The Object-Oriented Thought Process [NOOK Book]

Overview

The Object-Oriented Thought Process, Fourth Edition

An introduction to object-oriented concepts for developers looking to master modern application practices


Object-oriented programming (OOP) is the foundation of modern programming languages, including C++, Java, C#, Visual Basic .NET, Ruby, and Objective-C. Objects also form the basis for many web technologies such as JavaScript, Python, and PHP.


It is of...

See more details below
The Object-Oriented Thought Process

Available on NOOK devices and apps  
  • NOOK Devices
  • NOOK HD/HD+ Tablet
  • NOOK
  • NOOK Color
  • NOOK Tablet
  • Tablet/Phone
  • NOOK for Windows 8 Tablet
  • NOOK for iOS
  • NOOK for Android
  • NOOK Kids for iPad
  • PC/Mac
  • NOOK for Windows 8
  • NOOK for PC
  • NOOK for Mac
  • NOOK Study

Want a NOOK? Explore Now

NOOK Book (eBook)
$19.99
BN.com price
(Save 44%)$35.99 List Price

Overview

The Object-Oriented Thought Process, Fourth Edition

An introduction to object-oriented concepts for developers looking to master modern application practices


Object-oriented programming (OOP) is the foundation of modern programming languages, including C++, Java, C#, Visual Basic .NET, Ruby, and Objective-C. Objects also form the basis for many web technologies such as JavaScript, Python, and PHP.


It is of vital importance to learn the fundamental concepts of object orientation before starting to use object-oriented development environments. OOP promotes good design practices, code portability, and reuse–but it requires a shift in thinking to be fully understood. Programmers new to OOP should resist the temptation to jump directly into a particular programming language (such as Objective-C, VB .NET, C++, C# .NET, or Java) or a modeling language (such as UML), and instead first take the time to learn what author Matt Weisfeld calls “the object-oriented thought process.”


Written by a developer for developers who want to make the leap to object-oriented technologies, The Object-Oriented Thought Process provides a solutions-oriented approach to object-oriented programming. Readers will learn to understand the proper uses of inheritance and composition, the difference between aggregation and association, and the important distinction between interfaces and implementations.


While programming technologies have been changing and evolving over the years, object-oriented concepts remain a constant–no matter what the platform. This revised edition focuses on interoperability across programming technologies, whether you are using objects in traditional application design, in XML-based data transactions, in web page development, in mobile apps, or in any modern programming environment.


“Programmers who aim to create high quality software–as all programmers should–must learn the varied subtleties of the familiar yet not so familiar beasts called objects and classes. Doing so entails careful study of books such as Matt Weisfeld’s The Object-Oriented Thought Process.”

–Bill McCarty, author of Java Distributed Objects, and Object-Oriented Design in Java


Contents at a Glance

1 Introduction to Object-Oriented Concepts
2 How to Think in Terms of Objects
3 Advanced Object-Oriented Concepts
4 The Anatomy of a Class
5 Class Design Guidelines
6 Designing with Objects
7 Mastering Inheritance and Composition
8 Frameworks and Reuse: Designing with Interfaces and Abstract Classes
9 Building Objects and Object-Oriented Design
10 Creating Object Models
11 Objects and Portable Data: XML and JSON
12 Persistent Objects: Serialization, Marshaling, and Relational Databases
13 Objects in Web Services, Mobile Apps, and Hybrids
14 Objects and Client/Server Applications
15 Design Patterns

Read More Show Less

Editorial Reviews

Booknews
Introduces the fundamental object-oriented concepts to experienced programmers interested in learning object-oriented programming languages. Class design, inheritance, composition, interfaces, and abstract classes are covered. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
Read More Show Less

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780133090642
  • Publisher: Pearson Education
  • Publication date: 3/19/2013
  • Series: Developer's Library
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eBook
  • Edition number: 4
  • Pages: 336
  • Sales rank: 339,299
  • File size: 13 MB
  • Note: This product may take a few minutes to download.

Meet the Author

Matt Weisfeld is a college professor, software developer, and author based in Cleveland, Ohio. Prior to teaching college full time, he spent 20 years in the information technology industry as a software developer, entrepreneur, and adjunct professor. Weisfeld holds an MS in computer science and an MBA. Besides the first three editions of The Object-Oriented Thought Process, he has authored two other software development books and published many articles in magazines and journals, such as developer.com, Dr. Dobb’s Journal, The C/C++ Users Journal, Software Development Magazine, Java Report, and the international journal Project Management.

Read More Show Less

Read an Excerpt

IntroductionIntroductionThis Book's Scope

As the title indicates, this book is about the object-oriented (OO) thought process. Obviously, choosing the theme and title of the book are important decisions; however, these decisions were not all that simple. Numerous books deal with various levels of object orientation. Several popular books deal with topics including OO analysis, OO design, OO programming, design patterns, OO data (

However, while pouring over all of these books, many people forget that all of these topics are built on a single foundation: how you think in OO ways. It is unfortunate, but software professionals often dive into these books without taking the appropriate time and effort to really understand the concepts behind the content.

I contend that learning OO concepts is not accomplished by learning a specific development method or a set of tools. Doing things in an OO manner is, simply put, a way of thinking. This book is all about the OO thought process.

Separating the methods and tools from the OO thought process is not easy. Many people are introduced to OO concepts via one of these methods or tools. For example, years ago, most C programmers were first introduced to object orientation by migrating directly to C++—before they were even remotely exposed to OO concepts. Other software professionals were first introduced to object orientation by presentations that included object models using UML—again, before they were even exposed directly to OO concepts. It is not unusual to find that programming books and courses defer OO concepts until later in the learning process.

It is important to understand the significantdifference between learning OO concepts and using the methods and tools that support the paradigm. This came into focus for me before I worked on the first edition of this book when I read articles such as Craig Larman's "What the UML Is—and Isn't," In this article he states,

Unfortunately, in the context of software engineering and the UML diagramming language, acquiring the skills to read and write UML notation seems to sometimes be equated with skill in object-oriented analysis and design. Of course, this is not so, and the latter is much more important than the former. Therefore, I recommend seeking education and educational materials in which intellectual skill in object-oriented analysis and design is paramount rather than UML notation or the use of a case tool.

Although learning a modeling language is an important step, it is much more important to learn OO skills first. Learning UML before OO concepts is similar to learning how to read an electrical diagram without first knowing anything about electricity.

The same problem occurs with programming languages. As stated earlier, many C programmers moved into the realm of object orientation by migrating to C++ before being directly exposed to OO concepts. This would always come out in an interview. Many times developers who claim to be C++ programmers are simply C programmers using C++ compilers. Even now, with languages such as C# .NET, VB .NET, and Java well established, a few key questions in a job interview can quickly uncover a lack of OO understanding.

Early versions of Visual Basic are not OO. C is not OO, and C++ was developed to be backward compatible with C. Because of this, it is quite possible to use a C++ compiler (writing only C syntax) while forsaking all of C++'s OO features. Even worse, a programmer can use just enough OO features to make a program incomprehensible to OO and non-OO programmers alike.

Thus, it is of vital importance that while you're on the road to OO development, you first learn the fundamental OO concepts. Resist the temptation to jump directly into a programming language (such as VB .NET, C++, C# .NET or Java) or a modeling language (such as UML), and take the time to learn the object-oriented thought process.

In my first class in Smalltalk in the late 1980s, the instructor told the class that the new OO paradigm was a totally new way of thinking (despite the fact that it has been around since the 60s). He went on to say that although all of us were most likely very good programmers, about 10%–20% of us would never really grasp the OO way of doing things. If this statement is indeed true, it is most likely because some people never really take the time to make the paradigm shift and learn the underlying OO concepts.What's New in the Third Edition

As stated often in this introduction, my vision for the first edition was primarily a conceptual book. Although I still adhere to this goal for the second and third editions, I have included several application topics that fit well with object-oriented concepts. For the third edition I expand on many of the topics of the second edition and well as include totally new chapters. These revised and updated concepts

  • Object persistence and serialization.

  • Adding properties to attributes.

  • Client/Server technologies.

  • Expanded code examples in Java, C# .NET and VB .NET.

The chapters that cover these topics are still conceptual in nature; however, many of the chapters include Java code that shows how these concepts are implemented. In this third edition, a code appendix is included that presents the chapter's examples in C# .NET and Visual Basic .NET.The Intended Audience

This book is a general introduction to fundamental OO concepts with code examples to reinforce the concepts. One of the most difficult juggling acts was to keep the material conceptual while still providing a solid, technical code base. The goal of this book is to allow a reader to understand the concepts and technology without having a compiler at hand. However, if you do have a compiler available, then there is code to be investigated.

The intended audience includes business managers, designers, developers, programmers, project managers, and anyone who wants to gain a general understanding of what object orientation is all about. Reading this book should provide a strong foundation for moving to other books covering more advanced OO topics.

Of these more advanced books, one of my favorites remains Object-Oriented Design in Java by Stephen Gilbert and Bill McCarty. I really like the approach of the book, and have used it as a textbook in classes I have taught on OO concepts. I cite Object-Oriented Design in Java often throughout this book, and I recommend that you graduate to it after you complete this one.

Other books that I have found very helpful include Effective C++ by Scott Meyers, Classical and Object-Oriented Software Engineering by Stephen R. Schach, Thinking in C++ by Bruce Eckel, UML Distilled by Martin Flower, and Java Design by Peter Coad and Mark Mayfield.

The conceptual nature of this book provides a unique perspective in regards to other computer technology books. While books that focus on specific technologies, such as programming languages, struggle with the pace of change, this book has the luxury of presenting established concepts that, while certainly being fine-tuned, do not experience radical changes. With this in mind, many of the books that were referenced several years ago, are still referenced because the concepts are still fundamentally the same.This Book's Scope

It should be obvious by now that I am a firm believer in becoming comfortable with the object-oriented thought process before jumping into a programming language or modeling language. This book is filled with examples of code and UML diagrams; however, you do not need to know a specific programming language or UML to read it. After all I have said about learning the concepts first, why is there so much Java, C# .NET, and VB .NET code and so many UML diagrams? First, they are all great for illustrating OO concepts. Second, both are vital to the OO process and should be addressed at an introductory level. The key is not to focus on Java, C# .NET, and VB .NET or UML, but to use them as aids in the understanding of the underlying concepts.

The Java, C# .NET and VB .NET examples in the book illustrate concepts such as loops and functions. However, understanding the code itself is not a prerequisite for understanding the concepts; it might be helpful to have a book at hand that covers specific languages syntax if you want to get more detailed.

I cannot state too strongly that this book does not teach Java, C# .NET, and VB .NET or UML, all of which can command volumes unto themselves. It is my hope that this book will whet your appetite for other OO topics, such as OO analysis, object-oriented design, and OO programming.This Book's Conventions

The following conventions are used in this book:

  • Code lines, commands, statements, and any other code-related terms appear in a monospace typeface.

  • Placeholders that stand for what you should actually type appear in italic monospace. Text that you should type appears in bold monospace.

  • Throughout the book, there are special sidebar elements, such as

***

Note - A Note presents interesting information related to the discussion—a little more insight or a pointer to some new technique.

***
***

Tip - A Tip offers advice or shows you an easier way of doing something.

***
***

Caution - A Caution alerts you to a possible problem and gives you advice on how to avoid it.

***
Source Code Used in This Book

You can download all the source code and examples discussed within this book from the publisher's website.

© Copyright Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Read More Show Less

Table of Contents


1 Introduction to Object-Oriented Concepts

The Fundamental Concepts

Objects and Legacy Systems

Procedural Versus OO Programming

Moving from Procedural to Object-Oriented Development

Procedural Programming

OO Programming

What Exactly Is an Object?

Object Data

Object Behaviors

What Exactly Is a Class?

Creating Objects

Attributes

Methods

Messages

Using Class Diagrams as a Visual Tool

Encapsulation and Data Hiding

Interfaces

Implementations

A Real-World Example of the Interface/Implementation Paradigm

A Model of the Interface/Implementation Paradigm

Inheritance

Superclasses and Subclasses

Abstraction

Is-a Relationships

Polymorphism

Composition

Abstraction

Has-a Relationships


2 How to Think in Terms of Objects

Knowing the Difference Between the Interface and the Implementation

The Interface

The Implementation

An Interface/Implementation Example

Using Abstract Thinking When Designing Interfaces

Providing the Absolute Minimal User Interface Possible

Determining the Users

Object Behavior

Environmental Constraints

Identifying the Public Interfaces

Identifying the Implementation


3 Advanced Object-Oriented Concepts

Constructors

When Is a Constructor Called?

What’s Inside a Constructor?

The Default Constructor

Using Multiple Constructors

The Design of Constructors

Error Handling

Ignoring the Problem

Checking for Problems and Aborting the Application

Checking for Problems and Attempting to Recover

Throwing an Exception

The Importance of Scope

Local Attributes

Object Attributes

Class Attributes

Operator Overloading

Multiple Inheritance

Object Operations


4 The Anatomy of a Class

The Name of the Class

Comments

Attributes

Constructors

Accessors

Public Interface Methods

Private Implementation Methods


5 Class Design Guidelines

Modeling Real-World Systems

Identifying the Public Interfaces

The Minimum Public Interface

Hiding the Implementation

Designing Robust Constructors (and Perhaps Destructors)

Designing Error Handling into a Class

Documenting a Class and Using Comments

Building Objects with the Intent to Cooperate

Designing with Reuse in Mind

Designing with Extensibility in Mind

Making Names Descriptive

Abstracting Out Nonportable Code

Providing a Way to Copy and Compare Objects

Keeping the Scope as Small as Possible

A Class Should Be Responsible for Itself

Designing with Maintainability in Mind

Using Iteration in the Development Process

Testing the Interface

Using Object Persistence

Serializing and Marshaling Objects


6 Designing with Objects

Design Guidelines

Performing the Proper Analysis

Developing a Statement of Work

Gathering the Requirements

Developing a Prototype of the User Interface

Identifying the Classes

Determining the Responsibilities of Each Class

Determining How the Classes Collaborate with Each Other

Creating a Class Model to Describe the System

Prototyping the User Interface

Object Wrappers

Structured Code

Wrapping Structured Code

Wrapping Nonportable Code
Wrapping Existing Classes

7 Mastering Inheritance and Composition

Reusing Objects

Inheritance

Generalization and Specialization

Design Decisions

Composition

Representing Composition with UML

Why Encapsulation Is Fundamental to OO

How Inheritance Weakens Encapsulation

A Detailed Example of Polymorphism

Object Responsibility

Abstract Classes, Virtual Methods, and Protocols


8 Frameworks and Reuse: Designing with Interfaces and Abstract Classes

Code: To Reuse or Not to Reuse?

What Is a Framework?

What Is a Contract?

Abstract Classes

Interfaces

Tying It All Together

The Compiler Proof

Making a Contract

System Plug-in Points

An E-Business Example

An E-Business Problem

The Non-Reuse Approach

An E-Business Solution

The UML Object Model


9 Building Objects and Object-Oriented Design

Composition Relationships

Building in Phases

Types of Composition

Aggregations

Associations

Using Associations and Aggregations Together

Avoiding Dependencies

Cardinality

Multiple Object Associations

Optional Associations

Tying It All Together: An Example


10 Creating Object Models

What Is UML?

The Structure of a Class Diagram

Attributes and Methods

Attributes

Methods

Access Designations

Inheritance

Interfaces

Composition

Aggregations

Associations

Cardinality


11 Objects and Portable Data: XML and JSON

Portable Data

The Extensible Markup Language (XML)

XML Versus HTML

XML and Object-Oriented Languages

Sharing Data Between Two Companies

Validating the Document with the Document Type Definition (DTD)

Integrating the DTD into the XML Document

Using Cascading Style Sheets

JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)


12 Persistent Objects: Serialization, Marshaling, and Relational Databases

Persistent Objects Basics

Saving the Object to a Flat File

Serializing a File

Implementation and Interface Revisited

What About the Methods?

Using XML in the Serialization Process

Writing to a Relational Database

Accessing a Relational Database


13 Objects in Web Services, Mobile Apps, and Hybrids

Evolution of Distributed Computing

Object-Based Scripting Languages

A JavaScript Validation Example

Objects in a Web Page

JavaScript Objects

Web Page Controls

Sound Players

Movie Player

Flash

Distributed Objects and the Enterprise

The Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA)

Web Services Definition

Web Services Code

Representational State Transfer (ReST)


14 Objects and Client/Server Applications

Client/Server Approaches

Proprietary Approach

Serialized Object Code

Client Code

Server Code

Running the Proprietary Client/Server Example

Nonproprietary Approach

Object Definition Code

Client Code

Server Code

Running the Nonproprietary Client/Server Example


15 Design Patterns

Why Design Patterns?

Smalltalk’s Model/View/Controller

Types of Design Patterns

Creational Patterns

Structural Patterns

Behavioral Patterns

Antipatterns


Read More Show Less

Preface

Introduction

This Book's Scope

As the title indicates, this book is about the object-oriented (OO) thought process. Obviously, choosing the theme and title of the book are important decisions; however, these decisions were not all that simple. Numerous books deal with various levels of object orientation. Several popular books deal with topics including OO analysis, OO design, OO programming, design patterns, OO data (XML), the Unified Modeling Language (UML), OO Internet development, various OO programming languages, and many other topics related to OO development.

However, while pouring over all of these books, many people forget that all of these topics are built on a single foundation: how you think in OO ways. It is unfortunate, but software professionals often dive into these books without taking the appropriate time and effort to really understand the concepts behind the content.

I contend that learning OO concepts is not accomplished by learning a specific development method or a set of tools. Doing things in an OO manner is, simply put, a way of thinking. This book is all about the OO thought process.

Separating the methods and tools from the OO thought process is not easy. Many people are introduced to OO concepts via one of these methods or tools. For example, years ago, most C programmers were first introduced to object orientation by migrating directly to C++—before they were even remotely exposed to OO concepts. Other software professionals were first introduced to object orientation by presentations that included object models using UML—again, before they were even exposed directly to OO concepts. It is not unusual to find that programming books and courses defer OO concepts until later in the learning process.

It is important to understand the significant difference between learning OO concepts and using the methods and tools that support the paradigm. This came into focus for me before I worked on the first edition of this book when I read articles such as Craig Larman's "What the UML Is—and Isn't," In this article he states,

Unfortunately, in the context of software engineering and the UML diagramming language, acquiring the skills to read and write UML notation seems to sometimes be equated with skill in object-oriented analysis and design. Of course, this is not so, and the latter is much more important than the former. Therefore, I recommend seeking education and educational materials in which intellectual skill in object-oriented analysis and design is paramount rather than UML notation or the use of a case tool.

Although learning a modeling language is an important step, it is much more important to learn OO skills first. Learning UML before OO concepts is similar to learning how to read an electrical diagram without first knowing anything about electricity.

The same problem occurs with programming languages. As stated earlier, many C programmers moved into the realm of object orientation by migrating to C++ before being directly exposed to OO concepts. This would always come out in an interview. Many times developers who claim to be C++ programmers are simply C programmers using C++ compilers. Even now, with languages such as C# .NET, VB .NET, and Java well established, a few key questions in a job interview can quickly uncover a lack of OO understanding.

Early versions of Visual Basic are not OO. C is not OO, and C++ was developed to be backward compatible with C. Because of this, it is quite possible to use a C++ compiler (writing only C syntax) while forsaking all of C++'s OO features. Even worse, a programmer can use just enough OO features to make a program incomprehensible to OO and non-OO programmers alike.

Thus, it is of vital importance that while you're on the road to OO development, you first learn the fundamental OO concepts. Resist the temptation to jump directly into a programming language (such as VB .NET, C++, C# .NET or Java) or a modeling language (such as UML), and take the time to learn the object-oriented thought process.

In my first class in Smalltalk in the late 1980s, the instructor told the class that the new OO paradigm was a totally new way of thinking (despite the fact that it has been around since the 60s). He went on to say that although all of us were most likely very good programmers, about 10%–20% of us would never really grasp the OO way of doing things. If this statement is indeed true, it is most likely because some people never really take the time to make the paradigm shift and learn the underlying OO concepts.

What's New in the Third Edition

As stated often in this introduction, my vision for the first edition was primarily a conceptual book. Although I still adhere to this goal for the second and third editions, I have included several application topics that fit well with object-oriented concepts. For the third edition I expand on many of the topics of the second edition and well as include totally new chapters. These revised and updated concepts

  • XML is used for object communication.
  • Object persistence and serialization.
  • XML integrated into the languages object definition.
  • Adding properties to attributes.
  • XML-based Internet applications.
  • Client/Server technologies.
  • Expanded code examples in Java, C# .NET and VB .NET.

The chapters that cover these topics are still conceptual in nature; however, many of the chapters include Java code that shows how these concepts are implemented. In this third edition, a code appendix is included that presents the chapter's examples in C# .NET and Visual Basic .NET.

The Intended Audience

This book is a general introduction to fundamental OO concepts with code examples to reinforce the concepts. One of the most difficult juggling acts was to keep the material conceptual while still providing a solid, technical code base. The goal of this book is to allow a reader to understand the concepts and technology without having a compiler at hand. However, if you do have a compiler available, then there is code to be investigated.

The intended audience includes business managers, designers, developers, programmers, project managers, and anyone who wants to gain a general understanding of what object orientation is all about. Reading this book should provide a strong foundation for moving to other books covering more advanced OO topics.

Of these more advanced books, one of my favorites remains Object-Oriented Design in Java by Stephen Gilbert and Bill McCarty. I really like the approach of the book, and have used it as a textbook in classes I have taught on OO concepts. I cite Object-Oriented Design in Java often throughout this book, and I recommend that you graduate to it after you complete this one.

Other books that I have found very helpful include Effective C++ by Scott Meyers, Classical and Object-Oriented Software Engineering by Stephen R. Schach, Thinking in C++ by Bruce Eckel, UML Distilled by Martin Flower, and Java Design by Peter Coad and Mark Mayfield.

The conceptual nature of this book provides a unique perspective in regards to other computer technology books. While books that focus on specific technologies, such as programming languages, struggle with the pace of change, this book has the luxury of presenting established concepts that, while certainly being fine-tuned, do not experience radical changes. With this in mind, many of the books that were referenced several years ago, are still referenced because the concepts are still fundamentally the same.

This Book's Scope

It should be obvious by now that I am a firm believer in becoming comfortable with the object-oriented thought process before jumping into a programming language or modeling language. This book is filled with examples of code and UML diagrams; however, you do not need to know a specific programming language or UML to read it. After all I have said about learning the concepts first, why is there so much Java, C# .NET, and VB .NET code and so many UML diagrams? First, they are all great for illustrating OO concepts. Second, both are vital to the OO process and should be addressed at an introductory level. The key is not to focus on Java, C# .NET, and VB .NET or UML, but to use them as aids in the understanding of the underlying concepts.

The Java, C# .NET and VB .NET examples in the book illustrate concepts such as loops and functions. However, understanding the code itself is not a prerequisite for understanding the concepts; it might be helpful to have a book at hand that covers specific languages syntax if you want to get more detailed.

I cannot state too strongly that this book does not teach Java, C# .NET, and VB .NET or UML, all of which can command volumes unto themselves. It is my hope that this book will whet your appetite for other OO topics, such as OO analysis, object-oriented design, and OO programming.

This Book's Conventions

The following conventions are used in this book:

  • Code lines, commands, statements, and any other code-related terms appear in a monospace typeface.
  • Placeholders that stand for what you should actually type appear in italic monospace . Text that you should type appears in bold monospace .
  • Throughout the book, there are special sidebar elements, such as

Note - A Note presents interesting information related to the discussion—a little more insight or a pointer to some new technique.



Tip - A Tip offers advice or shows you an easier way of doing something.



Caution - A Caution alerts you to a possible problem and gives you advice on how to avoid it.


Source Code Used in This Book

You can download all the source code and examples discussed within this book from the publisher's website.

© Copyright Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Read More Show Less

Customer Reviews

Be the first to write a review
( 0 )
Rating Distribution

5 Star

(0)

4 Star

(0)

3 Star

(0)

2 Star

(0)

1 Star

(0)

Your Rating:

Your Name: Create a Pen Name or

Barnes & Noble.com Review Rules

Our reader reviews allow you to share your comments on titles you liked, or didn't, with others. By submitting an online review, you are representing to Barnes & Noble.com that all information contained in your review is original and accurate in all respects, and that the submission of such content by you and the posting of such content by Barnes & Noble.com does not and will not violate the rights of any third party. Please follow the rules below to help ensure that your review can be posted.

Reviews by Our Customers Under the Age of 13

We highly value and respect everyone's opinion concerning the titles we offer. However, we cannot allow persons under the age of 13 to have accounts at BN.com or to post customer reviews. Please see our Terms of Use for more details.

What to exclude from your review:

Please do not write about reviews, commentary, or information posted on the product page. If you see any errors in the information on the product page, please send us an email.

Reviews should not contain any of the following:

  • - HTML tags, profanity, obscenities, vulgarities, or comments that defame anyone
  • - Time-sensitive information such as tour dates, signings, lectures, etc.
  • - Single-word reviews. Other people will read your review to discover why you liked or didn't like the title. Be descriptive.
  • - Comments focusing on the author or that may ruin the ending for others
  • - Phone numbers, addresses, URLs
  • - Pricing and availability information or alternative ordering information
  • - Advertisements or commercial solicitation

Reminder:

  • - By submitting a review, you grant to Barnes & Noble.com and its sublicensees the royalty-free, perpetual, irrevocable right and license to use the review in accordance with the Barnes & Noble.com Terms of Use.
  • - Barnes & Noble.com reserves the right not to post any review -- particularly those that do not follow the terms and conditions of these Rules. Barnes & Noble.com also reserves the right to remove any review at any time without notice.
  • - See Terms of Use for other conditions and disclaimers.
Search for Products You'd Like to Recommend

Recommend other products that relate to your review. Just search for them below and share!

Create a Pen Name

Your Pen Name is your unique identity on BN.com. It will appear on the reviews you write and other website activities. Your Pen Name cannot be edited, changed or deleted once submitted.

 
Your Pen Name can be any combination of alphanumeric characters (plus - and _), and must be at least two characters long.

Continue Anonymously

    If you find inappropriate content, please report it to Barnes & Noble
    Why is this product inappropriate?
    Comments (optional)