The Lost Diary of Don Juan: A Novel

( 7 )

Overview

It was a time of discovery and decadence, when life became a gamble and the gold that poured endlessly into the port of Sevilla devalued money, marriage, and love itself. In the midst of these treacherous times, Juan Tenorio is born and then abandoned in the barn of a convent. Raised secretly by the nuns, he learns to love and worship all women and wants nothing more than to be a priest, until he falls in love with one of the sisters. When their affair is discovered, Juan leaves the Church forever. He is soon ...
See more details below
Paperback (Reprint)
$17.11
BN.com price
(Save 18%)$20.99 List Price
Other sellers (Paperback)
  • All (60) from $1.99   
  • New (18) from $1.99   
  • Used (42) from $1.99   
The Lost Diary of Don Juan: An Account of the True Arts of Passion and the Perilous Adventure of Love

Available on NOOK devices and apps  
  • NOOK Devices
  • Samsung Galaxy Tab 4 NOOK 7.0
  • Samsung Galaxy Tab 4 NOOK 10.1
  • NOOK HD Tablet
  • NOOK HD+ Tablet
  • NOOK eReaders
  • NOOK Color
  • NOOK Tablet
  • Tablet/Phone
  • NOOK for Windows 8 Tablet
  • NOOK for iOS
  • NOOK for Android
  • NOOK Kids for iPad
  • PC/Mac
  • NOOK for Windows 8
  • NOOK for PC
  • NOOK for Mac
  • NOOK for Web

Want a NOOK? Explore Now

NOOK Book (eBook)
$15.29
BN.com price

Overview

It was a time of discovery and decadence, when life became a gamble and the gold that poured endlessly into the port of Sevilla devalued money, marriage, and love itself. In the midst of these treacherous times, Juan Tenorio is born and then abandoned in the barn of a convent. Raised secretly by the nuns, he learns to love and worship all women and wants nothing more than to be a priest, until he falls in love with one of the sisters. When their affair is discovered, Juan leaves the Church forever. He is soon recruited to be a spy by the powerful Marquis de la Mota, who teaches him to become the world's greatest libertine and seducer of women. But when he crosses swords with the most powerful man in the Empire, Don Juan must escape the murderous fury of the Inquisitor who battles all forms of debauchery, deviance, and heresy.

It is after knowing countless women that he is convinced by the Marquis to keep a diary, and it is here within its pages that Don Juan reveals his greatest adventures and the Arts of Passion he mastered. But what finally compels him to confess everything and risk losing his life, livelihood, and honor is the most perilous adventure of all -- the irresistible fall into the madness of love with the only woman who could ever make him forget all others.

Read More Show Less

Editorial Reviews

Publishers Weekly

The famously insatiable lover is brought brilliantly to life in this lively, suspenseful debut novel by Abrams (coauthor of The Multi-Orgasmic Couple; The Multi-Orgasmic Man). Framed as Don Juan's long-guarded diary, the narrative picks up at a gallop and never relents, tracing Don Juan's orphaned upbringing at a convent and torturous monastery before he escapes and joins a band of thieves. He is soon introduced to the Marquis, who trains the then amateur Lothario to become equally adept at swordsmanship and seducing women. (Abrams's background in Taoist sexuality is evident in the latter's scenes.) Don Juan develops a reputation as "some kind of demon," but the Marquis, who is close to the king, protects Don Juan from the inquisitor general's plans to punish him. Nevertheless, Don Juan resists the Marquis's plea that he marry to save himself, claiming he has no interest in love—until he meets pistol-packing firebrand Doña Ana. Abrams renders his hero with sympathetic understanding, and his erotic exploits—though heavy on plumage ("I sipped the moist nectar of her mouth as she opened her petals to me")—round out Don Juan instead of providing one-handed reading material. The story unspools with the invigorating trajectory of a thriller and the emotional draw of historical romance. (May)

Copyright 2007 Reed Business Information
Library Journal

"As long as desire is banished from the Kingdom of Heaven, there will always be a long line at the Gates of Hell." What's wrong with this sentence-other than its somewhat overheated quality-is the superfluous "always" (there's already "as long as"). Superfluousness is a recurrent fault in this corny retelling of the Don Juan legend; Abrams (former editor, Univ. of California Press) uses too many words, and too often they are the wrong ones-florid and self-consciously tony. Rather than letting the compelling story of the world's greatest seducer simply carry readers along, Abrams gussies things up with passages of purple prose (alliteration is a favorite of his, as are Gratuitous Capitals). From "I sipped the moist nectar of her mouth as she opened her petals to me" to "My heart . . . painted her skin in a hundred colors of pleasure," the writing in this potboiler embarrasses. (Abrams has coauthored books on love, sexuality, and spirituality; this is his first novel.) A Barbara Cartland version of the Don Juan legend; definitely not recommended. [See Prepub Alert, LJ12/06; the city of Seville, Spain, has declared 2007 the Year of Don Juan.-Ed.]
—David Keymer

Library Journal
For his first novel, a former University of California and HarperSanFrancisco editor tries on the life of Don Juan. Foreign rights have proliferated. With a seven-city tour; Book Club Reader feature. Copyright 2006 Reed Business Information.
Kirkus Reviews
The life and times of the legendary seducer, here imagined as a historical character whose diary has come into the possession of "editor" Abrams. It's not entirely a departure from the New Age-inflected nonfiction considerations of "love, sexuality, and spirituality" co-authored by Abrams (The Multi-Orgasmic Couple, 2002, etc.). For this Don Juan is an intellectual libertine given to debating the legitimacy of sexual experience with the women who enchant and gratify him, and with agents of the Spanish Inquisition. Juan grows to manhood in the latter years of the 16th century, during Spain's Golden Age. In his own suave, measured voice, we learn of his upbringing in a convent (after his unmarried mother had abandoned her infant), brief tenure in a monastery and commitment to a life of sensual pleasure and robust adventure-as a member of a jovial gang of robbers, and the tool of Machiavellian Marquis de la Mota (who employs Juan's bedroom expertise to cuckold and embarrass his political enemies). In a brisk narrative that nevertheless consists less of developing action than of multiple repetitions of essentially similar episodes, two themes are emphasized: Juan's heartfelt opposition to the Inquisition's punitive malevolence, and his genuine love for Do-a Ana, the beautiful noblewoman threatened with an unwanted marriage (to the aforementioned Marquis). Period detail is deftly handled, and the story is nicely fleshed out with vivid supporting characters (e.g., a randy Duchess who justifies her dalliance with Juan by pretending he is her absent husband; a legendary courtesan who equals him in skill and appetite; and Juan's ingenuous coachman Cristobal, who utters the novel's plaintive finalwords). And the sex scenes are juicy, if occasionally risibly florid. Perhaps not a novel to be loved, but a dependably entertaining one. Agent: Heide Lange/Sanford J. Greenburger Associates
Read More Show Less

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781416532521
  • Publisher: Washington Square Press
  • Publication date: 7/1/2008
  • Edition description: Reprint
  • Pages: 336
  • Sales rank: 575,335
  • Product dimensions: 5.30 (w) x 8.30 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Douglas Carlton Abrams is the nationally bestselling author of The Lost Diary of Don Juan, which has been published in thirty languages. He writes fact-based fiction and did extensive research for his new novel, including swimming with and recording humpback whales, meeting present-day whalers, and cage diving with great white sharks. Previously an editor at the University at California Press and HarperCollins, he is the cofounder of Idea Architects, a book and media development agency.

Read More Show Less

Read an Excerpt

Chapter One: Rumors and Lies

I write in the naked pages of this diary so that the truth will be known and my fate will not be left to the rumors and lies already whispering through the streets of Sevilla. Many, I am sure, will try to turn my life into a morality play after I am dead, but no man's life is so easily understood or dismissed.

I would not risk inscribing my secrets in this diary had I not been convinced to do so by my friend and benefactor, Don Pedro, the Marquis de la Mota. I argued that nothing I would write could be circulated in my lifetime without my being condemned by the Holy Office of the Inquisition and burned at the stake. The Inquisitor himself branded this danger into my imagination just yesterday. Perhaps it is this fresh threat, or the ultimatum of the King, that has at last caused me to pick up this quill and ink these words. The Marquis insisted that it is for posterity that I should write this diary, one's reputation being the only true immortality. But it is hardly vanity alone that causes me to write.

Thirty-six years have passed since my birth, or more correctly since my mother left me, a swaddled bundle, in the barn of the Convento de la Madre Sagrada. It is no doubt a sign of my advancing years that I have been persuaded for the first time in my life to consider how I will be remembered. Yet there is another desire that leads me to write in this diary. It is to pass on what I have learned about the Arts of Passion and of the holiness of womanhood. Since I have forsworn matrimony and have no heirs of my own blood, I must look to all who follow as my descendants and try to share with them what I have learned from the women I have been privileged to know so well.

A man's recollections always tend toward self-flattery, so I will not rely on my testimony alone and will instead write, as faithfully as possible, not only the events but the words themselves that were shouted during a duel or whispered during a passionate embrace.

It is this same pride that leads me to begin my account with the most daring seduction I have ever undertaken. My ambition was nothing less than to free the King's chaste and lonely daughter from her imprisonment in the royal palace of the Alcázar — for a night. I knew that if I were caught, it would be my privilege as a noble to place my head on the executioner's block and avoid the shame of the gallows.

A man's ambition, however, like his fate, is not always known to him in advance, and as I left the arms of the Widow Elvira, I had no hint of the danger that I would embrace last night.

Copyright © 2007 by Idea Architects

Read More Show Less

Table of Contents

Contents

Editor's Note

Rumors and Lies

A Flicker of Passion

The Desire of a Woman

No One Will Ever Know

Not Every Man with a Mask Is a Burglar

The Love of His Angels

A Vision of God

This I Cannot Do at Any Price

Like Salt into the Land

A Man Is Not Just What He Is Born

The Education of a Libertine

Gold in the Veins of Sevilla

The Slave Market

Taberna del Pirata

Secrets Never Stay Buried

A Thousand Nights with a Stranger

Corpus Christi

The Bullfight

Sins of the Flesh

The Deadliest Sin

Alma's Intuition

The Masquerade Party

Duchess Cristina's Invitation

The Truth

Knowledge That Could Lead to Our Ruin

Alma's Return

A New World

A Moth to a Flame

A Tour of Heaven

A Child of Deception and Cruelty

The Wager of Love

The Secret of Marriage

Safe Passage

Alma's Temptation

In the Name of the Holy Inquisition

Confession at the Alcázar

Dueling on the Rooftops of Sevilla

Doña Ana's Bedchamber

A Farewell

The Last Night: A Final Entry

Glossary and Notes

Acknowledgments

Author's Note

Read More Show Less

Introduction

Questions and Topics for Discussion

1. As an orphan Don Juan depended on the convent and Padre Miguel for healing and growth. Don Juan writes: "It was from Padre Miguel that I learned God always sides with the weak, with the widow, and with the orphan" (p. 33). Discuss the quote and focus on the role of the statues, priests, and nuns during his early years.

2. One of the central themes in the story is passion and seduction, and Don Juan's ability to deliver these experiences to women. What qualities does Don Juan possess that make him so successful? What does this say of Don Juan? How would the women he encounters respond?

3. Don Juan repeatedly discusses man's inability to be monogamous and "to be faithful to one's wife seems like an unnecessary penance to almost all men.... I am not willing to wed a woman just to be unfaithful and untrue" (p. 111). What do you think of this statement? How does Don Juan's attitude change by the end of the book?

4. Don Juan's friend and benefactor, Don Pedro, the Marquis de la Mota, played a critical part in the development of Don Juan's noble character. Discuss the significance of the Marquis throughout the book. What forges their relationship?

5. Consider the following statement spoken by Fatima: "There was more pleasure in one kiss from the man I loved than a thousand nights with a stranger" (p. 120). Does Don Juan feel the same? What about the other characters?

6. For some, a sexual experience is a union and a bridge to profound feelings of oneness and bliss. How does The Lost Diary of Don Juan celebrate this idea of a blissful union between lovers?

7. How does the author illustrate the vision of Don Juan's true compassion for women to the reader?

8. Sword fighting was a critical part of a gentleman's existence during this time period. Discuss the art of sword fighting and how Don Juan develops his skill to perfection. How do his strength and his ability to fight with his sword affect how the women in Sevilla view him?

9. Finally Don Juan discusses "True Passionate Love" (p. 257) as he forgets all other women and discovers his need for only Doña Ana. What is it about Doña Ana that secures a hold over Don Juan? What does she have that other woman do not?

10. Don Juan eloquently breathes life into his desire and sensual ability to pleasure women, and is very successful at the art. Consider the following: "Was it not God Himself who made man to desire woman — flesh of his flesh — and for a woman's desire also to be for her man?" (p. 248). How is religion used to support Don Juan's relationships with women and his heightened talents?

11. Don Juan declares, "We shared our bodies with a fusion of love and lust — which I now understand is nothing more and nothing less than the holy consort of love" p. 274). Discuss the beauty in the above statement. How does Abrams illustrate Juan's innocence and tenderness? How does this ending support the passionate ideals of today?

Tips to Enhance Your Book Club

1. Throw a Don Juan party and view the 2005 movie Casanova, directed by Lasse Hallström. Discuss the parallels and differences between Casanova and Don Juan.

2. For further reading on the historical influences of Don Juan, visit http://www.don-juan.net and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Don_Juan to learn more about Don Juan's story. After reading these sites, discuss the historical influences of Don Juan.

3. The tender topics courageously approached by author Douglas Carlton Abrams lends itself to discussion of the oldest debated topics in the world: passion and relationships. Read the book coauthored by Doug's wife, Rachel Carlton Abrams, M.D., The Multi-Orgasmic Woman, for a further exploration of women's passion and sexuality. Let both books act as platforms for further discussion and appreciation of various viewpoints on the topic.

Read More Show Less

Reading Group Guide

Questions and Topics for Discussion

1. As an orphan Don Juan depended on the convent and Padre Miguel for healing and growth. Don Juan writes: "It was from Padre Miguel that I learned God always sides with the weak, with the widow, and with the orphan" (p. 33). Discuss the quote and focus on the role of the statues, priests, and nuns during his early years.

2. One of the central themes in the story is passion and seduction, and Don Juan's ability to deliver these experiences to women. What qualities does Don Juan possess that make him so successful? What does this say of Don Juan? How would the women he encounters respond?

3. Don Juan repeatedly discusses man's inability to be monogamous and "to be faithful to one's wife seems like an unnecessary penance to almost all men.... I am not willing to wed a woman just to be unfaithful and untrue" (p. 111). What do you think of this statement? How does Don Juan's attitude change by the end of the book?

4. Don Juan's friend and benefactor, Don Pedro, the Marquis de la Mota, played a critical part in the development of Don Juan's noble character. Discuss the significance of the Marquis throughout the book. What forges their relationship?

5. Consider the following statement spoken by Fatima: "There was more pleasure in one kiss from the man I loved than a thousand nights with a stranger" (p. 120). Does Don Juan feel the same? What about the other characters?

6. For some, a sexual experience is a union and a bridge to profound feelings of oneness and bliss. How does The Lost Diary of Don Juan celebrate this idea of a blissful union between lovers?

7. How does the author illustrate the vision of Don Juan's true compassion for women to the reader?

8. Sword fighting was a critical part of a gentleman's existence during this time period. Discuss the art of sword fighting and how Don Juan develops his skill to perfection. How do his strength and his ability to fight with his sword affect how the women in Sevilla view him?

9. Finally Don Juan discusses "True Passionate Love" (p. 257) as he forgets all other women and discovers his need for only Doña Ana. What is it about Doña Ana that secures a hold over Don Juan? What does she have that other woman do not?

10. Don Juan eloquently breathes life into his desire and sensual ability to pleasure women, and is very successful at the art. Consider the following: "Was it not God Himself who made man to desire woman — flesh of his flesh — and for a woman's desire also to be for her man?" (p. 248). How is religion used to support Don Juan's relationships with women and his heightened talents?

11. Don Juan declares, "We shared our bodies with a fusion of love and lust — which I now understand is nothing more and nothing less than the holy consort of love" p. 274). Discuss the beauty in the above statement. How does Abrams illustrate Juan's innocence and tenderness? How does this ending support the passionate ideals of today?

Tips to Enhance Your Book Club

1. Throw a Don Juan party and view the 2005 movie Casanova, directed by Lasse Hallström. Discuss the parallels and differences between Casanova and Don Juan.

2. For further reading on the historical influences of Don Juan, visit http://www.don-juan.net and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Don_Juan to learn more about Don Juan's story. After reading these sites, discuss the historical influences of Don Juan.

3. The tender topics courageously approached by author Douglas Carlton Abrams lends itself to discussion of the oldest debated topics in the world: passion and relationships. Read the book coauthored by Doug's wife, Rachel Carlton Abrams, M.D., The Multi-Orgasmic Woman, for a further exploration of women's passion and sexuality. Let both books act as platforms for further discussion and appreciation of various viewpoints on the topic.

Read More Show Less

Customer Reviews

Average Rating 4
( 7 )
Rating Distribution

5 Star

(4)

4 Star

(2)

3 Star

(0)

2 Star

(0)

1 Star

(1)

Your Rating:

Your Name: Create a Pen Name or

Barnes & Noble.com Review Rules

Our reader reviews allow you to share your comments on titles you liked, or didn't, with others. By submitting an online review, you are representing to Barnes & Noble.com that all information contained in your review is original and accurate in all respects, and that the submission of such content by you and the posting of such content by Barnes & Noble.com does not and will not violate the rights of any third party. Please follow the rules below to help ensure that your review can be posted.

Reviews by Our Customers Under the Age of 13

We highly value and respect everyone's opinion concerning the titles we offer. However, we cannot allow persons under the age of 13 to have accounts at BN.com or to post customer reviews. Please see our Terms of Use for more details.

What to exclude from your review:

Please do not write about reviews, commentary, or information posted on the product page. If you see any errors in the information on the product page, please send us an email.

Reviews should not contain any of the following:

  • - HTML tags, profanity, obscenities, vulgarities, or comments that defame anyone
  • - Time-sensitive information such as tour dates, signings, lectures, etc.
  • - Single-word reviews. Other people will read your review to discover why you liked or didn't like the title. Be descriptive.
  • - Comments focusing on the author or that may ruin the ending for others
  • - Phone numbers, addresses, URLs
  • - Pricing and availability information or alternative ordering information
  • - Advertisements or commercial solicitation

Reminder:

  • - By submitting a review, you grant to Barnes & Noble.com and its sublicensees the royalty-free, perpetual, irrevocable right and license to use the review in accordance with the Barnes & Noble.com Terms of Use.
  • - Barnes & Noble.com reserves the right not to post any review -- particularly those that do not follow the terms and conditions of these Rules. Barnes & Noble.com also reserves the right to remove any review at any time without notice.
  • - See Terms of Use for other conditions and disclaimers.
Search for Products You'd Like to Recommend

Recommend other products that relate to your review. Just search for them below and share!

Create a Pen Name

Your Pen Name is your unique identity on BN.com. It will appear on the reviews you write and other website activities. Your Pen Name cannot be edited, changed or deleted once submitted.

 
Your Pen Name can be any combination of alphanumeric characters (plus - and _), and must be at least two characters long.

Continue Anonymously
Sort by: Showing all of 9 Customer Reviews
  • Anonymous

    Posted September 12, 2008

    ¿Fast-paced, danger, and passion¿¿

    The Lost Diary of Don Juan is the story of the title character. Douglas Carlton Abrams paints a picture of a daring man that comes from humble beginnings and achieves nobility. Abrams incorporates ancient Tantric teachings in his book. Nuns adopted Young Don Juan. His first sexual experience was with a novice. The book continues to share the account of his indiscretions with women and adventures as a spy. Don Juan searches for the passion of one true love as he makes love to as many women as possible (but only once each.) His desire for true love conflicts with his determination to never make love to a woman more than once. The Lost Diary of Don Juan was very interesting. I knew little about the fictional character, Don Juan, before reading this book. The women in this book knew they were adored. Erotic, entertaining, romantic are all apt descriptions of this book. The setting is the 1500s Spain during the time of the Inquisition. Men could learn a lot about wooing a woman from this book. The passionate but delicately written love scenes will tantalize women. Rush out and purchase your copy.

    Was this review helpful? Yes  No   Report this review
  • Anonymous

    Posted June 5, 2007

    Beautifully-written page-turner on life, love, romance, & passion

    oug Abrams has delivered an amazing, fast-paced adventure filled with passion, intrigue, and humanity. This book is truly a page-turner, brilliantly crafted and researched, yet tightly written. For those suspicious of historical settings which sometimes provide too much detail for the impatient reader, fear not! This story moves along really nicely in the first hundred pages, and the next two hundred will find you torn between racing to find out what happens next and savoring every delicious detail. Speaking of delicious detail, the scenes depicting Don Juan's 'conquests' were beautifully, tastefully, and respectfully written. At the same time, anyone of the male persuasion seeking to expand his repertoire with respect to wooing the fairer sex could do worse than to peruse Don Juan's diary as a great 'how-to' manual on romance, love, and, of course, seduction! The writing reflects a deep understanding of women and a beautiful philosophy reconciling the age-old questions about passion versus love, ironically providing a recipe for both. This book brings to life the rich splendor and the harshness of life during 16th century Spain. As Don Juan races through the streets, over the rooftops, and in and out bedroom windows of Seville, the reader is immersed in a powerful drama ripe with fascinating 'yet never overpowering or depressing' details of life in another time. These pages provide a ringside seat to the terrors of the Inquisition, the promises of gambling on riches from new worlds, the privileges and oppression coexisting in a rigid class structure, the tastes and smells of glorious banquets and celebrations, and, of course, the joys of great passion and seduction. Lastly, Abrams' Don Juan is anything but the cardboard stereotype we have come to associate with this character in modern thinking. Don Juan Tenorio's story is filled with humanity. One cannot help but fall in love with Don Juan and admire his journey from orphan to noble and his loyalty to the friends of his early days. We root for our hero as he grapples with ethical, moral, and social questions, and we cheer him on as he displays touching, charming, and dangerous examples of chivalry, generosity, and friendship. Buy this book and plan an amazing weekend getaway in the comfort of your couch! Ladies, buy copies for all the men in your lives who might appreciate some insights into the fairer sex, then buy copies for all your girlfriends so you can TALK ABOUT the details! Gentlemen, buy copies for all for your friends 'bachelors and otherwise'! The wisdom and romance in these pages will spice up and deepen any relationship.

    Was this review helpful? Yes  No   Report this review
  • Anonymous

    Posted May 10, 2007

    Fiction at it's best!

    I found Don Juan to be thoroughly engaging, suspenseful and fun! The elements of romance, adventure and humor are wonderfully woven together throughout the book. The characters are interesting and provide many insights into the soul of Don Juan. The concept of the diary and how it is developed contributed beautifully to a very dynamic plot. It is one of those books you can¿t put down because you build a relationship with the main character and you become intrigued with where the story is headed. Overall a fantastic book that I know I will reread. I highly recommend it!

    Was this review helpful? Yes  No   Report this review
  • Posted December 9, 2008

    more from this reviewer

    superior historical fictional memoir

    In Seville, he was named Juan Tenorio, but his mother abandons him near a monastery. Nuns secretly raise and torture the child even as they train him to cherish and worship women. He eventually runs away from the nasty environs to become an outlaw. Eventually he meets the Marquis de la Mota, who teaches him to be a master spy, a master swordsman, and a master lover. He is so adept at the latter some consider him to be a demon. Hearing word of the legend of lovemaking, the inquisitor general investigates Don, who refuses to wed even at the coaxing of his mentor as a means of saving his life. That is until he encounters the fiery warrior woman Dona Ana. --- Using the device of finding Don Juan's diary to tell his story works brilliantly in Douglas Abrams¿ superior historical fictional memoir of the renowned lover from his perspective. By writing the saga through the journal, Don Juan becomes more than a one head joke as the audience sees a full blooded person with wants and desires that are not only in the boudoir. Interestingly when Don Juan describes a conquest (and not just with women), he waxes poetic like a romance writer. Readers will enjoy this fast-paced account of the world¿s greatest lover as he plunges into one escapade (and woman) after another. --- Harriet Klausner

    Was this review helpful? Yes  No   Report this review
  • Anonymous

    Posted September 12, 2010

    No text was provided for this review.

  • Anonymous

    Posted February 24, 2010

    No text was provided for this review.

  • Anonymous

    Posted February 6, 2009

    No text was provided for this review.

  • Anonymous

    Posted January 17, 2011

    No text was provided for this review.

  • Anonymous

    Posted March 2, 2009

    No text was provided for this review.

Sort by: Showing all of 9 Customer Reviews

If you find inappropriate content, please report it to Barnes & Noble
Why is this product inappropriate?
Comments (optional)