The New Encyclopedia of Modern Bodybuilding: The Bible of Bodybuilding, Fully Updated and Revised

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Overview

From elite bodybuilding competitors to gymnasts, from golfers to fitness gurus, anyone who works out with weights must own this book — a book that only Arnold Schwarzenegger could write, a book that has earned its reputation as "the bible of bodybuilding."

Inside, Arnold covers the very latest advances in both weight training and bodybuilding competition, with new sections on diet and nutrition, sports psychology, the treatment and prevention of injuries, and methods of ...

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The New Encyclopedia of Modern Bodybuilding: The Bible of Bodybuilding, Fully Updated and Revis

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Overview

From elite bodybuilding competitors to gymnasts, from golfers to fitness gurus, anyone who works out with weights must own this book — a book that only Arnold Schwarzenegger could write, a book that has earned its reputation as "the bible of bodybuilding."

Inside, Arnold covers the very latest advances in both weight training and bodybuilding competition, with new sections on diet and nutrition, sports psychology, the treatment and prevention of injuries, and methods of training, each illustrated with detailed photos of some of bodybuilding's newest stars.
Plus, all the features that have made this book a classic are here:

-Arnold's tried-and-true tips for sculpting, strengthening, and defining each and every muscle to create the ultimate buff physique
-The most effective methods of strength training to stilt your needs, whether you're an amateur athlete or a pro bodybuilder preparing for a competition
-Comprehensive information on health, nutrition, and dietary supplements to help you build muscle, lose fat, and maintain optimum energy
-Expert advice on the prevention and treatment of sports-related injuries
-Strategies and tactics for competitive bodybuilders from selecting poses to handling publicity
-The fascinating history and growth of' bodybuilding as a sport, with a photographic "Bodybuilding Hall of Fame"
-And, of course, Arnold's individual brand of inspiration and motivation throughout

Covering every level of expertise and experience, The New Encyclopedia of Modern Bodybuilding will help you achieve your personal best. With his unique perspective as a seven-time winner of the Mr. Olympia title and all international film star, Arnold shares his secrets to dedication, training, and commitment, and shows you how to take control of your body and realize your own potential for greatness.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780684857213
  • Publisher: Simon & Schuster
  • Publication date: 11/5/1999
  • Edition description: REVISED & UPDATED
  • Pages: 832
  • Sales rank: 16,979
  • Product dimensions: 8.50 (w) x 10.80 (h) x 1.80 (d)

Meet the Author

Arnold Schwarzenegger served as governor of California from 2003 to 2011. Before that, he had a long career, starring in such films as the Terminator series; Stay Hungry; Twins; Predator; and Junior. His first book, Arnold: The Education of a Bodybuilder, was a bestseller when published in 1977 and, along with his Encyclopedia of Modern Bodybuilding, has never been out of print since.

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Read an Excerpt

Foreword to the Second Edition

Who would have thought that anyone could compile an encyclopedia on bodybuilding and resistance training, let alone one more than six hundred pages long? After all, how much is there to say about hoisting heavy metal plates? Bodybuilding isn't, as they say, rocket science.

Well, many people take exactly that approach when they begin a bodybuilding program; I know because they're easy to spot at the gym. Such individuals generally load excessively heavy weights on a bar, heave the iron with whatever form it takes to get the weight up (with an extra thrust from the lower back for good measure), and then let the bar come crashing down. That's not bodybuilding! Strong on desire but short on smarts, these folks are either sidelined by an injury or often will give up quickly because they aren't seeing any significant results from all the work they're doing.

The truth is, it doesn't take a Ph.D. to learn the complexities of bodybuilding, but neither does it come as naturally as, say, riding a bike. Heck, the bodybuilding vocabulary is like a foreign language: pyramid training, gastrocnemius, negatives, periodization, instinctive training, spotting. Learning the many distinct elements of resistance training, from the hundreds of unique exercises and variations to understanding how to put together a results-producing workout, all take time and practice. To make progress at the fastest rate possible, you've simply got to know what you're doing.

If you're rich enough to afford $50 (or more) an hour for a personal trainer you might be able to get away with being a bodybuilding dumbbell. Or, for about the price of a single session, you can invest in this encyclopedia and reap a lifetime of gains that'll start with your very next workout.

Many people forget that I, like you, was once a beginner, and started building my body and my career standing in exactly the same position you are right now. If you find that difficult to believe, there's a selection of photos from my teenage years that will show how far I had to come, how much work I had to do. What made me stand apart from my peers, though, was a deep, deep desire to build muscle and the intense commitment to let nothing stop me. Along the way I made countless mistakes because the only guidebooks I had were a couple of Joe Weider's English-language muscle magazines, and I didn't even speak the language! The magazines inspired me to learn English so I could follow my early idol Reg Park's routine. Still, the magazine could teach me only some rudimentary concepts; everything else was done by trial and error.

Experience, however, is the best teacher as long as you learn from your mistakes. When I began, I trained biceps far more intently than I did triceps, a larger muscle group. I pretty much skipped ab training altogether because that era's conventional wisdom dictated that the abdominals received enough stimulation during many heavy compound movements. I put so little effort into calf training in those early years that when I finally came to America, I was forced to redouble my efforts. I even went so far as to cut off the pant legs on my training sweats so that my calves were constantly visible and under scrutiny — a constant reminder to me that my weaknesses deserved greater attention. Nor did we have many machines available; I never used a leg curl or leg extension during my first years as a bodybuilder. Most of all, though, I was handicapped by my lack of knowledge; my catalog of exercises to shape the total body consisted of just a few movements. Fortunately, with this book, you don't have to make the same mistakes I did.

You'll find, as I did, that building muscle builds you up in every part of your life. What you learn here will affect everything else that you do in your life. As you witness the fruits of your labor, your self-worth and self-confidence improve, and these traits will color your work and interpersonal relationships long past your competitive days. I credit bodybuilding with giving me not just physical attributes but also with laying the foundation for everything else I've accomplished — in business, acting, even family. I know I can succeed in anything I choose, and I know this because I understand what it takes to sacrifice, struggle, persist, and eventually overcome an obstacle.

Even today, many of the people I work with comment upon my commitment; when I'm making a movie, I'm ready to do a difficult scene over and over again until we get it right. Why? It all comes back to discipline. If you make a commitment to better your physical health, you'll find the same self-discipline, focus, and drive for success carries through into the rest of your life's activities. Though you may not realize it now, you'll eventually recognize it when you take the same disciplined approach in tackling a particular challenge. That's another reason I'm so enthusiastic about what bodybuilding can do.

This book is not a biography, not the story of my life as a seven-time Mr. Olympia winner or even a history of my life as an actor. (If you're interested, you can find all that elsewhere.) Though I'm known mainly as a bodybuilder-turned-actor and businessman, on various occasions I've been able to take on another role, one that brings me the greatest amount of personal pride, and that's the role of teacher. That's why I published the original encyclopedia in 1985 and have continued my close association with the sport. In the years since that first publication I've been collecting, studying, and revising information for this expanded and updated reference. That I can say I was able to inspire a generation of men and women of all ages to take charge of their health and fitness is truly gratifying. From the couple of dozen students of bodybuilding who heard me give a seminar in the mid-1970s at a Santa Monica gym, to the elementary and high schoolers I tried to empower to exercise when I traveled to all fifty states as chairman of the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, to the less fortunate who compete in the Inner City Games throughout the year and the developmentally challenged who participate in the Special Olympics, to the readers of my weekly syndicated newspaper column and the ones I write in the muscle magazines, to you the reader of this encyclopedia, you are all very much the reason I've undertaken this gargantuan effort. I am indeed grateful that you've chosen me as your teacher.

That I can share with you my greatest passion in the world, which is truly the only real secret to health, longevity, and a better quality of life, has made this book an endeavor of absolute necessity — and joy! Bodybuilding is my roots, and I will continue to promote the sport and spread the word through my work.

I've accumulated more than thirty-five years of bodybuilding experience, including tens of thousands of hours training with the world's top bodybuilders from yesterday, like Bill Pearl, Reg Park, Dave Draper, Frank Zane, Sergio Oliva, and Franco Columbu, to the champions of today, including Flex Wheeler, Shawn Ray, and eight-time Mr. Olympia, Lee Haney. I've studied the writings of the predecessors to modern-day bodybuilding, some of which date back more than a century, including Eugen Sandow's System of Physical Training (1894), the United States Army's Manual of Physical Training (1914), and Earl Liederman's Muscle Building (1924). I've interrogated the world's pre-eminent exercise scientists, researched questions from students at seminars I've given on all the major continents from Africa to Asia to South America to more recent ones I hold each year in Columbus, Ohio — and poured every ounce of that knowledge into this encyclopedia. With this reference book, which is designed for students ranging from rank beginners to competition-level bodybuilders to athletes looking to improve their performance to those who simply want to look better and be healthier, readers are free to pick through the expansive knowledge its taken me so many years to accumulate.

In one sense, I feel like a doctor on call who is continually asked for expert advice. A skier in Sun Valley asked me recently how to build quad strength and muscular endurance to improve his performance; at a health convention, several people inquired about the latest on the muscle-building properties of creatine; at Wimbledon, a top tennis champion wanted some advice on building his forearm strength; on vacation in Hawaii, a woman came up to me and asked what she could do to lose a hundred pounds of body fat and keep it off, at seminars, young bodybuilders want to know how to put a peak on their biceps and improve their outer-thigh sweep; when speaking to military personnel, I'm commonly asked how to get more out of training with just very basic equipment. Every day I'm asked questions on topics ranging from vitamins A to zinc, to the need for rest and recuperation, to the false promises of performance-enhancing substances. This is why I decided long ago that if I was going to spread the gospel on the benefits of bodybuilding I'd absolutely have to stay current with the material.

That's been no easy chore. Evolution in bodybuilding has occurred at the speed of light, both at the competitive level and among recreational athletes. Those who simply write that off as due to a greater use of anabolic drugs fail to see what's taken place in the industry. Muscle-building exercise, long scoffed at by coaches who claimed it made you musclebound and inflexible, has come under intense scrutiny by researchers. In fact, the science of resistance training is really becoming a science as exercise scientists verify what we bodybuilders have been working out by trial and error for years. That's not to say we didn't know what we were doing; on the contrary, early physique champions were pioneers in the health and fitness field, planting the seeds of development for each generation that followed. We coined such phrases as "No pain, no gain," words that every bodybuilder today knows and understands.

Though science is showing us how best to manipulate the variables that make up your training, you cannot discount the importance of environmental factors. I grew up in a poor family in post-World War II Austria, yet those conditions gave me a greater drive to succeed. Developing an instinctive sense about your training is another intangible factor that many top bodybuilders develop. Desire, discipline, and drive all play a role. Science has a hard time quantifying these factors, but their importance is certainly profound. So, too, are your genetics: Some individuals have the bone structure and muscle-fiber makeup to succeed at the competitive level in power sports or bodybuilding. The bottom line is that with bodybuilding, anyone can make improvements and achieve 100 percent of his or her potential, even without the potential to become a world-class athlete.

Still, exercise scientists and medical experts studying the body, as well as researchers in the fields of diet and sports nutrition, are applying the lessons of yesterday to tweak and refine training techniques. If not set in stone, many of the ideas may best be characterized as principles. Ultimately, however, any finding presented by the scientific community must be useful to students of the sport and bodybuilding champions themselves, who are the ultimate test of the validity of such ideas. Applying these truths to achieve results is the practical basis of this encyclopedia. The information that I present on these pages is proved, of practical value, and will also work for you!

Since I last published the encyclopedia, the nature of bodybuilding has undergone an evolution of sorts in a number of ways. A bench press is still a bench press, and a squat a squat. In fact, the execution of various exercises has changed very little, but I've witnessed a number of other very important factors that have. Let me briefly review not just these developments, but how they can be applied to your workout. You'll learn:

  • how to structure your workout, whether your goal is to become a physique champion or simply to firm and tighten your body, and how you can effectively target lagging areas;
  • how power athletes can adjust repetition speed to build explosive strength;
  • which exercises to include for the greatest muscular benefits, and which ones are best left to advanced-level trainees;
  • how to put together a workout that emphasizes body-fat control vs. one that maximizes strength, and even how to cycle them to get the best of both worlds;
  • how to not only reduce your risk of injury but actually lift more weight by adding a 5- or 10-minute warm-up and light stretching;
  • how to get the most out of each rep and each set, taking your muscles to total failure and reaping the greatest benefits in the pain zone;
  • how to mix up the training variables when you hit a training plateau;
  • when too much enthusiasm will start reversing your muscle and strength gains.

As I mentioned, few exercises are done any differently now than they were twenty years ago. Exceptions: Science has weighed in with a differing opinion on how you should do abdominal movements. The crunch movement, which features a shortened range of motion whereby the pelvis and ribcage are drawn together, is a safer exercise than the common full-range sit-up. The best bodybuilders of my competitive era did have outstanding abdominals from doing sit-ups, but their strong midsections probably saved them from incurring spinal problems. Because lower-back pain afflicts more than three-quarters of all Americans at some point, the sit-up is fairly universally contraindicated. So, I've completely overhauled the abdominal training section to meet current scientific opinion. I've also expanded the list of exercises to include the wide variety of crunch variations.

The basic raw materials of weight training — barbells, dumbbells, and bodyweight exercises — haven't changed much either, but we can't say the same about resistance-training machines, which have traditionally been favored by some users because of the safety factor. Today, dozens of manufacturers vigorously compete with one another, which is radically changing the face of the industry and the sport. Each year new versions of old favorites are becoming increasingly sophisticated and smooth to operate, now closer than ever to mimicking freeweight movements. Some allow you to alter the angle of resistance from one set to the next; others increase resistance on the negative; still others use a computer to vary the resistance. I would expect we'll see even more radical developments over the next couple of decades.

Commercial gyms aren't the only ones to benefit; home gym use has skyrocketed as large, clunky machines have given way to smaller, safer models that don't take a big bite out of the wallet and still fit nicely into a spare bedroom. That's an ideal choice for individuals too busy to make it into the gym.

In terms of nutrition, the raw concept "You are what you eat" still rings true, but don't discount the dramatic changes that have occurred in sports nutrition, either. Sure, science has engineered some super-foods, like firmer tomatoes, and we're now raising fish in so-called farms and leaner meats from ostrich and beefalo, for example. Today, we also know more about the dietary needs of the hard-training athlete and have seen the introduction of some important supplements that aid sports performance.

Let's start with the basic bodybuilding diet. I've seen a thousand and one fad diets come and go, but nearly every bodybuilder I know follows the same basic guidelines that I present in this book. More often than not, a lack of progress in your muscle-building efforts can be linked to nutritional shortcomings in your diet. If I can hijack a phrase from computer technicians, if you put in garbage, you'll very likely get garbage out. I present several commonsense strategies that can work for you. Among the macronutrients, I'm often asked about the role of protein and the key amino acids that support tissue growth, how much you should be consuming in a given day, and how to time your meals for optimal absorption. Fats, mistakenly thought of as an enemy to bodybuilders, who may avoid them at all costs, play an important role in synthesizing key muscle-building hormones and maintaining health.

No discussion on nutrition would be complete without mentioning the most important supplements, some of which have dramatically changed the face of sports nutrition. Creatine is a proven performance enhancer, but a number of other products, including the amino acid glutamine, branched-chain amino acids, and antioxidants, are important to athletes as well.

We also know more about the ways in which nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream; since not all foods are absorbed at the same rate, the glycemic index was created to measure insulin response, a key anabolic process. Given that a hard workout depletes your muscles of their glycogen stores (basically stored energy), the post-workout meal is especially crucial. Research now tells us what it should contain and how soon you should be refueling after your training session. And who better than top-ranked bodybuilders themselves, who've endured innumerable contest-preparation cycles, to explain the tricks that even the noncompetitive bodybuilder can use to reduce his body fat, even if it's just to look great at the beach.

The field of sports psychology is thriving along with the payroll of milion-dollar athletes. New theories and techniques demonstrate the importance of the mind in training and competition, how to spur motivation and stay focused, and how to set achievable short- and long-range goals. If you have a goal of becoming Mr. Olympia, you'd better start by having a clear vision of your ultimate physique, then follow it up with a plan on how you'll create it. Nothing happens by accident. You won't, for example, become a respected doctor by happenstance; you'll need to plan on years of intensive studies to reach your goal. The same goes with your training.

Once you have your goals clearly in mind, I'll show you bow to create your own personal workout routine, but the role of the mind doesn't end there. As it did for me, that vision will inspire you on each burning rep of every set and successively take you one step closer to your goal. But there's more to it than just what goes on in the gym: Dietary and lifestyle considerations will also move you either closer to your desired destination or further away. Thats why the mind is so crucial in all sports, including bodybuilding. Your mind must first create the picture, and your training must be in sync with that visualization. As you begin to see changes, you start to feel better about yourself. The result is a self-perpetuating process: You focus your mind to train your body, and the changes that begin to take place impact your mind as well. Dream it, believe it, and you can achieve it!

The exponential growth of bodybuilding has spawned a billion-dollar industry with unlimited career opportunities in health clubs, apparel, equipment, nutritional products, publications and media, physical therapy, personal training and coaching, and other areas. Can you imagine making a living every day from an activity you freely choose to do as a hobby? If that's where you'd like to be, learning all you can about the body and how it works is a great place to start.

Paralleling the changes made in the study of bodybuilding are the ones in society at large. Today, weight training is one of the most popular recreational fitness activities in America, but it certainly wasn't that way some twenty-five years ago. I can remember hearing various coaches and athletes bash muscle-building, claiming it would hinder sports performance. (Gee, I wonder where those guys are now!) Resistance training is being used by all kinds of people today.

From the high schools to colleges and professional sports teams, weight training is helping to create better, stronger, even faster athletes. Sure it takes incredible natural ability to rise to the top of your sport, but without question resistance training provides the winning edge. Baseball slugger Mark McGwire hits the iron regularly even during the season, as does just about every position player in the National Football League. I've even seen members of the NBA's World Champion Chicago Bulls over at Gold's Gym working out while they were in Los Angeles. You can bet they weren't there taking pictures like tourists!

You can strengthen your backhand for tennis, build up your quads for skiing, add valuable height to your vertical leap in volleyball, improve your ability to withstand a hit in soccer, power your stroke and kick in swimming, and improve your strength and stride in sprinting, all with resistance training. What's more, you'll be more injury-resistant should a mishap occur.

Of course, you wouldn't expect a long-distance runner to train like a football player. Choice of exercises and manipulation of the training variables allow each athlete to tailor the activity to individual needs and goals. For some, like boxers and wrestlers who compete in weight classes, or gymnasts who can't afford to significantly increase their bodyweight, strength is critical, but a different type of training is required from traditional bodybuilding. A football lineman, shot-putter, or discus thrower each has his own specific training requirements for his activity. If you play a sport, you'll learn how to customize your workout to meet your sport-specific (and even position-specific) requirements. Still, in the end, no matter whether the athlete is 150 or 250 pounds, strength training is the common thread.

Some occupations demand that personnel pass strenuous physical conditioning that mimics on-the-job conditions. Entrance requirements into the military, fire, and police academies require exacting levels of fitness — in terms of strength, muscular endurance, and aerobic fitness — to ensure everyone's safety and mission effectiveness. This is especially demanding (but by no means impossible) for women, who must train perhaps more vigorously than their male counterparts. Once you're selected for admission doesn't mean you no longer have to stay in shape, either; to that end, police and fire departments are installing weight rooms in their facilities and encouraging their veterans to maintain peak levels of physical conditioning.

Just a few years back during the Gulf war, the Washington Post reported that the number one request of servicemen in the Middle East was to have weights sent over so they could keep up their training. To that point, they had been lifting pails full of sand. At that time I was serving as chairman of the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, and I approached a number of large equipment companies seeking donations. In all, we amassed more than four hundred tons of equipment, which General Colin Powell insisted be airlifted to the troops. That's how important physical fitness is to some of these guys!

Resistance training is even being used by the elderly. After about age twenty-five you lose about a half pound of muscle for every year of life. Without an appropriate training stimulus, your muscles will eventually decrease in size and strength. Regular exercise will help to hold back this aging process, which is really nothing more than a result of disuse. For many seniors, greater strength leads to independence and improved quality of life.

Now before you visualize Granny under the squat rack, realize that even just basic movements can strengthen your muscles and bones and improve flexibility, but must be tailored to the user. Today, exercising against the resistance of water in a pool is a popular activity among many seniors.

New research shows that exercise can aid in the disease-fighting process, too. Don't just take my word for it; this is confirmed fact. Just recently I read a report in the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research that weight training is aiding cancer patients. Numerous other studies have linked resistance training to improvements in individuals with diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, arthritis, asthma, and AIDS. Exercise can boost the immune system, allowing you to better fight off minor ailments, even mild depression. Again, the weight-training program must be customized to meet the individual's particular needs.

What about younger people? Yes, they, too, can enjoy some of the benefits of a resistance-training program by making a few modifications, such as using a high-rep protocol and bodyweight exercises that will both strengthen and build bones and muscle.

One of the most remarkable recent fitness trends has been the doubling in popularity of strength training among women between 1987 and 1996. At the competitive level, the sport now offers contests for both bodybuilders and fitness competitors. At the noncompetitive level, most women prefer a workout that simply tightens and reshapes the body and works particular problem areas like the glutes, hips, and triceps. Most often, women have different goals than men, who are generally more interested in bulking up and significantly increasing their strength. Though the goals of men and women may differ, which is reflected in program setup and choice of exercises, the execution of the movements is identical. The female body also differs physiologically from a male's: smaller skeletal structure, less upper-body mass in relation to the legs, more body fat and fat cells located in the hip, thigh, and glute areas compared to the waist. But given these facts, muscle fiber is muscle fiber and, whether on a male or female, responds to the same type of exercises and training techniques. For many women, then, following the strength-training guidelines put forth with some modifications is the answer.

Does that mean you'll grow bigger muscles if you train like a man? Certainly not: Women produce so little testosterone, the anabolic hormone largely responsible for muscle growth, that the training effect is far less pronounced. The bottom line here is that this book addresses various goals for just about every body type, age, and gender; a woman can make an equally impressive physique transformation even if her goal is not traditional bodybuilding per se.

Ever broken a bone and later visited a physical therapist to begin rehab? Strength training is useful here, too. Not only does it lower your risk of soft-tissue and joint injuries, but it's your best tool for full recuperation and a speedy return to your activity. Whether it be temporary muscle soreness, lower-back pain, tight joints, or returning to action after you break a bone, resistance training will allow you to more quickly regain your former levels of strength.

From the days when Charles Atlas offered help to pencilnecks who had sand kicked in their face, bodybuilding has come a long way. Resistance training is now practiced worldwide. No doubt, it's far more than building big arms and looking great at the beach (but those aren't bad goals, mind you); weight training can reshape and tone your body, improve your health as well as your game, keep you injury-free, and ensure a long, active future. Whether you're a beginner looking for the nuts and bolts of training, an intermediate seeking to split your workout and bring up a lagging body part, or an advanced trainee looking to refine your physique and incorporate advanced training techniques, you'll find the answers in these pages.

Obviously, then, the scale of changes that have occurred in the scope of bodybuilding and among its participants since I first published the encyclopedia are far greater than merely evolutionary — they approach revolutionary. Besides those just mentioned, we have a greater understanding of the benefits of resistance training, which accounts in part for its tremendous popularity.

Every person who enters a gym or health club brings a personal motivation as to why he or she has chosen resistance training to accomplish certain goals. Sure, the aim of bodybuilding is to develop greater muscle size and improve physical appearance, but they are by no means the only reasons individuals train with weights. Consider also the effects on strength: You have the capacity to do greater work, both in terms of being able to lift a heavier weight one time (muscle strength) and to lift a lighter weight more times (muscle endurance). Some types of bodybuilding, like circuit training, are a good choice to build heart health and improve the functioning of your lungs and respiratory system as well. Traditional bodybuilding combined with some type of aerobic training will promote even greater health benefits.

In an increasingly technology-driven society that sits for long periods in front of computers and televisions and eats too many calories from fat, obesity — and several major health consequences — is the result. Bodybuilding plays a major role in building lean muscle tissue and reducing body fat. Unlike adipose (fat) tissue, muscle tissue is metabolically active and has a high energy requirement for maintenance and rebuilding. An increase in muscle tissue corresponds to an increase in your metabolic rate. Bodybuilding allows you to literally redesign your body and lose as much as two pounds of fat per week — without risking your health with diet pills or fad diets! One of life's curious ironies is that individuals who are overweight also have a tendency to be tired, while those who expend a lot of energy exercising seem to have more.

Other healthful effects can be measured as well. Research shows that resistance training done correctly makes you more flexible, not musclebound. That's because when one muscle flexes during a movement, the antagonist muscle is stretched. Many top athletes who've spent years in the weight room, like muscular gymnasts and track sprinters, must have tremendous flexibility to excel at their respective sports. I've even seen top pro bodybuilders like Flex Wheeler do the full splits onstage! Movement maintains flexibility, and I encourage you to work all body parts over their normal ranges of motion.

As you age, especially if you're a woman, your bones lose strength and size. Resistance training can prevent and even reverse osteoporosis. That holds true for tendons and ligaments, too. Stronger muscles, bones, and connective tissue reduce your risk of injury. Skeletal muscle serves as a kind of shock absorber that helps dissipate force from a repetitive activity like running to a simple fall onto a hard floor.

As I mentioned, the importance of the psychological component in bodybuilding can't be understated. Mental health professionals today agree that nothing beats exercise for defusing anxiety. In terms of self-respect, you can get this from a job well done, and physical fitness is no exception. You work to achieve your goals and can rightfully feel proud once you have achieved them, gaining respect from others in the process. Let me finally add that training regularly can dramatically boost your sex life by giving you more energy, increasing testosterone levels, decreasing anxiety, and improving self-esteem.

The summation of all this makes a remarkable and compelling case for bodybuilding. No wonder working out with weights became the most popular fitness activity in America in 1995 as measured by the Fitness Products Council and has remained on top ever since. Even USA Today

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Table of Contents

Contents

Foreword

BOOK ONE INTRODUCTION TO BODYBUILDING

CHAPTER 1

EVOLUTION AND HISTORY

The Transition to Bodybuilding

Bodybuilding in the Forties and Fifties

Bodybuilding in the Sixties

Bodybuilding in the Seventies

Pumping Iron

Bodybuilding in the Eighties and Nineties

The Explosive Growth of Bodybuilding

The Arnold Classic Weekend

The Profession of Bodybuilding

Joe Weider

The Evolution of Modern Training

The Future of Bodybuilding

Women's Bodybuilding

CHAPTER 2

THE ABCs OF BODYBUILDING

Sport vs. Exercise System

Progressive-Resistance Training

Weightlifting, Resistance Training, and Bodybuilding

Aerobics and Muscular Definition

Bodybuilding for Athletes

CHAPTER 3

THE TRAINING EXPERIENCE

What You Think Is What You Get

Training for Women

CHAPTER 4

THE GYM

The Gym Explosion

What to Look for in a Gym

Environment and Atmosphere

Who Else Is Training in the Gym?

You Don't Have to Train in Los Angeles

Gyms for Noncompetitors

Training at Home

CHAPTER 5

GETTING STARTED

Fast and Slow Developers

Free Weights vs. Machines — A Matter of Gravity

Shoes

Gloves

Straps

Belts

Wraps

Head Straps

Gravity Boots

Rubber Suits

Training Diary

Bodybuilding and the Very Young

Starting Late

Bodybuilding and the Elderly

Marking the Transition

Competition

BOOK TWO TRAINING PROGRAMS

CHAPTER 1

BASIC TRAINING PRINCIPLES

Individual Needs

Progressive Resistance

Reps

Training to Failure

Sets

Full Range of Motion

The Quality of Contraction

Warming Up

Power Training

Heavy Days

Overtraining and Recuperation

Resting Between Sets

Breathing

Stretching

  • STRETCHING EXERCISES
  • SideBends
  • Forward Bends
  • Hamstring Stretches
  • Lunges
  • Feet Apart
  • Seated Forward Bends
  • Inner Thighs Stretches
  • Quadriceps Stretches
  • Hurdler's Stretches
  • Spinal Twist
  • Hanging Stretches

CHAPTER 2

LEARNING YOUR BODY TYPE

Understanding Your Body Type

Metabolism and Muscle-Building

Ectomorph Training

Mesomorph Training

Endomorph Training

Body Composition Testing

CHAPTER 3

THE BASIC TRAINING PROGRAM

Split System Training

The Basic Muscles

Organizing Your Training

Rest and Recuperation

When to Train

Level I Exercise Program

Level II Exercise Program

CHAPTER 4

ADVANCED TRAINING PRINCIPLES

Increasing Training Intensity

Intensity Techniques

Power-Training Principle

Learning to Use Advanced Training Principles

CHAPTER 5

BUILDING A QUALITY PHYSIQUE: THE ADVANCED TRAINING PROGRAM

When to Move on to Advanced Training

"High-Set" Training

Double-Split Training

Advanced Training Program

The Two-Level Advanced Program

Level I Exercise Program

Level II Exercise Program

Going to the Limit

Varying Your Program

Weak Point Training

Training Weak Areas

CHAPTER 6

COMPETITION TRAINING PROGRAM

Building a Competition Physique

The Fear of Smallness

The Elements of Competition Training

Depending on Your Training Partner

Training Volume

Choosing Exercises

The Training Split

Competition Exercise Program

Individualizing the Training Program

Muscle Separation

Muscularity and Definition: Analyzing Your Progress

Outdoor Training

CHAPTER 7

MIND OVER MATTER: MIND, THE MOST POWERFUL TOOL

Big Goals and Little Goals

Learning from Failure

Muscular Inhibition

Maximizing Your Motivation

Breaking Barriers

How Bodybuilding Affects the Mind

BOOK THREE BODY PART EXERCISES

THE SHOULDERS

The Muscles of the Shoulders

Looking at the Shoulders

Training the Deltoids

Basic Training

Advanced Training

The Competition Program

Training the Trapezius Muscles

Weak Point Training

  • SHOULDER EXERCISES
  • Arnold Presses
  • Behind-the-Neck Presses
  • Dumbbell Presses
  • Military Press
  • Clean and Press
  • Machine Presses
  • Push Presses
  • Standing Lateral Raises
  • One-Arm Cross Cable Laterals
  • One-Arm Side Cable Laterals
  • Seated One-Arm Cross Cable Laterals
  • Reverse Overhead Dumbbell Laterals
  • Machine Laterals
  • Front Dumbbell Raises
  • Seated Bent-Over Dumbbell Laterals
  • Standing Bent-Over Dumbbell Laterals
  • Bent-Over Cable Laterals
  • Lying Side Laterals
  • TRAPEZIUS EXERCISES
  • Upright Rows
  • Heavy Upright Rows
  • Dumbbell Shrugs
  • Barbell Shrugs

    THE CHEST

  • The Muscles of the Chest
  • Total Chest Development
  • Training the Chest
  • Beginning and Advanced Programs
  • Competition Program
  • Weak Point Training
  • Power Training
  • Posing and Flexing
  • The Serratus Muscles
  • Training the Serratus
  • CHEST EXERCISES
  • Barbell Flat Bench Presses
  • Barbell Incline Bench Presses
  • Dumbbell Flat Bench Presses
  • Incline Dumbbell Presses
  • Decline Dumbbell Presses
  • Parallel Dips
  • Machine Presses
  • Dumbbell Flys
  • Incline Dumbbell
  • Flys Standing Cable Crossovers
  • Bent-Forward Cable Crossovers
  • Flat Bench Cable Crossovers
  • Machine Flys
  • Straight-Arm Pullovers
  • Rope Pulls
  • One-Arm Cable Pulls
  • Machine Pullovers
  • Close Grip Chins
  • Hanging Serratus Crunches
  • Hanging Dumbbell Rows
  • THE BACK
  • The Muscles of the Back
  • Training the Back
  • The Upper Back
  • The Lats
  • Lower Lats
  • Middle Back Thickness
  • Lower Back
  • Back Muscle Functions
  • Designing a Back Program
  • Weak Point Training
  • Stretching and Flexing
  • BACK EXERCISES
  • Wide-Grip Chins Behind the Neck
  • Wide-Grip Chins to the Front
  • (Optional) Close-Grip Chins
  • Lat Machine Pulldowns
  • Close-or Medium-Grip Pulldowns
  • Bent-Over Barbell Rows
  • Bent-Over Dumbbell Rows
  • T-Bar Rows
  • One-Arm Dumbbell Rows
  • One-Arm Cable Rows
  • Seated Cable Rows
  • Seated Cable Rows (Optional)
  • Machine Rows
  • Bent-Arm Pullovers with Barbell
  • Machine Pullovers
  • Deadlifts
  • Good Mornings
  • Hyperextentions

THE ARMS

The Muscles of the Arms

Training the Arms

Developing Perfect Arms

BICEPS TRAINING

Cheat Curls

Beginning Program

Advanced Program

Competition Program

Weak Point Training

TRICEPS TRAINING

Beginning and Advanced Programs

Competition Program

Weak Point Training

FOREARM TRAINING

Beginning Program

Advanced Program

Competition Program

Posing the Forearms

Weak Point Training

  • ARM EXERCISES
  • Standing Barbell Curls
  • Arm Blaster Curls (Optional)
  • Cheat Curls
  • Preacher Curls
  • 3-Part Curls (21s)
  • Incline Dumbbell Curls
  • Seated Dumbbell Curls
  • Hammer Curls (Optional)
  • Alternate Dumbbell Curls
  • Concentration Curls
  • Lying Dumbbell Curls
  • Two-Hand Cable Curls
  • Cable Curls with Preacher Bench (Optional)
  • Reverse Curls
  • Reverse Preacher Bench Curls
  • Biceps Machines
  • Machine Curls
  • Triceps Cable Pressdowns (or Lat Machine Pressdowns)
  • One-Arm Cable
  • Reverse Pressdowns
  • Seated Triceps Presses
  • Standing Triceps Presses
  • Lying Triceps Extensions
  • Lying Dumbbell Extensions
  • Lying Cross Face
  • Triceps Extensions (Optional)
  • Dumbbell Kickbacks
  • One-Arm Triceps Extensions
  • Dips
  • Dips Behind Back
  • Fixed Bar Triceps Extensions
  • Barbell Wrist Curls
  • Dumbbell One-Arm Wrist Curls
  • Behind-the-Back-Wrist Curls
  • Reverse Wrist Curls with Barbell
  • Reverse Wrist Curls with Dumbbells
  • Reverse Barbell Curls
  • Reverse Preacher Bench Barbell Curls
  • Reverse Curls Machine
  • One-Arm Cable Reverse Curls
  • THE THIGHS
  • The Muscles of the Upper Leg
  • The Importance of Thigh Training
  • The Demands of Leg Training
  • Building the Quadriceps
  • The Hamstrings
  • Beginning and Advanced Programs
  • Competition Program
  • Flexing and Stretching
  • Weak Point Training
  • LEG EXERCISES
  • Squats
  • Heavy Squats
  • Half Squats
  • Machine Squats
  • Front Squats
  • Sissy Squats
  • Leg Presses
  • Leg Press Variations
  • Back Squats
  • Lunges
  • Leg Extensions
  • Leg Curls
  • Standing Leg Curls
  • Straight-Leg Deadlifts
  • THE CALVES
  • The Muscles of the Calf
  • Training the Calves
  • Stretching the Calves
  • Beginning Program
  • Advanced and Competition Programs
  • Weak Point Training
  • Posing the Calves
  • CALF EXERCISES
  • Standing Calf Raises
  • Calf Raises on Leg Press Machine
  • Seated Calf Raises
  • Donkey Calf Raises
  • One-Leg Calf Raises
  • Reverse Calf Raises
  • THE ABDOMEN
  • The Muscles of the Abdomen
  • Training the Abdominals
  • Spot Reduction
  • Ab-Specific Exercises
  • All Kinds of Crunches
  • Oblique Exercises
  • Serratus and Intercostals
  • Beginning Program
  • Advanced Program
  • Competition Program
  • Weak Point Training
  • ABDOMINAL EXERCISES
  • Roman Chairs
  • Crunches
  • Twisting Crunches
  • Reverse
  • Crunches
  • Hanging Reverse Crunches
  • Vertical Bench Crunches
  • Cable Crunches
  • Machine Crunches
  • Seated Leg Tucks
  • Seated Twist
  • Leg Raises
  • Flat Bench Leg Raises
  • Bent-Knee Flat Bench Leg Raises
  • Bent-Knee Incline Board Leg Raises
  • Bent-Knee Vertical Bench Leg Raise
  • Hanging Leg Raises
  • Twisting Hanging Leg Raises
  • Additional Leg-Raise Exercises
  • Side Leg Raises
  • Bent-Knee Side Leg Raises
  • Front Kicks
  • Bench Kickbacks
  • Rear Leg Scissors
  • Vacuums

BOOK FOUR COMPETITION

CHAPTER 1

POSING

The History of Posing

The Art of Posing

Learning by Observing

How IFBB Contests Are Conducted

Scoring

NPC Contests

Overall Winners

Endurance

Practicing Posing

Practicing for Round One

Practicing for Round Two

Personalizing Your Poses

Practicing for Round Three

The Way judging Used to Be

Choosing Posing Music (For Round Three)

The Boredom Factor

Practicing for Round Four

Common Posing Mistakes

Controlling Your Emotions

Posing as Exercise

Posing for Photographs

CHAPTER 2

TOTAL PREPARATION

Posing Trunks

Tanning

Tanning Parlors and Sunlamps

Artificial Tans

Posing Oil

Hairstyle

Body Hair

Dressing for Success

Finishing Touches

CHAPTER 3

COMPETITION STRATEGY AND TACTICS

The Role of Experience

How Often to Compete

Getting Your Feet Wet

Advanced Competition

Publicity

Politics and Public Relations

Learning to Peak for Competition

Water

The Day of the Contest

Psychological Warfare

Representing the Sport

BOOK FIVE HEALTH, NUTRITION, AND DIET

CHAPTER 1

NUTRITION AND DIET

The Special Requirements of Bodybuilding

The Basic Nutrients

Protein

Carbohydrates

Dietary Fats

Water

Vitamins

Minerals

The Energy Content of Food

Metabolic Rate

Exercise and Energy Expenditure

"False" Energy

Nutritional Minimums

Balanced Diet

The Importance of Glycogen

Ketosis

Eating and Training

How Often to Eat

CHAPTER 2

WEIGHT CONTROL: GAINING MUSCLE, LOSING FAT

Body Composition

Influences on Body Composition

Diet and Body Types

Age and Body Fat

Calorie Consumption

Quality of Diet

Creating "Demand"

How Much Aerobics?

Eating to Gain Muscle

Muscle-Gain Menu Plan

High-Protein, High-Calorie Drinks

Level I

Level II

Level III

How to Lose Fat

Ketosis

Recommended Protein Sources

Recommended Carbohydrate Sources

A Summary of Fat-Loss Diet Rules

Reading Labels

CHAPTER 3

CONTEST DIET STRATEGIES

Getting in Shape to Get in Shape

Writing It All Down

Eating, Eating, and Eating

Deprivation

Metabolic Slowdown

Measuring Body Changes

Getting Started: 12 Weeks Out

Testing for Ketosis

Avoiding Too Much Aerobics

Drugs

Drugs and Sports

Side Effects of Steroid Use

Diuretics

Growth Hormone

Drug Testing and Bodybuilding

Super-Supplementation

The Last Week

"Depletion"

Carbing-Up

Losing Water

Training, Posing, and Diet

The Night Before

The Morning of the Contest

Between Prejudging and the Night Show

After the Contest

CHAPTER 4

INJURIES AND HOW TO TREAT THEM

Technical Information

Muscle and Tendon

Initial Treatment

Spasms and Cramps

Tendinitis

Pain

Therapy

Injury Prevention

Joints and Ligaments

Injuries to the Capsule and Ligaments

Treatment

Joint Dislocation

Practical Information

The Calves

The Knee

The Upper Leg

The Groin

Lower Abdomen

Lower Back

Upper Back

The Shoulders

The Pectorals

The Biceps

The Triceps

The Elbows

The Forearms

Training Around Injuries

Cold-Weather Training

A Quick Summary

Muscle Stiffness, Soreness, or Injury

Pain or Problems with Your Joints

Pumping Up Your Diet

What to Watch Out For: Dehydration

What's Going On with My Immune System?

The Final Touch

pardIndex

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Preface

Who would have thought that anyone could compile an encyclopedia on bodybuilding and resistance training, let alone one more than six hundred pages long? After all, how much is there to say about hoisting heavy metal plates? Bodybuilding isn't, as they say, rocket science.

Well, many people take exactly that approach when they begin a bodybuilding program; I know because they're easy to spot at the gym. Such individuals generally load excessively heavy weights on a bar, heave the iron with whatever form it takes to get the weight up (with an extra thrust from the lower back for good measure), and then let the bar come crashing down. That's not bodybuilding! Strong on desire but short on smarts, these folks are either sidelined by an injury or often will give up quickly because they aren't seeing any significant results from all the work they're doing.

The truth is, it doesn't take a Ph.D. to learn the complexities of bodybuilding, but neither does it come as naturally as, say, riding a bike. Heck, the bodybuilding vocabulary is like a foreign language: pyramid training, gastrocnemius, negatives, periodization, instinctive training, spotting. Learning the many distinct elements of resistance training, from the hundreds of unique exercises and variations to understanding how to put together a results-producing workout, all take time and practice. To make progress at the fastest rate possible, you've simply got to know what you're doing.

If you're rich enough to afford $50 (or more) an hour for a personal trainer you might be able to get away with being a bodybuilding dumbbell. Or, for about the price of a single session, you can invest in this encyclopedia and reap a lifetime of gains that'll start with your very next workout.

Many people forget that I, like you, was once a beginner, and started building my body and my career standing in exactly the same position you are right now. If you find that difficult to believe, there's a selection of photos from my teenage years that will show how far I had to come, how much work I had to do. What made me stand apart from my peers, though, was a deep, deep desire to build muscle and the intense commitment to let nothing stop me. Along the way I made countless mistakes because the only guidebooks I had were a couple of Joe Weider's English-language muscle magazines, and I didn't even speak the language! The magazines inspired me to learn English so I could follow my early idol Reg Park's routine. Still, the magazine could teach me only some rudimentary concepts; everything else was done by trial and error.

Experience, however, is the best teacher as long as you learn from your mistakes. When I began, I trained biceps far more intently than I did triceps, a larger muscle group. I pretty much skipped ab training altogether because that era's conventional wisdom dictated that the abdominals received enough stimulation during many heavy compound movements. I put so little effort into calf training in those early years that when I finally came to America, I was forced to redouble my efforts. I even went so far as to cut off the pant legs on my training sweats so that my calves were constantly visible and under scrutiny -- a constant reminder to me that my weaknesses deserved greater attention. Nor did we have many machines available; I never used a leg curl or leg extension during my first years as a bodybuilder. Most of all, though, I was handicapped by my lack of knowledge; my catalog of exercises to shape the total body consisted of just a few movements. Fortunately, with this book, you don't have to make the same mistakes I did.

You'll find, as I did, that building muscle builds you up in every part of your life. What you learn here will affect everything else that you do in your life. As you witness the fruits of your labor, your self-worth and self-confidence improve, and these traits will color your work and interpersonal relationships long past your competitive days. I credit bodybuilding with giving me not just physical attributes but also with laying the foundation for everything else I've accomplished -- in business, acting, even family. I know I can succeed in anything I choose, and I know this because I understand what it takes to sacrifice, struggle, persist, and eventually overcome an obstacle.

Even today, many of the people I work with comment upon my commitment; when I'm making a movie, I'm ready to do a difficult scene over and over again until we get it right. Why? It all comes back to discipline. If you make a commitment to better your physical health, you'll find the same self-discipline, focus, and drive for success carries through into the rest of your life's activities. Though you may not realize it now, you'll eventually recognize it when you take the same disciplined approach in tackling a particular challenge. That's another reason I'm so enthusiastic about what bodybuilding can do.

This book is not a biography, not the story of my life as a seven-time Mr. Olympia winner or even a history of my life as an actor. (If you're interested, you can find all that elsewhere.) Though I'm known mainly as a bodybuilder-turned-actor and businessman, on various occasions I've been able to take on another role, one that brings me the greatest amount of personal pride, and that's the role of teacher. That's why I published the original encyclopedia in 1985 and have continued my close association with the sport. In the years since that first publication I've been collecting, studying, and revising information for this expanded and updated reference. That I can say I was able to inspire a generation of men and women of all ages to take charge of their health and fitness is truly gratifying. From the couple of dozen students of bodybuilding who heard me give a seminar in the mid-1970s at a Santa Monica gym, to the elementary and high schoolers I tried to empower to exercise when I traveled to all fifty states as chairman of the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, to the less fortunate who compete in the Inner City Games throughout the year and the developmentally challenged who participate in the Special Olympics, to the readers of my weekly syndicated newspaper column and the ones I write in the muscle magazines, to you the reader of this encyclopedia, you are all very much the reason I've undertaken this gargantuan effort. I am indeed grateful that you've chosen me as your teacher.

That I can share with you my greatest passion in the world, which is truly the only real secret to health, longevity, and a better quality of life, has made this book an endeavor of absolute necessity -- and joy! Bodybuilding is my roots, and I will continue to promote the sport and spread the word through my work.

I've accumulated more than thirty-five years of bodybuilding experience, including tens of thousands of hours training with the world's top bodybuilders from yesterday, like Bill Pearl, Reg Park, Dave Draper, Frank Zane, Sergio Oliva, and Franco Columbu, to the champions of today, including Flex Wheeler, Shawn Ray, and eight-time Mr. Olympia, Lee Haney. I've studied the writings of the predecessors to modern-day bodybuilding, some of which date back more than a century, including Eugen Sandow's System of Physical Training (1894), the United States Army's Manual of Physical Training (1914), and Earl Liederman's Muscle Building (1924). I've interrogated the world's pre-eminent exercise scientists, researched questions from students at seminars I've given on all the major continents from Africa to Asia to South America to more recent ones I hold each year in Columbus, Ohio -- and poured every ounce of that knowledge into this encyclopedia. With this reference book, which is designed for students ranging from rank beginners to competition-level bodybuilders to athletes looking to improve their performance to those who simply want to look better and be healthier, readers are free to pick through the expansive knowledge its taken me so many years to accumulate.

In one sense, I feel like a doctor on call who is continually asked for expert advice. A skier in Sun Valley asked me recently how to build quad strength and muscular endurance to improve his performance; at a health convention, several people inquired about the latest on the muscle-building properties of creatine; at Wimbledon, a top tennis champion wanted some advice on building his forearm strength; on vacation in Hawaii, a woman came up to me and asked what she could do to lose a hundred pounds of body fat and keep it off, at seminars, young bodybuilders want to know how to put a peak on their biceps and improve their outer-thigh sweep; when speaking to military personnel, I'm commonly asked how to get more out of training with just very basic equipment. Every day I'm asked questions on topics ranging from vitamins A to zinc, to the need for rest and recuperation, to the false promises of performance-enhancing substances. This is why I decided long ago that if I was going to spread the gospel on the benefits of bodybuilding I'd absolutely have to stay current with the material.

That's been no easy chore. Evolution in bodybuilding has occurred at the speed of light, both at the competitive level and among recreational athletes. Those who simply write that off as due to a greater use of anabolic drugs fail to see what's taken place in the industry. Muscle-building exercise, long scoffed at by coaches who claimed it made you musclebound and inflexible, has come under intense scrutiny by researchers. In fact, the science of resistance training is really becoming a science as exercise scientists verify what we bodybuilders have been working out by trial and error for years. That's not to say we didn't know what we were doing; on the contrary, early physique champions were pioneers in the health and fitness field, planting the seeds of development for each generation that followed. We coined such phrases as "No pain, no gain," words that every bodybuilder today knows and understands.

Though science is showing us how best to manipulate the variables that make up your training, you cannot discount the importance of environmental factors. I grew up in a poor family in post-World War II Austria, yet those conditions gave me a greater drive to succeed. Developing an instinctive sense about your training is another intangible factor that many top bodybuilders develop. Desire, discipline, and drive all play a role. Science has a hard time quantifying these factors, but their importance is certainly profound. So, too, are your genetics: Some individuals have the bone structure and muscle-fiber makeup to succeed at the competitive level in power sports or bodybuilding. The bottom line is that with bodybuilding, anyone can make improvements and achieve 100 percent of his or her potential, even without the potential to become a world-class athlete.

Still, exercise scientists and medical experts studying the body, as well as researchers in the fields of diet and sports nutrition, are applying the lessons of yesterday to tweak and refine training techniques. If not set in stone, many of the ideas may best be characterized as principles. Ultimately, however, any finding presented by the scientific community must be useful to students of the sport and bodybuilding champions themselves, who are the ultimate test of the validity of such ideas. Applying these truths to achieve results is the practical basis of this encyclopedia. The information that I present on these pages is proved, of practical value, and will also work for you!

Since I last published the encyclopedia, the nature of bodybuilding has undergone an evolution of sorts in a number of ways. A bench press is still a bench press, and a squat a squat. In fact, the execution of various exercises has changed very little, but I've witnessed a number of other very important factors that have. Let me briefly review not just these developments, but how they can be applied to your workout. You'll learn:

  • how to structure your workout, whether your goal is to become a physique champion or simply to firm and tighten your body, and how you can effectively target lagging areas;
  • how power athletes can adjust repetition speed to build explosive strength;
  • which exercises to include for the greatest muscular benefits, and which ones are best left to advanced-level trainees;
  • how to put together a workout that emphasizes body-fat control vs. one that maximizes strength, and even how to cycle them to get the best of both worlds;
  • how to not only reduce your risk of injury but actually lift more weight by adding a 5- or 10-minute warm-up and light stretching;
  • how to get the most out of each rep and each set, taking your muscles to total failure and reaping the greatest benefits in the pain zone;
  • how to mix up the training variables when you hit a training plateau;
  • when too much enthusiasm will start reversing your muscle and strength gains.


As I mentioned, few exercises are done any differently now than they were twenty years ago. Exceptions: Science has weighed in with a differing opinion on how you should do abdominal movements. The crunch movement, which features a shortened range of motion whereby the pelvis and ribcage are drawn together, is a safer exercise than the common full-range sit-up. The best bodybuilders of my competitive era did have outstanding abdominals from doing sit-ups, but their strong midsections probably saved them from incurring spinal problems. Because lower-back pain afflicts more than three-quarters of all Americans at some point, the sit-up is fairly universally contraindicated. So, I've completely overhauled the abdominal training section to meet current scientific opinion. I've also expanded the list of exercises to include the wide variety of crunch variations.

The basic raw materials of weight training -- barbells, dumbbells, and bodyweight exercises -- haven't changed much either, but we can't say the same about resistance-training machines, which have traditionally been favored by some users because of the safety factor. Today, dozens of manufacturers vigorously compete with one another, which is radically changing the face of the industry and the sport. Each year new versions of old favorites are becoming increasingly sophisticated and smooth to operate, now closer than ever to mimicking freeweight movements. Some allow you to alter the angle of resistance from one set to the next; others increase resistance on the negative; still others use a computer to vary the resistance. I would expect we'll see even more radical developments over the next couple of decades.

Commercial gyms aren't the only ones to benefit; home gym use has skyrocketed as large, clunky machines have given way to smaller, safer models that don't take a big bite out of the wallet and still fit nicely into a spare bedroom. That's an ideal choice for individuals too busy to make it into the gym.

In terms of nutrition, the raw concept "You are what you eat" still rings true, but don't discount the dramatic changes that have occurred in sports nutrition, either. Sure, science has engineered some super-foods, like firmer tomatoes, and we're now raising fish in so-called farms and leaner meats from ostrich and beefalo, for example. Today, we also know more about the dietary needs of the hard-training athlete and have seen the introduction of some important supplements that aid sports performance.

Let's start with the basic bodybuilding diet. I've seen a thousand and one fad diets come and go, but nearly every bodybuilder I know follows the same basic guidelines that I present in this book. More often than not, a lack of progress in your muscle-building efforts can be linked to nutritional shortcomings in your diet. If I can hijack a phrase from computer technicians, if you put in garbage, you'll very likely get garbage out. I present several commonsense strategies that can work for you. Among the macronutrients, I'm often asked about the role of protein and the key amino acids that support tissue growth, how much you should be consuming in a given day, and how to time your meals for optimal absorption. Fats, mistakenly thought of as an enemy to bodybuilders, who may avoid them at all costs, play an important role in synthesizing key muscle-building hormones and maintaining health.

No discussion on nutrition would be complete without mentioning the most important supplements, some of which have dramatically changed the face of sports nutrition. Creatine is a proven performance enhancer, but a number of other products, including the amino acid glutamine, branched-chain amino acids, and antioxidants, are important to athletes as well.

We also know more about the ways in which nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream; since not all foods are absorbed at the same rate, the glycemic index was created to measure insulin response, a key anabolic process. Given that a hard workout depletes your muscles of their glycogen stores (basically stored energy), the post-workout meal is especially crucial. Research now tells us what it should contain and how soon you should be refueling after your training session. And who better than top-ranked bodybuilders themselves, who've endured innumerable contest-preparation cycles, to explain the tricks that even the noncompetitive bodybuilder can use to reduce his body fat, even if it's just to look great at the beach.

The field of sports psychology is thriving along with the payroll of milion-dollar athletes. New theories and techniques demonstrate the importance of the mind in training and competition, how to spur motivation and stay focused, and how to set achievable short- and long-range goals. If you have a goal of becoming Mr. Olympia, you'd better start by having a clear vision of your ultimate physique, then follow it up with a plan on how you'll create it. Nothing happens by accident. You won't, for example, become a respected doctor by happenstance; you'll need to plan on years of intensive studies to reach your goal. The same goes with your training.

Once you have your goals clearly in mind, I'll show you bow to create your own personal workout routine, but the role of the mind doesn't end there. As it did for me, that vision will inspire you on each burning rep of every set and successively take you one step closer to your goal. But there's more to it than just what goes on in the gym: Dietary and lifestyle considerations will also move you either closer to your desired destination or further away. Thats why the mind is so crucial in all sports, including bodybuilding. Your mind must first create the picture, and your training must be in sync with that visualization. As you begin to see changes, you start to feel better about yourself. The result is a self-perpetuating process: You focus your mind to train your body, and the changes that begin to take place impact your mind as well. Dream it, believe it, and you can achieve it!

The exponential growth of bodybuilding has spawned a billion-dollar industry with unlimited career opportunities in health clubs, apparel, equipment, nutritional products, publications and media, physical therapy, personal training and coaching, and other areas. Can you imagine making a living every day from an activity you freely choose to do as a hobby? If that's where you'd like to be, learning all you can about the body and how it works is a great place to start.

Paralleling the changes made in the study of bodybuilding are the ones in society at large. Today, weight training is one of the most popular recreational fitness activities in America, but it certainly wasn't that way some twenty-five years ago. I can remember hearing various coaches and athletes bash muscle-building, claiming it would hinder sports performance. (Gee, I wonder where those guys are now!) Resistance training is being used by all kinds of people today.

From the high schools to colleges and professional sports teams, weight training is helping to create better, stronger, even faster athletes. Sure it takes incredible natural ability to rise to the top of your sport, but without question resistance training provides the winning edge. Baseball slugger Mark McGwire hits the iron regularly even during the season, as does just about every position player in the National Football League. I've even seen members of the NBA's World Champion Chicago Bulls over at Gold's Gym working out while they were in Los Angeles. You can bet they weren't there taking pictures like tourists!

You can strengthen your backhand for tennis, build up your quads for skiing, add valuable height to your vertical leap in volleyball, improve your ability to withstand a hit in soccer, power your stroke and kick in swimming, and improve your strength and stride in sprinting, all with resistance training. What's more, you'll be more injury-resistant should a mishap occur.

Of course, you wouldn't expect a long-distance runner to train like a football player. Choice of exercises and manipulation of the training variables allow each athlete to tailor the activity to individual needs and goals. For some, like boxers and wrestlers who compete in weight classes, or gymnasts who can't afford to significantly increase their bodyweight, strength is critical, but a different type of training is required from traditional bodybuilding. A football lineman, shot-putter, or discus thrower each has his own specific training requirements for his activity. If you play a sport, you'll learn how to customize your workout to meet your sport-specific (and even position-specific) requirements. Still, in the end, no matter whether the athlete is 150 or 250 pounds, strength training is the common thread.

Some occupations demand that personnel pass strenuous physical conditioning that mimics on-the-job conditions. Entrance requirements into the military, fire, and police academies require exacting levels of fitness -- in terms of strength, muscular endurance, and aerobic fitness -- to ensure everyone's safety and mission effectiveness. This is especially demanding (but by no means impossible) for women, who must train perhaps more vigorously than their male counterparts. Once you're selected for admission doesn't mean you no longer have to stay in shape, either; to that end, police and fire departments are installing weight rooms in their facilities and encouraging their veterans to maintain peak levels of physical conditioning.

Just a few years back during the Gulf war, the Washington Post reported that the number one request of servicemen in the Middle East was to have weights sent over so they could keep up their training. To that point, they had been lifting pails full of sand. At that time I was serving as chairman of the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, and I approached a number of large equipment companies seeking donations. In all, we amassed more than four hundred tons of equipment, which General Colin Powell insisted be airlifted to the troops. That's how important physical fitness is to some of these guys!

Resistance training is even being used by the elderly. After about age twenty-five you lose about a half pound of muscle for every year of life. Without an appropriate training stimulus, your muscles will eventually decrease in size and strength. Regular exercise will help to hold back this aging process, which is really nothing more than a result of disuse. For many seniors, greater strength leads to independence and improved quality of life.

Now before you visualize Granny under the squat rack, realize that even just basic movements can strengthen your muscles and bones and improve flexibility, but must be tailored to the user. Today, exercising against the resistance of water in a pool is a popular activity among many seniors.

New research shows that exercise can aid in the disease-fighting process, too. Don't just take my word for it; this is confirmed fact. Just recently I read a report in the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research that weight training is aiding cancer patients. Numerous other studies have linked resistance training to improvements in individuals with diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, arthritis, asthma, and AIDS. Exercise can boost the immune system, allowing you to better fight off minor ailments, even mild depression. Again, the weight-training program must be customized to meet the individual's particular needs.

What about younger people? Yes, they, too, can enjoy some of the benefits of a resistance-training program by making a few modifications, such as using a high-rep protocol and bodyweight exercises that will both strengthen and build bones and muscle.

One of the most remarkable recent fitness trends has been the doubling in popularity of strength training among women between 1987 and 1996. At the competitive level, the sport now offers contests for both bodybuilders and fitness competitors. At the noncompetitive level, most women prefer a workout that simply tightens and reshapes the body and works particular problem areas like the glutes, hips, and triceps. Most often, women have different goals than men, who are generally more interested in bulking up and significantly increasing their strength. Though the goals of men and women may differ, which is reflected in program setup and choice of exercises, the execution of the movements is identical. The female body also differs physiologically from a male's: smaller skeletal structure, less upper-body mass in relation to the legs, more body fat and fat cells located in the hip, thigh, and glute areas compared to the waist. But given these facts, muscle fiber is muscle fiber and, whether on a male or female, responds to the same type of exercises and training techniques. For many women, then, following the strength-training guidelines put forth with some modifications is the answer.

Does that mean you'll grow bigger muscles if you train like a man? Certainly not: Women produce so little testosterone, the anabolic hormone largely responsible for muscle growth, that the training effect is far less pronounced. The bottom line here is that this book addresses various goals for just about every body type, age, and gender; a woman can make an equally impressive physique transformation even if her goal is not traditional bodybuilding per se.

Ever broken a bone and later visited a physical therapist to begin rehab? Strength training is useful here, too. Not only does it lower your risk of soft-tissue and joint injuries, but it's your best tool for full recuperation and a speedy return to your activity. Whether it be temporary muscle soreness, lower-back pain, tight joints, or returning to action after you break a bone, resistance training will allow you to more quickly regain your former levels of strength.

From the days when Charles Atlas offered help to pencilnecks who had sand kicked in their face, bodybuilding has come a long way. Resistance training is now practiced worldwide. No doubt, it's far more than building big arms and looking great at the beach (but those aren't bad goals, mind you); weight training can reshape and tone your body, improve your health as well as your game, keep you injury-free, and ensure a long, active future. Whether you're a beginner looking for the nuts and bolts of training, an intermediate seeking to split your workout and bring up a lagging body part, or an advanced trainee looking to refine your physique and incorporate advanced training techniques, you'll find the answers in these pages.

Obviously, then, the scale of changes that have occurred in the scope of bodybuilding and among its participants since I first published the encyclopedia are far greater than merely evolutionary -- they approach revolutionary. Besides those just mentioned, we have a greater understanding of the benefits of resistance training, which accounts in part for its tremendous popularity.

Every person who enters a gym or health club brings a personal motivation as to why he or she has chosen resistance training to accomplish certain goals. Sure, the aim of bodybuilding is to develop greater muscle size and improve physical appearance, but they are by no means the only reasons individuals train with weights. Consider also the effects on strength: You have the capacity to do greater work, both in terms of being able to lift a heavier weight one time (muscle strength) and to lift a lighter weight more times (muscle endurance). Some types of bodybuilding, like circuit training, are a good choice to build heart health and improve the functioning of your lungs and respiratory system as well. Traditional bodybuilding combined with some type of aerobic training will promote even greater health benefits.

In an increasingly technology-driven society that sits for long periods in front of computers and televisions and eats too many calories from fat, obesity -- and several major health consequences -- is the result. Bodybuilding plays a major role in building lean muscle tissue and reducing body fat. Unlike adipose (fat) tissue, muscle tissue is metabolically active and has a high energy requirement for maintenance and rebuilding. An increase in muscle tissue corresponds to an increase in your metabolic rate. Bodybuilding allows you to literally redesign your body and lose as much as two pounds of fat per week -- without risking your health with diet pills or fad diets! One of life's curious ironies is that individuals who are overweight also have a tendency to be tired, while those who expend a lot of energy exercising seem to have more.

Other healthful effects can be measured as well. Research shows that resistance training done correctly makes you more flexible, not musclebound. That's because when one muscle flexes during a movement, the antagonist muscle is stretched. Many top athletes who've spent years in the weight room, like muscular gymnasts and track sprinters, must have tremendous flexibility to excel at their respective sports. I've even seen top pro bodybuilders like Flex Wheeler do the full splits onstage! Movement maintains flexibility, and I encourage you to work all body parts over their normal ranges of motion.

As you age, especially if you're a woman, your bones lose strength and size. Resistance training can prevent and even reverse osteoporosis. That holds true for tendons and ligaments, too. Stronger muscles, bones, and connective tissue reduce your risk of injury. Skeletal muscle serves as a kind of shock absorber that helps dissipate force from a repetitive activity like running to a simple fall onto a hard floor.

As I mentioned, the importance of the psychological component in bodybuilding can't be understated. Mental health professionals today agree that nothing beats exercise for defusing anxiety. In terms of self-respect, you can get this from a job well done, and physical fitness is no exception. You work to achieve your goals and can rightfully feel proud once you have achieved them, gaining respect from others in the process. Let me finally add that training regularly can dramatically boost your sex life by giving you more energy, increasing testosterone levels, decreasing anxiety, and improving self-esteem.

The summation of all this makes a remarkable and compelling case for bodybuilding. No wonder working out with weights became the most popular fitness activity in America in 1995 as measured by the Fitness Products Council and has remained on top ever since. Even USA Today reported that "significant improvements in muscle strength and tone by lifting weights only two times a week for 20 to 30 minutes" are possible, despite the myth that bodybuilders spend countless hours in the gym each day. So, are you going to be a part of this revolution in fitness or among the ever-expanding ranks of the nation's obese?

Here's what I can offer you. It's taken a book the size of this encyclopedia to put down in writing my vast experiences, ranging from training with yesterdays champions to conversations with todays top-ranked bodybuilders, from consultations with exercise scientists, nutritionists, and researchers worldwide to investigating questions from readers like yourself who have asked me about training. As knowledge is never finite, I've endeavored to remain on top of the sport even as a retired competitor, studying the winning formulas of the past as well as today's most current theories. In reality, that still makes me a student of the sport, but because I still very much love bodybuilding, it's something I plan on continuing for a very long time. At the same time, by sharing the wealth of knowledge, I can serve as teacher as well. If it suits you, think of me as your private personal trainer.

Here's what you must do for me. It's pretty simple, really, but I didn't say easy -- after all, as I said, the slogan "No pain, no gain" originated in bodybuilding circles. It's what sets those who succeed apart from those who don't: You must have a sincere and burning desire to achieve what you dream, dedicate yourself to inaking progress, and take control of your circumstances to change your body. You must realize that such shortcuts as using anabolic/androgenic steroids lead only to short-term progress and potentially some very serious long-term health problems. Understand that bodybuilding isn't an overnight process, but rather a lifelong one. Personal factors like your attitude, commitment, and desire to improve your appearance play an important role in your ultimate success. Endeavor to learn all you can, train smart, listen to your body, and combine it with a good diet. But don't get too caught up in trying to understand all the training ideas and myriad principles at once. You most likely don't have the experience to properly interpret all the information anyway.

If you're with me so far, you're miles ahead of everybody else and are destined for greatness.

I've tried to make this book as honest, accurate, and practical as possible. Study it, reviewing the material over and over, constantly referring to it when you have questions, need motivation for your next training session, or are just looking for ways to make changes in your workout. You hold the answers right here in your hands.

Ready to get started? I thought so. Let's do it!


Arnold Schwarzenegger
November 1998

Read More Show Less

Foreword

Since I last published the encyclopedia, the nature of bodybuilding has undergone an evolution of sorts in a number of ways. A bench press is still a bench press, and a squat a squat. In fact, the execution of various exercises has changed very little, but I've witnessed a number of other very important factors that have. Let me briefly review not just these developments, but how they can be applied to your workout. You'll learn:

  • how to structure your workout, whether your goal is to become a physique champion or simply to firm and tighten your body, and how you can effectively target lagging areas;
  • how power athletes can adjust repetition speed to build explosive strength;
  • which exercises to include for the greatest muscular benefits, and which ones are best left to advanced-level trainees;
  • how to put together a workout that emphasizes body-fat control vs. one that maximizes strength, and even how to cycle them to get the best of both worlds;
  • how to not only reduce your risk of injury but actually lift more weight by adding a 5- or 10-minute warm-up and light stretching;
  • how to get the most out of each rep and each set, taking your muscles to total failure and reaping the greatest benefits in the pain zone;
  • how to mix up the training variables when you hit a training plateau;
  • when too much enthusiasm will start reversing your muscle and strength gains.


As I mentioned, few exercises are done any differently now than they were twenty years ago. Exceptions: Science has weighed in with a differing opinion on how you should do abdominal movements. The crunch movement, which features a shortened range of motion whereby the pelvis and ribcage are drawn together, is a safer exercise than the common full-range sit-up. The best bodybuilders of my competitive era did have outstanding abdominals from doing sit-ups, but their strong midsections probably saved them from incurring spinal problems. Because lower-back pain afflicts more than three-quarters of all Americans at some point, the sit-up is fairly universally contraindicated. So, I've completely overhauled the abdominal training section to meet current scientific opinion. I've also expanded the list of exercises to include the wide variety of crunch variations.

The basic raw materials of weight training -- barbells, dumbbells, and bodyweight exercises -- haven't changed much either, but we can't say the same about resistance-training machines, which have traditionally been favored by some users because of the safety factor. Today, dozens of manufacturers vigorously compete with one another, which is radically changing the face of the industry and the sport. Each year new versions of old favorites are becoming increasingly sophisticated and smooth to operate, now closer than ever to mimicking freeweight movements. Some allow you to alter the angle of resistance from one set to the next; others increase resistance on the negative; still others use a computer to vary the resistance. I would expect we'll see even more radical developments over the next couple of decades.

Commercial gyms aren't the only ones to benefit; home gym use has skyrocketed as large, clunky machines have given way to smaller, safer models that don't take a big bite out of the wallet and still fit nicely into a spare bedroom. That's an ideal choice for individuals too busy to make it into the gym.

In terms of nutrition, the raw concept "You are what you eat" still rings true, but don't discount the dramatic changes that have occurred in sports nutrition, either. Sure, science has engineered some super-foods, like firmer tomatoes, and we're now raising fish in so-called farms and leaner meats from ostrich and beefalo, for example. Today, we also know more about the dietary needs of the hard-training athlete and have seen the introduction of some important supplements that aid sports performance.

Let's start with the basic bodybuilding diet. I've seen a thousand and one fad diets come and go, but nearly every bodybuilder I know follows the same basic guidelines that I present in this book. More often than not, a lack of progress in your muscle-building efforts can be linked to nutritional shortcomings in your diet. If I can hijack a phrase from computer technicians, if you put in garbage, you'll very likely get garbage out. I present several commonsense strategies that can work for you. Among the macronutrients, I'm often asked about the role of protein and the key amino acids that support tissue growth, how much you should be consuming in a given day, and how to time your meals for optimal absorption. Fats, mistakenly thought of as an enemy to bodybuilders, who may avoid them at all costs, play an important role in synthesizing key muscle-building hormones and maintaining health.

No discussion on nutrition would be complete without mentioning the most important supplements, some of which have dramatically changed the face of sports nutrition. Creatine is a proven performance enhancer, but a number of other products, including the amino acid glutamine, branched-chain amino acids, and antioxidants, are important to athletes as well.

We also know more about the ways in which nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream; since not all foods are absorbed at the same rate, the glycemic index was created to measure insulin response, a key anabolic process. Given that a hard workout depletes your muscles of their glycogen stores (basically stored energy), the post-workout meal is especially crucial. Research now tells us what it should contain and how soon you should be refueling after your training session. And who better than top-ranked bodybuilders themselves, who've endured innumerable contest-preparation cycles, to explain the tricks that even the noncompetitive bodybuilder can use to reduce his body fat, even if it's just to look great at the beach.

The field of sports psychology is thriving along with the payroll of milion-dollar athletes. New theories and techniques demonstrate the importance of the mind in training and competition, how to spur motivation and stay focused, and how to set achievable short- and long-range goals. If you have a goal of becoming Mr. Olympia, you'd better start by having a clear vision of your ultimate physique, then follow it up with a plan on how you'll create it. Nothing happens by accident. You won't, for example, become a respected doctor by happenstance; you'll need to plan on years of intensive studies to reach your goal. The same goes with your training.

Once you have your goals clearly in mind, I'll show you bow to create your own personal workout routine, but the role of the mind doesn't end there. As it did for me, that vision will inspire you on each burning rep of every set and successively take you one step closer to your goal. But there's more to it than just what goes on in the gym: Dietary and lifestyle considerations will also move you either closer to your desired destination or further away. Thats why the mind is so crucial in all sports, including bodybuilding. Your mind must first create the picture, and your training must be in sync with that visualization. As you begin to see changes, you start to feel better about yourself. The result is a self-perpetuating process: You focus your mind to train your body, and the changes that begin to take place impact your mind as well. Dream it, believe it, and you can achieve it!

The exponential growth of bodybuilding has spawned a billion-dollar industry with unlimited career opportunities in health clubs, apparel, equipment, nutritional products, publications and media, physical therapy, personal training and coaching, and other areas. Can you imagine making a living every day from an activity you freely choose to do as a hobby? If that's where you'd like to be, learning all you can about the body and how it works is a great place to start.

Paralleling the changes made in the study of bodybuilding are the ones in society at large. Today, weight training is one of the most popular recreational fitness activities in America, but it certainly wasn't that way some twenty-five years ago. I can remember hearing various coaches and athletes bash muscle-building, claiming it would hinder sports performance. (Gee, I wonder where those guys are now!) Resistance training is being used by all kinds of people today.

From the high schools to colleges and professional sports teams, weight training is helping to create better, stronger, even faster athletes. Sure it takes incredible natural ability to rise to the top of your sport, but without question resistance training provides the winning edge. Baseball slugger Mark McGwire hits the iron regularly even during the season, as does just about every position player in the National Football League. I've even seen members of the NBA's World Champion Chicago Bulls over at Gold's Gym working out while they were in Los Angeles. You can bet they weren't there taking pictures like tourists!

You can strengthen your backhand for tennis, build up your quads for skiing, add valuable height to your vertical leap in volleyball, improve your ability to withstand a hit in soccer, power your stroke and kick in swimming, and improve your strength and stride in sprinting, all with resistance training. What's more, you'll be more injury-resistant should a mishap occur.

Of course, you wouldn't expect a long-distance runner to train like a football player. Choice of exercises and manipulation of the training variables allow each athlete to tailor the activity to individual needs and goals. For some, like boxers and wrestlers who compete in weight classes, or gymnasts who can't afford to significantly increase their bodyweight, strength is critical, but a different type of training is required from traditional bodybuilding. A football lineman, shot-putter, or discus thrower each has his own specific training requirements for his activity. If you play a sport, you'll learn how to customize your workout to meet your sport-specific (and even position-specific) requirements. Still, in the end, no matter whether the athlete is 150 or 250 pounds, strength training is the common thread.

Some occupations demand that personnel pass strenuous physical conditioning that mimics on-the-job conditions. Entrance requirements into the military, fire, and police academies require exacting levels of fitness -- in terms of strength, muscular endurance, and aerobic fitness -- to ensure everyone's safety and mission effectiveness. This is especially demanding (but by no means impossible) for women, who must train perhaps more vigorously than their male counterparts. Once you're selected for admission doesn't mean you no longer have to stay in shape, either; to that end, police and fire departments are installing weight rooms in their facilities and encouraging their veterans to maintain peak levels of physical conditioning.

Just a few years back during the Gulf war, the Washington Post reported that the number one request of servicemen in the Middle East was to have weights sent over so they could keep up their training. To that point, they had been lifting pails full of sand. At that time I was serving as chairman of the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, and I approached a number of large equipment companies seeking donations. In all, we amassed more than four hundred tons of equipment, which General Colin Powell insisted be airlifted to the troops. That's how important physical fitness is to some of these guys!

Resistance training is even being used by the elderly. After about age twenty-five you lose about a half pound of muscle for every year of life. Without an appropriate training stimulus, your muscles will eventually decrease in size and strength. Regular exercise will help to hold back this aging process, which is really nothing more than a result of disuse. For many seniors, greater strength leads to independence and improved quality of life.

Now before you visualize Granny under the squat rack, realize that even just basic movements can strengthen your muscles and bones and improve flexibility, but must be tailored to the user. Today, exercising against the resistance of water in a pool is a popular activity among many seniors.

New research shows that exercise can aid in the disease-fighting process, too. Don't just take my word for it; this is confirmed fact. Just recently I read a report in the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research that weight training is aiding cancer patients. Numerous other studies have linked resistance training to improvements in individuals with diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, arthritis, asthma, and AIDS. Exercise can boost the immune system, allowing you to better fight off minor ailments, even mild depression. Again, the weight-training program must be customized to meet the individual's particular needs.

What about younger people? Yes, they, too, can enjoy some of the benefits of a resistance-training program by making a few modifications, such as using a high-rep protocol and bodyweight exercises that will both strengthen and build bones and muscle.

One of the most remarkable recent fitness trends has been the doubling in popularity of strength training among women between 1987 and 1996. At the competitive level, the sport now offers contests for both bodybuilders and fitness competitors. At the noncompetitive level, most women prefer a workout that simply tightens and reshapes the body and works particular problem areas like the glutes, hips, and triceps. Most often, women have different goals than men, who are generally more interested in bulking up and significantly increasing their strength. Though the goals of men and women may differ, which is reflected in program setup and choice of exercises, the execution of the movements is identical. The female body also differs physiologically from a male's: smaller skeletal structure, less upper-body mass in relation to the legs, more body fat and fat cells located in the hip, thigh, and glute areas compared to the waist. But given these facts, muscle fiber is muscle fiber and, whether on a male or female, responds to the same type of exercises and training techniques. For many women, then, following the strength-training guidelines put forth with some modifications is the answer.

Does that mean you'll grow bigger muscles if you train like a man? Certainly not: Women produce so little testosterone, the anabolic hormone largely responsible for muscle growth, that the training effect is far less pronounced. The bottom line here is that this book addresses various goals for just about every body type, age, and gender; a woman can make an equally impressive physique transformation even if her goal is not traditional bodybuilding per se.

Ever broken a bone and later visited a physical therapist to begin rehab? Strength training is useful here, too. Not only does it lower your risk of soft-tissue and joint injuries, but it's your best tool for full recuperation and a speedy return to your activity. Whether it be temporary muscle soreness, lower-back pain, tight joints, or returning to action after you break a bone, resistance training will allow you to more quickly regain your former levels of strength.

From the days when Charles Atlas offered help to pencilnecks who had sand kicked in their face, bodybuilding has come a long way. Resistance training is now practiced worldwide. No doubt, it's far more than building big arms and looking great at the beach (but those aren't bad goals, mind you); weight training can reshape and tone your body, improve your health as well as your game, keep you injury-free, and ensure a long, active future. Whether you're a beginner looking for the nuts and bolts of training, an intermediate seeking to split your workout and bring up a lagging body part, or an advanced trainee looking to refine your physique and incorporate advanced training techniques, you'll find the answers in these pages.

Obviously, then, the scale of changes that have occurred in the scope of bodybuilding and among its participants since I first published the encyclopedia are far greater than merely evolutionary -- they approach revolutionary. Besides those just mentioned, we have a greater understanding of the benefits of resistance training, which accounts in part for its tremendous popularity.

Every person who enters a gym or health club brings a personal motivation as to why he or she has chosen resistance training to accomplish certain goals. Sure, the aim of bodybuilding is to develop greater muscle size and improve physical appearance, but they are by no means the only reasons individuals train with weights. Consider also the effects on strength: You have the capacity to do greater work, both in terms of being able to lift a heavier weight one time (muscle strength) and to lift a lighter weight more times (muscle endurance). Some types of bodybuilding, like circuit training, are a good choice to build heart health and improve the functioning of your lungs and respiratory system as well. Traditional bodybuilding combined with some type of aerobic training will promote even greater health benefits.

In an increasingly technology-driven society that sits for long periods in front of computers and televisions and eats too many calories from fat, obesity -- and several major health consequences -- is the result. Bodybuilding plays a major role in building lean muscle tissue and reducing body fat. Unlike adipose (fat) tissue, muscle tissue is metabolically active and has a high energy requirement for maintenance and rebuilding. An increase in muscle tissue corresponds to an increase in your metabolic rate. Bodybuilding allows you to literally redesign your body and lose as much as two pounds of fat per week -- without risking your health with diet pills or fad diets! One of life's curious ironies is that individuals who are overweight also have a tendency to be tired, while those who expend a lot of energy exercising seem to have more.

Other healthful effects can be measured as well. Research shows that resistance training done correctly makes you more flexible, not musclebound. That's because when one muscle flexes during a movement, the antagonist muscle is stretched. Many top athletes who've spent years in the weight room, like muscular gymnasts and track sprinters, must have tremendous flexibility to excel at their respective sports. I've even seen top pro bodybuilders like Flex Wheeler do the full splits onstage! Movement maintains flexibility, and I encourage you to work all body parts over their normal ranges of motion.

As you age, especially if you're a woman, your bones lose strength and size. Resistance training can prevent and even reverse osteoporosis. That holds true for tendons and ligaments, too. Stronger muscles, bones, and connective tissue reduce your risk of injury. Skeletal muscle serves as a kind of shock absorber that helps dissipate force from a repetitive activity like running to a simple fall onto a hard floor.

As I mentioned, the importance of the psychological component in bodybuilding can't be understated. Mental health professionals today agree that nothing beats exercise for defusing anxiety. In terms of self-respect, you can get this from a job well done, and physical fitness is no exception. You work to achieve your goals and can rightfully feel proud once you have achieved them, gaining respect from others in the process. Let me finally add that training regularly can dramatically boost your sex life by giving you more energy, increasing testosterone levels, decreasing anxiety, and improving self-esteem.

The summation of all this makes a remarkable and compelling case for bodybuilding. No wonder working out with weights became the most popular fitness activity in America in 1995 as measured by the Fitness Products Council and has remained on top ever since. Even USA Today reported that "significant improvements in muscle strength and tone by lifting weights only two times a week for 20 to 30 minutes" are possible, despite the myth that bodybuilders spend countless hours in the gym each day. So, are you going to be a part of this revolution in fitness or among the ever-expanding ranks of the nation's obese?

Here's what I can offer you. It's taken a book the size of this encyclopedia to put down in writing my vast experiences, ranging from training with yesterdays champions to conversations with todays top-ranked bodybuilders, from consultations with exercise scientists, nutritionists, and researchers worldwide to investigating questions from readers like yourself who have asked me about training. As knowledge is never finite, I've endeavored to remain on top of the sport even as a retired competitor, studying the winning formulas of the past as well as today's most current theories. In reality, that still makes me a student of the sport, but because I still very much love bodybuilding, it's something I plan on continuing for a very long time. At the same time, by sharing the wealth of knowledge, I can serve as teacher as well. If it suits you, think of me as your private personal trainer.

Here's what you must do for me. It's pretty simple, really, but I didn't say easy -- after all, as I said, the slogan "No pain, no gain" originated in bodybuilding circles. It's what sets those who succeed apart from those who don't: You must have a sincere and burning desire to achieve what you dream, dedicate yourself to inaking progress, and take control of your circumstances to change your body. You must realize that such shortcuts as using anabolic/androgenic steroids lead only to short-term progress and potentially some very serious long-term health problems. Understand that bodybuilding isn't an overnight process, but rather a lifelong one. Personal factors like your attitude, commitment, and desire to improve your appearance play an important role in your ultimate success. Endeavor to learn all you can, train smart, listen to your body, and combine it with a good diet. But don't get too caught up in trying to understand all the training ideas and myriad principles at once. You most likely don't have the experience to properly interpret all the information anyway.

If you're with me so far, you're miles ahead of everybody else and are destined for greatness.

I've tried to make this book as honest, accurate, and practical as possible. Study it, reviewing the material over and over, constantly referring to it when you have questions, need motivation for your next training session, or are just looking for ways to make changes in your workout. You hold the answers right here in your hands.

Ready to get started? I thought so. Let's do it!


Arnold Schwarzenegger
November 1998

Copyright © 1985, 1998 by Arnold Schwarzenegger

Read More Show Less

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  • Anonymous

    Posted October 29, 2008

    I Also Recommend:

    If the info inside doesn't make you bigger, just start lifting the book!

    This book is exactly what it says it is- an encyclopedia. It is divided into no less than five "books." Measuring in at about one and a half inches thick, if the info contained inside doesn't help you get bigger, just try lifting the book! <BR/><BR/>A quick rundown of each chapter. The first book is basically an introduction to bodybuilding, covering a lot of miscellaneous, but important topics. The second book covers the training programs, the third the body part exercises, and the fourth book competing. The fifth and last book covers nutrition and diets. <BR/><BR/>As you can tell, there's really only one word to describe this book- comprehensive. Would have liked to see a little more on injuries, for example there only about a half page on shoulder injuries, but then again this isn't exactly a sports medicine book either. Weightlifters who have a shoulder problem or rotator cuff tear might also want to take a look at Treat Your Own Rotator Cuff.

    9 out of 9 people found this review helpful.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted March 27, 2007

    If the info inside doesn't make you bigger, just start lifting the book.

    This book is exactly what it says it is- an encyclopedia. It is divided into no less than five 'books.' Measuring in at about one and a half inches thick, if the info contained inside doesn't help you get bigger, just try lifting the book! A quick rundown of each chapter. The first book is basically an introduction to bodybuilding, covering a lot of miscellaneous, but important topics. The second book covers the training programs, the third the body part exercises, and the fourth book competing. The fifth and last book covers nutrition and diets. As you can tell, there's really only one word to describe this book- comprehensive. Would have liked to see a little more on injuries, for example there only about a half page on shoulder injuries, but then again this isn't exactly a sports medicine book either.

    1 out of 1 people found this review helpful.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted August 23, 2014

    Amazing!!!!

    Iv always been into working out. After a while I noticed I haven't really gained anything. It the growing and getting stronger stopped. Then I came across this book and changed my whole workout program. Before I weighed 150. benching 235, dead lifting 360, and squat 315. Now with the guidence of this book I weigh 170. Benching 295, dead lifting 405, and squat 405! I feel amazing and love working out! This book is a must have for everyone!

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  • Anonymous

    Posted January 29, 2014

    Best book ever

    These are the tried and true methods of the greatest bodybuilder of all time.. They work for him and many other great bodybuilders. Even if youre not into building huge muscles this book is still a must buy for all kinds of fitness knoledge. It worked for me, itll work for you too!!

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  • Anonymous

    Posted March 30, 2013

    Good reference piece

    I workout for fitness not as much bodybuilding but this book has so much knowledge in it. I lways find myself referring to it when i hit a plateau or need to get those small muscle areas that are hard to hit.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted December 21, 2012

    The obvious choice book

    I have this book on paperback actually used to have it worked two jobs and went down hill trying to find the energy but when i used it with the right diet (that works for me) it was an awesome book a six pack in just a few months arms getting bigger and pumping my chest... it was just awesome supplements also helped everyone isnt built genetically the same so supplements can help take you a long way love this book

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  • Posted January 23, 2012

    If all else fails, not on this book!

    I've the first unrevised copy of this book as a guide to my first entry in bodybuilding. Now that I have the revised and updated version, this is one complete meal for a bodybuilder.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted March 24, 2008

    Very important reading

    After much trial and error with my own workout programs, I read this book and developed great technique and overall performance to get the maximum benefit of my workout. If you even 'think' that you are into bodybuilding or just to get ripped I recommend this book highly to anyone.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted January 26, 2006

    from a guy who loves to lift

    im not usually for reading books about getting bigger and having better workouts but my brother told me to pick this book up. when i finished this book i came out with a whole new program and perfected my diet. this book gives great advise on flexing,how to progress during workouts,and how to work on your diet so that ur muscles have to fuel they need to grow. since ive read this book i moved from 165 to 190 and went from benching 195 to 225. this book has really helped me to take my workouts to a new level of bodybuilding. for anyone looking for great ideas on how to take ur body to the next level this would be the book to read.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted December 22, 2005

    Very deep book, everything about the sport

    I originally bought this book because i enjoy weightlifting. This book appeared helpful, but as i read it i learned soooo much new stuff about bodybuilding and lifting in general. Its a very good book no matter who you are.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted February 13, 2004

    Great Book All you Want to know and more

    This book is AWESOME! everything you need to know about weightlifting and fitness you could want. This book teaches you about every muscle in your body and how to work it out. Alot of the ideals are geared towards bodybuilders but well... look at the title. All the excercises can be adjusted to work for you and your level of dedication and strenght. There are routines already laid out for you or you can take the knowlage Arnold drops on you and create your own fitness and dieting routine. Great book. My friend has a copy of the original print from 1980 something and once I started reading it I had to have my own copy.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted October 14, 2003

    The Culmination of all that is Great in Bodybuilding.

    I cannot tell you how much I use this amazing manuscript. It truly is the ultimate authority on bodybuilding. This book is an outstanding resource for all bodybuilders, young to very experienced. I would suggest this book to anyone who is even the least bit interested in building the human body. Arnold, you did well. Thanks

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  • Anonymous

    Posted August 9, 2003

    A great book for a serious bodybuilder

    This is a great book for a serious bodybuilder. I have been training off and on for some years now. I decided to devote my full time to improving my health and physical look. This book ,without a doubt, has done wonders for me and my training.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted August 25, 2003

    What was expected.

    I believe the book was well writtin.It has great pictures, history of the sport, different meal plans as workout plans leveling them out.I'll agree the programs are a little more on the heavy side for advanced lifters but if you are serious about lifting your going to get to the advanced point sooner or later. It's a great motivation to any1 who is serious about lifting. And for anynone whos concerned about nutrition it gives plenty of info from vitamins@suppliments, to meal planning and more! All in all I was pleased money was well spent and its a good book for beginer or advanced lifters. It has enough information to satisfy you're hunger!

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  • Anonymous

    Posted July 20, 2003

    Believe whatever hype you want to believe

    ok scott, i agree with what most of what you have to say, but every other person who gave a review up to my entry here gave this book a 5 star rating, and obvioulsy no one else who reviewed it agreed with your statement about over training. just worry about yourself and let everyone speak for themselves, okay? thank you.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted June 15, 2003

    This book is great ...a great read too

    I dont know what that steve systems analyst guy is talking about and he has no right to even say what hes saying he isnt an expert on the subject. I am no expert but i have used this book and am currently using the programs and they are working perfectly for me. Everything in this book is great....if u get a chance buy it

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  • Anonymous

    Posted May 25, 2003

    The Best

    This is the best workout book ever, thank you arnold.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted December 31, 2001

    DON'T BELIEVE THE HYPE!

    Unfortunately, a great deal of what is wrong in the bodybuilding field can be found in this volume. It never ceases to amaze me just how little so-called professional bodybuilders actually know about building real muscle, as opposed to functionally useless pumped-up tissue. Although genetics play a vital role in the physical development of the pro bodybuilder, this subject is given short shrift in Ahhnold¿s book, and the rampant use of illegal steroids isn¿t even mentioned. Can anyone seriously look at the pictures of the bodybuilders working out and honestly claim that these men weren¿t on steroids when photographed? The saddest part of it all is that the general public will adhere to the ¿workout routines¿ given in the book as gospel, and fruitlessly work themselves into a state of over training as a result (you can refer to the other reviewers as my proof.) I can recommend this book for the sections on posing, and bodybuilding history, both of which I liked. The instructions describing how each exercise is performed are, for the most part, very good as well. Bottom line: The book is mainly useful to elite, genetically gifted and/or drug-assisted bodybuilders, and not the general public. If you¿re looking to build muscle the natural (old-fashioned) way, you¿d be much better off checking out the writings of Stuart Mc Robert.

    0 out of 3 people found this review helpful.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted September 21, 2001

    From Beginner to Pro, Arnold sets it straight!

    This book is the best I have ever read on the subject, and for the price just can't be passed up! After going through this book I would pay four times as much for it. No other reference will be needed. I also was impressed with suggestions on how to improve weak spots as well as how to improve given my body type.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted October 27, 2001

    Best bodybuilding book I have read

    This book has everything need to know how to build muscle naturally. EXCELLENT, definitely money worth spent! Order it and try it out, and just skim through it. I don't know what else to say, but I am on the program in the book and works for me.

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