The Living Landscape: An Ecological Approach to Landscape Planning


A resource for tomorrow as well as today, The Living Landscape is your ecological planning action manual--one that working professionals will rely on time and again, and one that fits perfectly with the practical focus of today's urban and landscape curricula.
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A resource for tomorrow as well as today, The Living Landscape is your ecological planning action manual--one that working professionals will rely on time and again, and one that fits perfectly with the practical focus of today's urban and landscape curricula.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780070793989
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Companies, The
  • Publication date: 2/3/2000
  • Edition description: REV
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 477
  • Product dimensions: 7.50 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 1.30 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface to the Second Edition xi
Preface to the First Edition xiii
Acknowledgments xv
Chapter 1 Introduction 3
Basic Concepts 4
The Traditional Framework of Planning in the United States 5
A New Approach 9
Ecological Planning Method 9
Step 1 Identification of Planning Problems and Opportunities 12
Step 2 Establishment of Planning Goals 12
Step 3 Landscape Analysis, Regional Level 13
Step 4 Landscape Analysis, Local Level 14
Step 5 Detailed Studies 16
Step 6 Planning Area Concepts, Options, and Choices 18
Step 7 Landscape Plan 20
Step 8 Continued Citizen Involvement and Community Education 20
Step 9 Design Explorations 21
Step 10 Plan and Design Implementation 21
Step 11 Administration 23
Working Plans 23
Chapter 2 Identifying Issues and Establishing Planning Goals 27
Techniques for Involving People in the Identification of Issues and the Establishment of Goals 28
Task Forces 28
Citizens' Advisory Committees and Technical Advisory Committees 29
Neighborhood Planning Councils 29
Group Dynamics 30
Nominal-Group Workshops 31
Focus Groups 31
Delphi 33
Policy Delphi 34
Public Opinion Polls 34
Town Meetings and Public Hearings 38
Goal Setting 40
Two Examples of Goal-Oriented Planning 41
The Oregon Comprehensive Planning Law 41
New Jersey Pinelands Comprehensive Management Plan 45
Chapter 3 Inventory and Analysis of the Biophysical Environment 51
Making A Base Map and A Regional Context Map 53
Major sources of information 55
Inventory Elements 55
Regional Climate 56
Summary of regional climate inventory elements 62
Major sources of information 62
Earth 62
Summary of geologic inventory elements 65
Major sources of information 67
Terrain 67
Summary of physiography inventory elements 71
Major sources of information 71
Water 71
Summary of hydrologic inventory elements 85
Major sources of information 85
Soils 86
Summary of soils inventory elements 94
Major sources of information 95
Microclimate 95
Summary of microclimate inventory elements 99
Major sources of information 99
Vegetation 99
Summary of vegetation inventory elements 104
Major sources of information 104
Wildlife 104
Summary of wildlife inventory elements 107
Major sources of information 107
Existing Land Use and Land Users 107
Summary of existing land-use and land-user elements 115
Major sources of information 115
Analysis and Synthesis of Inventory Information 115
Bivariate Relationships 116
Layer-Cake Relationships 120
The Holdridge Life-Zone System 120
Two Examples of Biophysical Inventory and Analysis 122
The New Jersey Pinelands Comprehensive Management Plan 123
The Biodiversity Plan for the Camp Pendleton Region, California 130
Chapter 4 Human Community Inventory and Analysis 141
Sources of Existing Information 143
Land-Use Maps and Settlement Pattern Diagrams 143
Histories 145
Census Data 148
Newspapers and Periodicals 148
Phone Books 148
Community Organizations and Clubs 149
Colleges and Universities 149
Government and Public Agencies 149
Synopsis of Information Sources 149
Use of Existing Data to Generate New Information 149
Population Trends, Characteristics, and Projections 150
Development Projections 159
Economic Analyses 161
User Groups 165
Generation of New Information 167
Mail and Telephone Surveys 167
Face-to-Face Interviews 169
Participant Observation 170
Analysis and Synthesis of Social Information 171
Establish Visual and Landscape Patterns 171
Urban Morphology 173
Identification of Interactions and Relationships 173
Community Needs Assessment 175
Two Examples of Human Community Inventory and Analysis 176
New Jersey Pinelands Comprehensive Management Plan 176
The Biodiversity Plan for the Camp Pendleton Region, California 178
Chapter 5 Suitability Analysis 187
Approaches to Suitability Analysis--Methods 188
Natural Resources Conservation Service Systems 188
Land Evaluation Value 191
Site Assessment Value 192
Combining the LE and SA Systems 194
Modified LESA System 194
Use of LESA at The Federal Level 198
The McHarg, or University of Pennsylvania, Suitability Analysis Method 200
Dutch Suitability Analysis 207
Computer Applications 213
The Carrying-Capacity Concept 217
Two Applications of Suitability Analysis 219
The Development of Performance Requirements in Medford Township, New Jersey 219
Locating Areas for Rural Housing in Whitman County, Washington 220
Chapter 6 Planning Options and Choices 229
Optional Plans 230
Techniques for Selecting Preferences 235
The Charrette 235
The Charrette Process 236
Charrette Groundwork 237
Introduction of Planning Area, Introduction to Participants 237
The Teams 238
Team Instructions 240
Citizen Interviews 240
Brainstorming and Synthesis 240
Outcomes from the Charrette 241
Task Forces, Citizens' Advisory Committees, and Technical Advisory Committees 241
Citizen Referendum and Synchronized Surveys 242
Goals-Achievement Matrix 243
Scenario Writing 243
Public Hearings 244
Two Examples of Selecting Preferences 245
Portland, Oregon, Alternative Land-Use Plans 245
The Biodiversity Plan for the Camp Pendleton Region, California 247
Chapter 7 Landscape Plans 253
Recognition and Adoption Of Plan 255
Statement of Policies 257
Strategies to Achieve Policies 259
Landscape Plan Map 260
Plan Elements and Organization 261
Two Examples of Plans 264
Comprehensive Management Plan for the New Jersey Pinelands 264
Teller County/City of Woodland Park, Colorado, Growth Management Plan 266
Chapter 8 Continuing Citizen Involvement and Community Education 271
Citizen Involvement 272
Classification of Citizen Participation Techniques 274
Continuing Community Education 275
Information and Education 275
Publications 277
Television and Radio 279
Two Examples of Education Programs 279
University of Wisconsin-Extension Community Economic Development Program 279
The Blueprint for a Sustainable Bay Area 285
Chapter 9 Testing Planning Concepts Through Design 291
Site Design 292
Individual Land-User Designs: Farm and Ranch Conservation Plans 293
Simulation 295
Conceptual Design from Charrettes 296
La Lomita Charrette 298
Common Themes from the La Lomita Charrette 298
Building Codes 299
Community Gardens 300
Housing Possibilities 300
Solar Energy 300
Arroyo Vista Charrette 301
Conceptual Design of New Facilities 304
The Concept Design 305
Phase 1305
Phase 2308
Summary of the Concept Design 310
Demonstration Projects 311
Innovative Design Projects 314
Two Examples of Detailed Design 317
Connecticut River Valley, Massachusetts 317
New York-New Jersey-Connecticut Metropolitan Region 321
Chapter 10 Plan and Design Implementation 329
Power to Regulate 330
Zoning 330
Planned Unit Developments (PUDs) 334
Performance Standards 334
Design Guidelines and Controls 339
Critical or Environmentally Sensitive Areas 339
Floodplain Management 344
Wetland and Riparian Area Protection 346
Federal Wetlands Protection 347
General State Responses 348
Habitat Conservation Plans 349
Historic Preservation 352
Subdivision Regulations 353
Building Codes 355
Covenants 357
Power to Condemn and to Exact 358
Impact Fees and Land Dedications 358
Power to Spend 359
Easements 359
Development Rights Purchase and Transfers 360
Capital Improvement Programming 364
Public Land Management 365
Power to Tax 366
Interagency Coordination for Growth Management 367
Program Linkage and Cross-Compliance 369
Nongovernment Strategies 369
Desert View Tri-Villages Implementation 370
Desert Overlay 370
Suburban Desert Overlay 371
Implementation Matrix 371
Three Examples of Planning Implementation 373
Innovative Zoning for Agricultural Land Protection in York County, Pennsylvania, and Black Hawk County, Iowa 373
Scottsdale, Arizona, Environmentally Sensitive Lands Ordinance 377
Chapter 11 Administration of Planning Programs 381
Current Planning 382
The Role of Planning Commissions and Review Boards 382
The Role of Planning Staffs 383
The Impact of Procedural Requirements 385
The Budget 385
Planning, Programming, and Budget System (PPBS) 385
Program Strategies 387
Capital Improvement Programming 390
Environmental Impact Assessments 391
Environmental Impact Analysis 394
Economic Impact Analysis 396
Fiscal Impact Analysis 399
Social Impact Analysis 402
Two Examples of Planning Administration 404
Portland, Oregon, Regional Growth Management Planning 404
The Tucson WASH Ordinance and Environmental Resource Zone 407
Chapter 12 Conclusion 411
Appendices 419
Glossary 423
Acronyms 437
Bibliography 439
Index 463
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  • Posted July 10, 2014

    Lovely...! beautiful.....!.... Just enjoy it.....!

    Lovely...! beautiful.....!.... Just enjoy it.....!

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