint now that the first comparative studies have opened the way to a global study at a mass scale. Written in a pedagogical lecture notes style, the book benefits students and newcomers to jet astrophysics as well as lecturers and researchers.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783540769361
  • Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
  • Publication date: 12/1/2009
  • Series: Lecture Notes in Physics Series, #794
  • Edition description: 2010
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 285
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Table of Contents

1 Microquasars: Summary and Outlook I.F. Mirabel 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Discovery of Microquasars 2

1.3 Discovery of Superluminal Motions 5

1.4 Disk-Jet Coupling in Microquasars 6

1.5 Can We Prove the Existence of Black Holes? 8

1.6 The Rotation of Black Holes 9

1.7 Extragalactic Microquasars, Microblazars, and Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources 9

1.8 Very Energetic γ-Ray Emission from Compact Binaries 10

1.9 Microquasars and Gamma-Ray Bursts 11

1.10 Conclusions 13

References 14

2 X-Ray Emission from Black-Hole Binaries M. Gilfanov 17

2.1 Introduction 17

2.2 Geometry and Spectral Components 18

2.3 Spectral States and Geometry 24

2.4 Reflected Emission 25

2.5 Polarization of X-Ray Emission 26

2.6 Variability 27

2.7 Variability of the Reflected Emission 36

2.8 R-Γ and Other Correlations 39

2.9 Comparison with Neutron Star Binaries 46

References 50

3 Slates and Transitions in Black-Hole Binaries T. M. Belloni 53

3.1 Introduction 53

3.2 The Fundamental Diagrams 55

3.3 Aperiodic Variability 57

3.4 The Time Evolution 62

3.5 Definitions of Source States 64

3.6 High-Frequency QPOs 69

3.7 Other Sources 70

3.8 Neutron-Star Binaries 74

3.9 Active Galactic Nuclei 75

3.10 Models and Interpretation 77

3.11 Conclusions: How Many States? 81

References 82

4 Radio Emission and Jets from Microquasarss E. Gallo 85

4.1 Radio Observations of Black Holes 86

4.2 Coupling Accretion and Ejection in Black Holes 87

4.3 Empirical Luminosity Correlations 90

4.4 Jet-ISM Interaction 91

4.5 Quiescence (to Eject or Not to Eject?) 94

4.6 Neutron Stars 97

4.7 Jet Power: The Mid-IR Leverage 99

4.8 Jets, Advection, and Event Horizon 102

4.9 White Dwarfs 104

4.10 Jet Production, Collimation, Matter Content 105

4.11 Future Prospects 108

References 111

5 'Disc-Jet' Coupling in Black Hole X-Ray Binaries and Active Galactic Nuclei R. Fender 115

5.1 Simple Physical Theory 117

5.2 Observations of Black Hole X-Ray Binaries 120

5.3 Connections to Active Galactic Nuclei 127

5.4 Using, Testing, and Exploring 135

References 140

6 From Multiwavelength to Mass Scaling: Accretion and Ejection in Microquasars and AGN S. Markoff 143

6.1 Introduction 143

6.2 Changing Paradigms 144

6.3 The Driving Observations and Some Interpretation 146

6.4 Modeling and Hysteresis 155

6.5 Conclusions 168

References 169

7 Jets in Active Galactic Nuclei A.P. Marscher 173

7.1 Introduction 173

7.2 Observed Properties of Jets 174

7.3 Physical Processes in AGN Jets 183

7.4 Physical Description of Features Observed in Jets 189

7.5 AGN Jets in Context 198

References 199

8 X-Ray Variability of AGN and Relationship to Galactic Black Hole Binary Systems I. McHardy 203

8.1 Introduction 204

8.2 AGN X-Ray Variability and AGN "States" 204

8.3 Scaling Characteristic Timescales with Mass and Accretion Rate 211

8.4 Relationship Between Nuclear Variability Properties and Larger Scale AGN Properties 216

8.5 Origin of TB 218

8.6 Origin of the Variations 218

8.7 Variability of Blazars 224

8.8 X-Ray/Optical Variability 226

8.9 Conclusions 228

References 230

9 Theory of Magnetically Powered Jets H.C. Spruit 233

9.1 The Standard Magnetic Acceleration Model 233

9.2 Length Scales 237

9.3 Magnetic Jets 238

9.4 Ordered Magnetic Fields 246

9.5 Flow Acceleration by Magnetic Dissipation 253

9.6 Jet Collimation 255

9.7 The Launching Region 259

References 262

10 General Relativistic MHD Jets J.H. Krolik J.F. Hawley 265

10.1 The Black Hole Connection 265

10.2 General Relativity Review 266

10.3 Candidate Energy Sources for Jets 271

10.4 The Blandford-Znajek Mechanism 273

10.5 What Simulations Can and Cannot Do 276

10.6 Results 280

10.7 Conclusions 286

References 286

Index 289

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