The Menorah: From the Bible to Modern Israelby Steven Fine
The menorah, the seven-branched candelabrum, has traversed millennia as a living symbol of Judaism and the Jewish people. Naturally, it did not pass through the ages unaltered. The Menorah explores the cultural and intellectual history of the Western world’s oldest continuously used religious symbol. This meticulously researched yet deeply personal/i>
The menorah, the seven-branched candelabrum, has traversed millennia as a living symbol of Judaism and the Jewish people. Naturally, it did not pass through the ages unaltered. The Menorah explores the cultural and intellectual history of the Western world’s oldest continuously used religious symbol. This meticulously researched yet deeply personal history explains how the menorah illuminates the great changes and continuities in Jewish culture, from biblical times to modern Israel.
Though the golden seven-branched menorahs of Moses and of the Jerusalem Temple are artifacts lost to history, the best-known menorah image survives on the Arch of Titus in Rome. Commemorating the Roman destruction of Jerusalem in 70 CE, the arch reliefs depict the spoils of the Temple, the menorah chief among them, as they appeared in Titus’s great triumphal parade in 71 CE. Steven Fine recounts how, in 2012, his team discovered the original yellow ochre paint that colored the menorahan event that inspired his search for the history of this rich symbol from ancient Israel through classical history, the Middle Ages, and on to our own tumultuous times.
Surveying artifacts and literary sources spanning three thousand yearsfrom the Torah and the ruins of Rome to yesterday’s newsFine presents the menorah as a source of fascination and illumination for Jews, Samaritans, Christians, and even Freemasons. A symbol for the divine, for continuity, emancipation, national liberation, and redemption, the menorah features prominently on Israel’s state seal and continues to inspire and challenge in surprising ways.
Focusing on the historical and cultural role of the Arch of Titus menorah in Rome, this work by Fine (professor; Yeshiva Univ.) meticulously documents how this well-known, still-extant artifact became a familiar and important symbol for the Jewish people and the State of Israel, despite initially representing the Romans' defeat of the Jews in Jerusalem. Throughout seven chapters, one for each branch of the Lampstand, the author traces the ancient and biblical discussions of the menorah to its prominence in synagogues, arts and architecture, and as a symbol for enlightenment. Fine's extensive discussion of the Arch of Titus menorah's origins in ancient times provides a nice foundation for demonstrating the importance of the reappropriation of this artifact as a unifying symbol for the State of Israel. The inclusion of images throughout is a strength. VERDICT A solid, scholarly treatment of the historical, cultural, and social significance of an important ancient item. A basic understanding of ancient history and Judaism is helpful though not necessarily required.—Amanda Folk, Univ. of Pittsburgh Lib., Greensburg
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Meet the Author
Steven Fine is the Dean Pinkhos Churgin Professor of Jewish History at Yeshiva University.
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