The Joy of Coffee: The Essential Guide to Buying, Brewing and Enjoying


In this revised and updated edition of the most authoritative guide to coffee, Corby Kummer travels the country and the world to give you all the latest information you need to make a great cup at home:
• The best beans and how to buy and store them
• The grinder that's essential for great coffee
• Incisive reports on brewing and espresso-making equipment and tips on how to ...
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In this revised and updated edition of the most authoritative guide to coffee, Corby Kummer travels the country and the world to give you all the latest information you need to make a great cup at home:
• The best beans and how to buy and store them
• The grinder that's essential for great coffee
• Incisive reports on brewing and espresso-making equipment and tips on how to get the best from them, with photographs of current models
• A complete, up-to-date list of sources for beans, equipment and Fair Trade organizations
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Editorial Reviews

Ray Olson
With coffee bars springing up on every urban corner, this engrossing guide couldn't arrive at a better moment. Kummer writes on food for the "Atlantic" very well, thanks, because he injects his own physical experience with his subjects into the exposition. Here, he takes us through the coffee bean's progress from tree to tummy, eyewitness-style. He tells us what it's like to pick coffee because he went and picked it, what it's like to cup coffee (the method by which roasted beans are qualitatively sorted) because he cupped with the pros, what it's like roasting coffee because he tried it at home as well as scrutinized it being done as a business, etc. He analyzes and advises on grinding and brewing methods; he appreciates espresso and its appurtenances; he describes the coffees of different growing countries; he discusses caffeine and its health effects; and then, he wraps the book up with coffee-complementary dessert recipes and a resource section. Kummer's Baedeker of the exquisitely bitter brew is, as the old slogan says, good to the last drop.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781881527534
  • Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
  • Publication date: 9/28/1995
  • Pages: 288
  • Product dimensions: 6.84 (w) x 10.05 (h) x 1.07 (d)

Meet the Author

One of the country's most respected food journalists, Corby Kummer is senior editor of The Atlantic Monthly. His 1990 series on coffee, on which this book is based, was nominated for a National Magazine Award. Kummer writes regularly for Martha Stewart Living, Self, the New York Times Magazine, Travel-Holiday and Food & Wine and is restaurant critic for New York Magazine. He lives in Boston, Massachusetts.
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Read an Excerpt

Preface to the 2003 Edition

In the twenty years since I began obsessively researching coffee, it has
become a lot easier to find a good cup in the United States. Where I live, in
Boston, I have American coffee history and the always changing world of
beans from distant lands within easy reach. I can drink the benchmark
blends of Peet's, the Berkeley-based chain that inspired the American
movement for coffee with real flavor and integrity, and buy the beans to brew
my own at home. I frequent cafés that use beans roasted in Seattle by
Batdorf & Bronson or Torrefazione Italia, two companies that rode the
quality-coffee wave and managed to keep afloat after it crested. I can stop in
for a cup of defining East Coast coffee at Dunkin' Donuts, the ubiquitous
chain that got its start near Boston and has been influenced by the national
move toward better beans. If I want to buy extremely fresh roasted beans, I
can watch the process through a neat plastic window at a gleaming new
branch of Whole Foods, the national chain of supermarkets dedicated to
raising the standards of how food is raised and sold. A few years ago, Whole
Foods bought a pioneering Colorado coffee roaster, Allegro, and incorporated
its mission to educate people and supply fine beans. Or I can go to the
gleaming new Copacafé, the brainchild of one of America's coffee greats,
George Howell, who is roasting just a few of the world's finest coffees,
hoping to bring world attention—and higher prices— to the people who grow

All these companies show America's increased focus on coffee
quality, which is probably unrivaled in any other country except Japan or
Italy. They also show the reality of how the coffee renaissance, which was
steaming through the country just when the first edition of this book
appeared, has shaken out. What I can no longer do is go from alternative
café to café, where impassioned hobbyists turned semi-professional fuss
over roasting machines that look like old locomotives and waft heavenly
smells through the store and the neighborhood.
This is because of Starbucks, the Goliath of the coffee world.
From the time I began chronicling coffee, I have watched Starbucks move
from a company with ambitions to increase its Seattle base a bit north and
south to a national chain that bought out and dissolved many competitors—
including, most notably, The Coffee Connection, a Boston-based beacon of
quality for the whole country which was founded by Howell. Now, of course,
Starbucks is an international company practically as famous as
McDonald's—and a similarly reviled and admired symbol of America.
Starbucks changed our view and expectations of coffee. Whatever
can be said about its expansion techniques and the commodification of the
quirky delights of café life, the company has made an immense number of
people care about decent coffee and allowed them to find and drink it.
Critics point out that Starbucks plowed over the independent local
competition in its drive for hegemony. I, too, miss the many small, dedicated
experimental roasters who proudly display prize burlap coffee sacks on the
wall and urge customers to try their latest find. Such impassioned people are
the transmitters of coffee wisdom—the people who can set others on lifelong
quests to find, as The Coffee Connection's slogan had it, "the ultimate cup."
Expert coffee men like George Howell, Jerry Baldwin and Ernesto
Illy gave me my education—and will give you yours, in the pages of this
book. While the independent, dreaming roasters will always have my heart,
it is Starbucks that holds the key to the future. The origin of the company
was an idealistic group of men, including Baldwin, who wanted people to
sample and enjoy the coffee they discovered and loved. The degree of
personalization changed utterly as the approach became sheerly corporate.
This everyone knows. There's plenty more to criticize, too, about Starbucks,
including the varying degree of freshness in beans roasted thousands of
miles away and the dark roasts that can smudge the delicate differences
coffee farmers sweat and sacrifice to achieve.
But it is also true that thanks to Starbucks, a wealth of coffee
information and, yes, coffee quality is available to millions more people than
a few years ago. Starbucks held the line at flavored coffees, which as the
coffee fad took hold threatened to paint the country in lurid crayon colors,
and bought a leading espresso-machine maker to provide the shiny,
steaming heart of its stores.
And then there's the crucial question of the welfare of coffee
farmers and the land they work—the question that has become foremost to
anyone who loves coffee and cares about the world, the question that has
taken on urgency since the first edition of this book appeared. Here, too,
Starbucks holds the key. With its worldwide reach and immense buying
power, Starbucks has the ability to affect the future of coffee with the
choices it makes and the policies it sets.
Especially in the last few years, the outlook for quality coffee
hasn't been good. Fewer and fewer farmers can make a living. The news in
recent years has been the startling rise of Vietnam from a very minor
producer to the world's second largest, after Brazil—heartening for a
Southeast Asian country with a tormented history but terrible for Central
and South America, home to relatively disorganized groups of smallholders
who have the potential to grow great coffee. So do farmers in many parts of
sub-Saharan Africa, which, since the book came out, has only become more
politically troubled, meaning that distribution is uncertain even when good
beans are grown and processed. Both Latin America and Africa have the
altitude and cool nights required for arabica, the species of coffee with real
flavor. All coffee in Vietnam is robusta, the low-growing kind that can
withstand the heat and humidity of Southeast Asia. Robusta is cheap filler
The bright spots in the business today are the increasing number
and ambition of groups that aim to help small farmers. The International
Coffee Organization, for decades the cartel that attempted to keep prices
reasonable by having its members stockpile coffee, has for the first time
since the 1980s announced the revival of a price agreement. This could be
good news for many member farmers, who for years have been forced to
sell their crops at a loss. The ICO is also trying to improve the quality of
coffee in its member countries—overdue efforts by a long-moribund group.
When I first wrote this book, people were coming alive to the idea
that coffee could have real taste and realizing that something they'd viewed
as simply a commodity that woke them up in the morning could have a
wonderful range of flavors, flavors anyone could capture at home. Now
coffee drinkers are awakening to the recognition that it is people who grow
the beans, that families work to raise coffee trees, and that their labor and
sometimes love should always be amply rewarded.
As in agriculture everywhere, though, middlemen pocket
payments that rightfully belong to the farmer. Several groups that existed
when I wrote the book have expanded their programs in the hopes of
righting this wrong. Equal Exchange, a for-profit and right-minded group,
pioneered the concept in the United States of buying and selling organic Fair
Trade coffee from farmers and cooperatives in Latin America, Asia and Africa.
The international Fair Trade program requires importers to guarantee farmers
a minimum price and extend credit to them, and it provides technical
assistance to help farmers make the transition to organic growing. Oxfam,
the international aid group, has taken an active interest in coffee growers,
devising a Coffee Rescue Plan to encourage big international companies to
buy more Fair Trade coffee. Paying the modestly higher price for Fair Trade
beans will make an enormous difference to the future of farmers around the
world as well as the future of the environment— a concept Oxfam hopes
roasters large and small will understand. Part of the plan requires large
growers to destroy stocks of coffee that do not meet the International Coffee
Organization's minimum quality standards, thus giving small farmers a
better chance to sell all their coffee at a decent price. Coffee Kids takes a
different approach, enlisting coffee merchants and individual consumers to
contribute money that it redirects to community development and education
and health programs. This directly improves the lives and futures of farmers
and their families—even if those futures mean livelihoods not involved with the
difficult practice of farming coffee.
George Howell, ever the visionary, thinks that the only solution for
farmers and drinkers who care about quality is to establish an identity for
individual farmers. After he sold The Coffee Connection, he worked for
several years in Brazil and Central America to establish the Cup of
Excellence, a rigorous tasting competition that brings small farmers to the
attention of buyers around the world—and, through an Internet auction of their
tiny but fantastic annual crop, brings the winners rich rewards and, crucially,
name recognition.
Since the first edition of this book, the interest in organic and
sustainable agriculture coffee has increased. Shade-grown coffee is less
economically efficient than coffee grown with no taller trees to shelter it. But
it tastes much better, because the longer growing cycle means the
possibility of greater flavor. Shade-grown coffee is also immeasurably better
for the survival of other kinds of crops and birds and wildlife than beans
grown on land stripped of shade trees—for years the standard way to grow
People who care about flavor and quality ask whether any of these
groups—however laudable and essential they are to the future of small
farmers and the environment—actually help the cause of better-tasting
coffee. The answer is that some do and many do not. Their priorities are the
welfare of the growers far more than the preference of the consumer. Unless
farmers pay closer attention to planting practices and especially to better
processing and storage, countries that produce huge amounts of mediocre
beans will continue to force small farmers with the potential of producing
great (or at least good) coffee out of business.
No matter how lovingly raised, of course, nothing can rescue
badly made coffee. Here's where The Joy of Coffee can change your life. I
had fun puzzling out the rules of brewing in various machines and have been
extremely gratified to see, on various websites, my experimental
formulations carry the weight of stone-etched commandments. Since the
book came out, there has been no great leap forward in brewing machines or
methods. The small changes here and there are noted in the completely
updated Sources.
Coffee is a blessing and a gift. A well-made cup gets close to
heaven. The making part is easy, and there are dozens of tips in this book
that even followed one at a time can radically improve the quality of the
coffee you make at home. As for the beans, I'll just say as a last word that I
hope you seek out a roaster who cares about where every bean came from
and who does something, however small, to help the people who raise them.
Big ideas start small, and helping small farmers grow better beans is a big
idea in which every coffee drinker can take part.
January 2003


My coffee education began at full speed when I tried to keep up with the
instructions and opinions coming at me from a group of coffee experts—
fanatics, really. Wanting to write about coffee in the mid-1980s, I had come
to San Francisco to hang out at espresso bars, which at the time were hard
to find. On the very first day of my trip, someone told me I was in luck: just
then was the annual meeting of the Specialty Coffee Association of
America, a small and fairly new group, and if I wangled an invitation to its
opening cocktail reception, I could get a jump-start on my research. I thought
my time would be better spent ordering espresso, but I went anyway. I knew I
loved coffee. I just didn't know why.
Faster than my pen could write, people told me in urgent bursts
about the superiority of arabica beans over robustas, the criminally
destructive hot plates on home and restaurant brewers, the importance to
the true connoisseur of single-estate coffees. Seemingly everyone in the
room gathered around me, talking over each other as if this were the one
chance they'd get to convey everything they had learned. Even though I don't
drink coffee at night, a cup suddenly seemed like a good idea.
Finally, the owner of a local specialty-coffee shop, who had
silenced everyone else to deliver a long monologue about when to cut off
the airflow in a drum roaster, stopped herself. "You have to understand," she
said by way of apology. "We all love the bean."
Over the next eight years, while standing behind espresso-bar
counters, beside huge industrial roasters and in rooms where professionals
taste hundreds of cups a day to evaluate beans, I learned to understand
and even speak the language sprayed at me that first night. I had a
wonderful, long trip researching coffee up and down Italy, across America and
even in South America and Germany, meeting people everywhere who had
spent their lives passionately devoted to the bean.
Throughout my journey, I kept looking for better and better
answers to the basic questions I began with: What matters most in buying
coffee? How can you sort through the jumble of place names and whimsical
labels on beans and blends? Is a dark roast better, more sophisticated,
than a light roast? Is it essential to grind coffee beans at home? How can you
keep coffee fresh after you buy it? What are the best brewing methods, and
do you have to buy a new machine to try them? How do you pick and use
the right equipment? How is espresso different from brewed coffee? How can
you make densely flavored, silkily foamy cappuccinos and caffè lattes at
I also wondered just how bad for you caffeine can be, because I
wouldn't want to go a day without coffee, and every year there seems to be
a new verdict. I sifted through hundreds of articles and found that although
caffeine probably won't take any time off your life, dependence on it to get
you through the day carries its own price. Because everyone's sensitivity to
caffeine is different, and my own sensitivity is high, I searched out the
newest methods of decaffeination, hoping to find coffee with more body and
flavor than the rinse water I was used to.
I found it, and much more. In back rooms of warehouses, in bean-
filled holding rooms on German docks, in decaffeination plants in southern
Italy, in shrines to espresso in Rome and Naples and in dozens of the new
coffeehouses that opened all across America while I continued my search, I
learned some fundamental truths about coffee: Freshness matters more
than just about anything. Nothing is as sophisticated as your own taste
buds. No kind of coffee will keep for very long, and the freezer is by no means
a better storage choice than a countertop or cupboard.
I learned, too, that a few very simple steps can drastically improve
your everyday brew. Using metal filters instead of paper, for instance, or
letting boiled water cool for a few seconds before pouring it over ground
coffee, or just making sure you clean the brewer thoroughly every so
often—little tricks make gigantic differences.
No one bean is best. Once you know some of the main
differences, you have to decide what pleases you the most in a cup of
coffee. Before you know what your favorite bean or blend is, you should put
yourself in the hands of someone like the woman at that San Francisco
conference who tastes dozens of coffee samples a month before selecting
the beans she will roast in her own store. If you don't have someone like that
where you live, it's easy to find such a person at the other end of the phone
who will mail you fresh-roasted beans.
After talking to every expert I could find—and sipping more cups
of delicious coffee than I imagined existed—I collected a mountain of
information and tips. This book contains the best of what I learned: enough
to help you have much, much better coffee than you're used to and to
appreciate the whole culture that has grown up around coffee. The group
that met in such small, clubby quarters in San Francisco has grown
explosively; that hotel room wouldn't hold even one of its subcommittees
In these chapters, I'll take you through a coffee plantation, where,
midway through my research, I became reinspired by the smell of coffee
blossoms and the sight of fruit-bearing coffee trees on volcanic Costa Rican
hillsides. I'll take you into the mills, where the beans are liberated from the
fruits, dried and raked on big patios and carefully prepared for shipping; and
into secretive "cupping rooms," where experts who sip and spit dozens of
samples a day decide which beans you'll find in a supermarket can or in a
bag at a fancy coffee shop. We'll visit the noisy floors of roasting plants,
where men and women with the skill and sensitivity of chefs decide how to
unlock the flavors in each kind of bean.
Finally, I'll take you into your own kitchen, where I'll show you
exactly how to make coffee as wonderful as the cup you remember from a
vacation long ago—the one that tasted better than all the cups since.
Because I enjoy a cup of really good coffee even more with a delicious
cookie or piece of cake beside it, the last chapter is devoted to mostly
sweet, and a few not-so-sweet, things that make coffee taste better, and
certainly make drinking it more fun. At the end are sources for the equipment
and coffee beans I recommend.
The point of my long journey was never to become a coffee
insider. It was to enhance the pleasure I take in something that I will
probably drink every day for the rest of my life. I hope to enhance your daily
pleasure too.

Copyright © 1995, 1997, 2003 by Corby Kummer. Reprinted by permission
Houghton Mifflin Company.
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Table of Contents


Introduction 1

1. Growing Beans 5
2. Cupping 23
3. Roasting 37
4. Grinding and Storing 51

Grinding at a Glance 64
5. Brewing 67
Brewing Proportions 93
Brewing at a Glance 94
6. Espresso 97
Espresso at a Glance 128
7. Coffee by Country 131
8. Caffeine and Decaf 151
Comparative Caffeine 170
9. Recipes 171

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Mocha Brownies

16 Brownies

3 tablespoons unsalted butter
2 ounces milk chocolate
2 large eggs
1/2 cup plus 2 tablespoons firmly packed light brown sugar
1 teaspoon instant coffee powder, dissolved in 1 teaspoon pure vanilla extract
1/4 cup brewed coffee
1 tablespoon ground coffee (regular grind)
1/2 cup all-purpose flour
1/4 teaspoon salt

1. Preheat the oven to 350 degrees F, with a rack in the middle. Lightly grease an 8-inch square pan.
2. In the top of a double boiler over simmering water, or in a glass bowl in a microwave oven, melt the butter and chocolate together. Stir until smooth; set aside to cool.
3. In a large bowl, with an electric mixer on medium speed, beat the eggs for 1 minute, then add the brown sugar and the instant coffee-vanilla mixture and beat for 2 minutes. Stir in the brewed coffee and the ground coffee.
4. Add the chocolate mixture and mix thoroughly on medium speed.
5. Blend in the flour and salt just until incorporated, about 30 seconds on low speed. Pour into the pan.
6. Bake for 20 to 25 minutes, or until firm. Cool in the pan on a wire rack for 15 minutes, then cut into 16 squares. Refrigerate in an airtight container for up to 1 week or freeze, wrapped in plastic wrap, then in foil, for up to 6 months.

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