The Mechanics of Inhaled Pharmaceutical Aerosols: An Introduction

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Overview

An Introduction to the Mechanics of Inhaled Pharmaceutical Aerosols provides a unique and comprehensive treatment of the mechanics of inhaled pharmaceutical aerosols. The book covers a wide range of topics and many new perspectives are given by drawing on research from a variety of fields. Novel, in-depth expositions of the most common delivery devices are given, including nebulizers, dry powder inhalers and propellant metered dose inhalers. The behaviour of aerosols in the respiratory tract is explained in detail, with complete coverage of the fundamentals of current deposition models.

The book begins by providing a comprehensive introduction to aspects of aerosol mechanics that are relevant to inhaled pharmaceutical aerosols. It then gives an exhaustive pedagogical description of the behaviour of evaporating and condensing droplets (both aqueous and propellant-based), an introductory chapter on lung geometry and inhalation patterns, and coverage of relevant aspects of fluid mechanics in the lung. Finally, the book provides invaluable, detailed coverage on the mechanics of common pharmaceutical aerosol delivery systems and deposition in the respiratory tract. Throughout the book are many detailed numerical examples that apply the salient concepts to typical inhaled pharmaceutical aerosols.

This book will be of interest to scientists and engineers involved in the research and development of inhaled pharmaceutical aerosol products. Experienced practitioners will find many new perspectives that will greatly enhance their understanding of this complex and rapidly growing field. For those delivering therapeutic agents to the lung, this book is a must-have. Students and academics will find this book an invaluable tool and for newcomers it is a worthy guide to the diverse fields that must be understood to work in the area of inhaled pharmaceutical aerosols.

Audience: Scientists working in industry with inhaled pharmaceutical aerosols, including engineers, pharmacists, chemists, physicians, and physicists, as well as students and academic researchers in these fields.

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Editorial Reviews

From The Critics
This book offers a comprehensive introduction to aerosol mechanics, describes the behavior of evaporating and condensing droplets, and considers the relevant aspects of fluid mechanics in the lung. It provides expositions of the most common delivery devices, including nebulizers, dry powder inhalers, and propellant metered dose inhalers. The behavior of aerosols in the respiratory tract is explained, with attention to the fundamentals of current deposition models. Finlay teaches at the University of Alberta. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780122569715
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science
  • Publication date: 7/20/2001
  • Pages: 320
  • Product dimensions: 6.40 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Warren H. Finlay is a professor at the University of Alberta, where he has taught since 1987. He is the recipient of the International Society for Aerosols inMedicine (ISAM) Young Investigator's Award, awarded in Switzerlandearly 2001 at the Biannual Congress of ISAM. This award isgiven every two years to an individual who has made significantcontributions to the field of aerosols in medicine and who is not older than 40 years. He has been a consultant for many pharmaceutical companies throughout Europe and North America. Dr. Finlay received his Ph.D. from Stanford University in 1987, his M.Sc from the University of Alberta in 1984, and his B.Sc. from the University of Alberta in 1983.
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Read an Excerpt

The field of inhaled pharmaceutical aerosols is growing rapidly. Various indicators suggest this field will only expand more quickly in the future as inhaled medications for treatment of systemic illnesses gain popularity. Indeed, worldwide sales of inhalers for treating respiratory diseases alone are expected to nearly double to $22 billion by 2005 from the estimated 1997 value of $11.6 billion. However, this is only the start of what is likely to be a much larger period of growth that will occur because of the increasingrealization that inhaled aerosols are ideally suited to delivery of drugs to the blood through the lung. Indeed, in the future, inhaled aerosols are expected to be used for vaccinations, pain management and systemic treatment of illnesses that are currently treated by other methods.

With the explosive growth of inhaled pharmaceutical aerosols comes the need for engineers and scientists to perform the research, development and manufacturing of these products. However, this field is interdisciplinary, requiring knowledge in a diverse range of subjects including aerosol mechanics, fluid mechanics, transport phenomena, interfacial science, pharmaceutics, physical chemistry, respiratory physiology and anatomy, as well as pulmonology. As a result, it is difficult for newcomers (and even experienced practitioners) to acquire and maintain the knowledge necessary to this field.

The present text is an attempt to partially address this fact, presenting an in-depth treatment of the diverse aspects of inhaled pharmaceutical aerosols, focusing on the relevant mechanics and physics involved in the hope that this will allow others to more readily improve the treatment of diseases with inhaled aerosols.

Chapter 1 supplies a brief introduction for those unfamiliar with the clinical aspects of this field. Chapter 2 is a short introduction to particle size concepts, which is important and useful to those new to the field, but which is standard in aerosol mechanics. Chapter 3 lays down the basic equations and concepts associated with the motion of aerosol particles through air, including the effects of electrical charge. The complications added by considering particles that may evaporate or condense, as commonly occurs with liquid droplets in nebulizers and metered dose inhalers, are dealt with in detail in Chapter 4.

Chapter 5 introduces some basic aspects of breathing and respiratory tract anatomy, while Chapter 6 introduces the concepts of fluid motion in the respiratory tract. Both chapters are necessary for understanding subsequent chapters, particularly Chapter 7 which delves deep into the details of aerosol particle deposition in the respiratory tract, one of the most important aspects of inhaled pharmaceutical aerosols.

The last three chapters of the book each introduce basic aspects of the mechanics of the three major device types currently on the market: nebulizers, dry powder inhalers, and metered dose inhalers. From a traditional engineering point of view the mechanics of these devices has not been well studied, so that a reasonable part of this material is speculative, drawing on work done in related engineering applications and extrapolating in an attempt to gain some understanding of the mechanics of existing aerosol delivery devices.

Any book will have its shortcomings, and the present one is no exception. In particular, there are several topics that I would have liked to include, but have chosen not to because of time and energy limitations. Some of these neglected topics include nasal administration of aerosols, the mechanics of several new and promising delivery devices (including various novel powder and liquid systems about to be launched on the market), various aspects of formulation, as well as particle sizing methods. My apologies to those who had hoped for coverage of these topics. However, this book has taken far longer to complete than I had planned, and the time has come to send it to the presses.

W. H. F.
Edmonton
September 2000

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Table of Contents

Introduction
Particle Size Distributions
Motion of a Single Aerosol Particle in a Fluid
Particle Size Changes due to Evaporation or Condensation
Introduction to the Respiratory Tract
Fluid Dynamics in the Respiratory Tract
Particle Deposition in the Respiratory Tract
Jet Nebulizers
Dry Powder Inhalers
Metered Dose Propellant Inhalers
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