The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Volume 33: 17 February to 30 April 1801

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Under normal circumstances, Thomas Jefferson would have had more than two months to prepare for his presidency. However, since the House of Representatives finally settled a tied electoral vote only on 17 February 1801, he had two weeks. This book, which covers the two-and-a-half-month period from that day through April 30, is the first of some twenty volumes that will document Jefferson's two terms as President of the United States.

Here, Jefferson drafts his Inaugural Address, one of the landmark documents of American history. In this famous speech, delivered before a packed audience in the Senate Chamber on March 4, he condemns "political intolerance" and asserts that "we are all republicans: we are all federalists," while invoking a policy of "friendship with all nations, entangling alliances with none."

Jefferson appoints his Cabinet members and deals with the time-consuming process of sifting through the countless appeals and supporting letters of recommendation for government jobs as he seeks to reward loyal Republicans and maintain bipartisan harmony at the same time. Among these letters is one from Catharine Church, who remarks that only women, excluded as they are from political favor or government employment, can be free of "ignorant affectation" and address the president honestly. Jefferson also initiates preparations for a long cruise by a squadron of American warships, with an unstated expectation that their destination will probably be the Barbary Coast of the Mediterranean.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780691129105
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • Publication date: 1/2/2007
  • Series: Papers of Thomas Jefferson Series
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Pages: 800
  • Product dimensions: 6.50 (w) x 9.56 (h) x 2.08 (d)

Meet the Author

Barbara B. Oberg, Senior Research Scholar and Lecturer with the Rank of Professor at Princeton University, is General Editor of "The Papers of Thomas Jefferson".

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Read an Excerpt

The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Volume 33: 17 February to 30 April 1801

Princeton University Press

Copyright © 2006 Princeton University Press
All right reserved.

Chapter One


* * *

Announcement of Election Results

[17 Feb. 1801]

By Express from the City of Washington!!

To the EDITORS of the TIMES.

THIS moment the election is decided. Morris, from Vermont, absented himself, so that Vermont was for Jefferson. The four members from Maryland, who had voted for Burr, put in blank tickets. The result was then ten for Jefferson.

I hope you will have the cannon out to announce the news. Yours,

N.B. This was the second ballot to-day. Bayard is appointed ambassador to France.

Tuesday, two o'clock.

Printed (ICN).

THE TIMES: The Times; and District of Columbia Daily Advertiser, which was published in Alexandria, Virginia. TJ perhaps did not see the handbill above, which was made up in the newspaper's office on 17 Feb. and provided many Virginians with their first confirmation of his election. In Fredericksburg on the evening of the 19th, Fontaine Maury saw copy that was on its way by express messenger to Governor James Monroe in Richmond. The editors of the Times reprinted the announcement in their columns on 18 Feb., omitting the sentence about the CANNON salute. By then cannonades had already taken place in Alexandria, where celebrants fired 16 rounds from an artillery piece brought to the courthouse square on the 17th, and they repeated the tribute from a wharf on the Potomac that evening. Cannon shots also announced the news in Fredericksburg (Alexandria Times, 18 Feb. 1801; Madison, Papers, 17:471).

BAYARD IS APPOINTED AMBASSADOR: in a letter dated 13 Feb., but presented to the Senate on Tuesday, the 17th, John Adams nominated James A. Bayard as minister plenipotentiary to France. The Senate debated the appointment on 18 Feb. and consented to it the next day. On 2 Mch., Adams notified the Senate that the Delaware congressman had declined the appointment "for reasons equally applicable to every other person suitable for the service." The president concluded that he would leave the appointment of a minister and the conveyance of the Convention of 1800 to France to his successor, that he "may proceed with them according to his wisdom" (JEP, 1:380, 382-3, 388).

As the single Delaware vote, Bayard had played a pivotal role in breaking the tie between TJ and Burr in the House. On 17 Feb., after the decisive ballot, Bayard wrote Allen McLane, the avowedly Federalist collector at Wilmington: "Mr Jefferson is our President. Our opposition was continued till it was demonstrated that Burr could not be brought in, and even if he could he meant to come in as a Democrat. In such case to evidence his sincerity he must have swept every officer in the U. States. I have direct information that Mr Jefferson will not pursue that plan." Bayard noted that the New England congressmen had been ready "to go without a constitution and take the risk of a Civil War." In the end, "Mr J. did not get a Foederal vote. Vermont gave a vote by means of Morris withdrawing-the same thing happened with Maryland. The Votes of S. Carolina and Delaware were blank." Bayard concluded: "I have taken good care of you, and think if prudent, you are safe." At some point, TJ received a copy of this letter from Thomas Mann Randolph and noted: "Bayard James A. of Delaware. a copy of a letter from him to Colo. Mc.lane of Delaware, written pending the election between Th:J and A. Burr the original was put by Colo Mc.lane in to the hands of TMR. who made this copy from it" (Tr in DLC, in Randolph's hand, with TJ's notation on verso; RC in ViU, addressed: "Allen MClane Esqr Wilmington Delaware," franked and postmarked; Tr in same, reportedly in the hand of Judge Allen McLane-a descendant-summarized and incomplete, lacks final sentence that concludes "if prudent you are safe"; for the second Tr, see Elizabeth Donnan, ed., Papers of James A. Bayard, 1796-1815 [Washington, D.C., 1915; repr. New York, 1971], 127-8).

TJ may have received the transcript of this letter from his son-in-law in 1806, when depositions were taken regarding the charge that TJ had bargained with Bayard for the presidency, through the offices of Samuel Smith. Randolph was serving as a Virginia congressman at the time. For a discussion of the controversy, see Malone, Jefferson, 4:487-93; Joanne B. Freeman, Affairs of Honor: National Politics in the New Republic (New Haven, 2001), 250-3; and Kline, Burr, 2:962-8. TJ was accused of agreeing not to dismiss certain government officers on political grounds alone, specifically McLane and George Latimer, collector at Philadelphia (Malone, Jefferson, 4:489).

From Hugh Henry Brackenridge

Sir, Pittsburg February 17th: 1801.

Just about to leave this place to which I will not return until the first of June next. In the mean time shall be in Philadelphia and on the circuit.

The event of your Presidency has most probably by this time taken place, at least designation of taking place on the fourth of March next. I think it morally impossible that the vote of Congress could ultimately be contrary to the voice of the nation known in fact, though not organically expressed; or that the terrific consequences of a suspension, or usurpation of the federal government would be dared. Thinking of you then as the President designate, and on the fourth of March next about to assume the extensive trust, I wish to intrude upon you for a moment with an observation on the removal of quondam officers which may be necessary, and to a certain extent take place. This, the more, because an answer to a question of yours made to me in Philadelphia, and what was said by me in a letter addressed to you some time ago may mislead as to my opinion correctly stated on this subject.

The question was, what the effect of the decision and proscription as it was called, of Governor McKean's Administration in the removal of officers. My answer was that having not acted with that rigor he would not have been Governor a second time, and that in a memoir to him I had strongly enforced that rigor with regard to the Western Country.

In my letter to you I have said to this effect if my memory serves me that in the change of our elections in favor of the republican interest, experience has shewn that the advice was salutary. But meaning now to explain, I have to say that the removal of officers by Governor McKean was not indiscriminate, but guided by nice discernment judgment and discretion. Policy was consulted, and where the officer was not bad, and had not been an outrageous adversary he was not removed unless indeed in some instance where the office was absolutely wanted to compensate an active friend, perhaps more in need of it than the officer who had possessed it. General hostility and war must be moderated by a skillful man in order to support himself for the use of his friends. Hitting the exact medium in this most delicate part of administration must depend on the most intimate knowledge of characters and standing. Your removals will doubtless be confined chiefly to the higher state officers for some time but will extend ultimately and gradually through the whole organization of the system. It may be of use to you therefore to have the information of the most inconsiderable. It will be of the less consequence for me because there will be representatives in Congress from the districts can inform. Our officers in the Western Country in the Revenue have chiefly been under the appointment of Ross or Addison, I mean Assessors &ca.

It strikes me to say something on the official arrangement of the War Office which occurs to me from the attention I have paid to it from my residence in this Country which has been with short intervals the scene of war for a long time. The errors of military men, or of arrangements in the Army department have been obvious. The present administration appears to be at a loss for a War officer the succeeding will be at a loss for some time also. The War department has long labored under disorders which menaced its destruction-founded on false principles, it has grown in errors and increased in deformities; and now having reached a state of utter chaos, it is to be consigned with all its odium to a new administrator, without records to instruct, guide, guard or govern Him. In this state of things it occurs, that the Senior military officer may be usefully employed in removing the embarrassments and perplexities which encompass this department-Because he has had the chief command of the established troops for more than four years, and has preserved his official correspondence since the year ninety.

It is presumable that he possesses a perfect knowledge of the troops in being, as well their moral energies as their physical capacities.

He understands perfectly the disposition of these troops, & the motives which directed it; and commanding an intimate knowledge of the geography of his country, of the Indian occupancies and force within its limits, and of the fortifications of foreign Powers which border thereon, their strength and objects; he can best determine the expediency of maintaining our present posts, of demolishing them or of erecting new ones.

The obligations of duty which have pointed his attentions to the several departments of the Army, their provisions and expenditures enable him to explain the total destitution of responsibility, of order, discrimation and oeconomy throughout, and will assist him to suggest the necessary remedies, to correct the follies and abuses which pervade every branch of service.

At the same time his knowledge of individual merits and pretentions, and of the proper functions of the host of dependents attached to the Military, will enable him to select and to recommend the honest, the able and the deserving.

Being in possession of the immediate projects as well as the ultimate views of the late administration (for the present is without plan principle or design) he may derive much utility from this source.

Give him then the charge of the department to retrench and systematize it-being a western man and popular in the most remote settlements, this avocation may flatter, oblige and give confidence to the people of that portion of the Union. While a minister, competent to the able discharge of the important duties of the station, may be sought for at leisure.

I am Sir With solicitude for your official honor and personal happiness, Your Most Obedient Humble Servant H H Brackenridge

RC (DLC); in a clerk's hand, signed by Brackenridge; endorsed by TJ as received 28 Feb. and so recorded in SJL.

The earlier letter from Brackenridge was that of 30 Jan.


From Thomas Leiper

Dear Sir Philada. Febry. 17th. 1801-

I have this day examined nine Hogsheads of your Tobacco and find none of them have been Wet & Dried again-It is true one of them is a little wet but when it received this damage none can tell it might have been in comming down your River or it might have received it on its way to Philadelphia but it is so extremely little that I think there is nothing due on the Score of Damage. Six of the Hhds of Tobo. were inspected at SPR Two at NNS and One at Lynch. Jackson & Wharton are extremely sorry for the information they give me the other day that one of your Hhds fell short in weight 234 lb. this Hhd they find on examination to be none of yours. J & Wharton shewed me an invoice of Tobacco purchased at the same time of yours which they say the quality was supperiour to yours-Ten Hhds at 31/6 and Fourteen Hhds at 33/ pr Ct. V. Currency-J & Wharton informs their orders at Richmond was not to exceed for the very best Tobacco Five Dollars Fifty Cents-their friends from the character of your Tobacco give six and ship't it them informing them at the same time if they would give them the first Cost and Commission they might have it which they agreed to do. It was not convenient to see any more of the Tobacco to day but I give them to understand I should attend when the others were opened and if there was any damage I had full powers from you to make the Allowence They informed me I ought to make an allowence of half a Dollar pr Ct. as the quality was not so good as formerly I was obliged to acknowledge it was the worst crop of yours I ever saw-I asked them their price for the whole Crop they said 7L Dollars-I told them that was half a Dollar more than any sale that had been made in Town and I told them that about the time they made a Purchase of your Tobacco they had sold Twenty Hhds to be picked from 40 for six Dollars and a half at 60 and 90 days being in possission of these facts they had nothing to say but still I must inform you if the Crop of Tobacco I purchased of you last year and the Crop of yours in the hands of J & Wharton were both for sale. I certainly would give some 75/100 or One Dollar pr Ct. more for what I had than what J & Wharton have got for sale- The prices of Tobacco at Richmond on the 10th. New 30/ Old 34/ Cash-& 36/ at 90 days-and as the Virginians expect great things from their intercourse with France I still hope that J & W will get clear of their Tobo. without much loss-I was beged to take it at Cost and charges but as the Tobacco was sound I did not see any claim they had upon you unless your friends engaged it as good as what I purchased of you last year. in that case they would. I still see the appearance as if the Tobacco had been hung up from hands taken from the heart of the Hhds but nothing like as if they had been Wet-I observe you have said nothing to Clark or Gibson & Jefferson respectg. the Tobacco. to the later I think you should say nothing but Clark you may give my compliment to him and inform it is my opinion if he handles your Tobacco as bad as he has done it this last year you will soon lose your Character of raising fine Tobacco-I am Dear Sir

Your most Obedient St. Thomas Leiper

RC (MHi); at foot of text: "Hon: Thomas Jefferson Vice President of the U States"; endorsed by TJ as received 20 Feb. and so recorded in SJL.

INFORMATION THEY GIVE ME THE OTHER DAY: See Leiper to TJ, 11 Feb. 1801, Vol. 32:572-4.

THEIR FRIENDS: McMurdo & Fisher.

From George Meade

My dear Sir Philadelphia 17th. February 1801

Interested as I am & every man in America must & ought to be, you must no doubt suppose I am exceedingly Concernd & very desirous of knowing the result of the Election for President of the United States. you may remember that I informd You, how much I was hurt by Mr Adams behaviour respecting the Oration deliverd at our Chappel, nevertheless I am free to declare I wishd him from his long Services (tho' many of them, not approved of by me, as well as others) that he might have been the Successful Candidate at the present Election; but when I came to know he would not be so, & certain, that neither Mr Burr or his friends, could ever entertain an Idea, that he would be the Man, I confess I have felt exceedingly hurt & Mortifyd, that my worthy Mr Jefferson, has not had an unanimous Vote, to make him President. it is a disgrace to the Proceedings of Congress, & will hurt us exceedingly, in the Eyes of all Europe. I have been almost led to curse Party Proceedings, to which only this measure, can be attributed. I yet hope that those unthinking & deluded States, will recover their Senses, & do what is right, by Electing you, & which I am pleased to find, many of the other Side of the Question, wish may be the Case. may you I most sincerely wish be the man, & may you so Conduct Yourself as to put an end to Party Spirit, & gain Immortal honor & be revered as much as our late father of his Country Washington was, by America at large. it is Impossible to Please all Parties, let a man only act, what he deems most beneficial for the good of his Country, & merit must & will have its reward. I wait most anxiously for the decision, & hope in the Course of the week at furthest, to have Confirmd what I wish for that my friend Mr Jefferson may be announcd to his Country, as our President. I would sooner have addressd you, but that I have been very unwell & am but just recovering from my Indisposition. with every good wish, & with Sincere Esteem, & regard, believe me to be My Dr. Sir

Your afft. friend, obliged, & most Obedt. hble Servant Geo: Meade

I am apprehensive I shall be too late for to days Post

RC (DLC); addressed: "Honble Thomas Jefferson Esqr President of the Senate, & Vice President of the United States Washington City Mail"; franked and postmarked; endorsed by TJ as received 20 Feb. and so recorded in SJL.


Excerpted from The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Volume 33: 17 February to 30 April 1801 Copyright © 2006 by Princeton University Press . Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.
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Table of Contents

Foreword vii
Editorial Method and Apparatus xv
Illustrations xlv
Jefferson Chronology 2


Announcement of Election Results, [17 February] 3
From Hugh Henry Brackenridge, 17 February 4
From Thomas Leiper, 17 February 7
From George Meade, 17 February 8
From Nicholas J. Roosevelt, 17 February 9
Notes on a Letter of William Pinckney, [after 17 February] 10
Notes on New York Patronage, [after 17 February] 11
To John Adams, 18 February 12
To Henry Dearborn, 18 February 13
To William Jackson, 18 February 14
List of John Adams's Judicial Appointments, [18 February] 15 To James Madison, 18 February 16
From Benjamin Perkins, 18 February 17
To Craven Peyton, 18 February 18
From Benjamin Stoddert, 18 February 18
From Caspar Wistar, 18 February 19
To Thomas Mann Randolph, 19 February 20 From Stephen Thorn, 19 February 21
To Thomas Whitlaw, 19 February 22
From John Adams, 20 February 23 To Samuel Dexter, 20 February 24
From Pierre Samuel Du Pont de Nemours, 20 February 24
To the House of Representatives, 20 February 25
From Josef Ignacio de Viar, 20 February 26
From George Logan, 20 February 26
From James Lyon, 20 February 26
From Thomas McKean, 20 February 28
From Stephen Sayre, 20 February 30
From John Wright, 20 February 31 From John Dickinson, 21 February 31
From Joseph Fay, 21 February 32
To George Jefferson, 21 February 33
To Charles Willson Peale, 21 February 34
To Benjamin Stoddert, 21 February 35 To Daniel Trump, 21 February 35
To John Wayles Eppes, 22 February 37
To William Evans, 22 February 38
From Robert Gourlay, 22 February 39 From Elijah Griffiths, 22 February 40
From Israel Israel, 22 February 42
To Philippe de Létombe, 22 February 43
From James Martin, 22 February 44
From William Munson, 22 February 44
From James Thomson Callender, 23 February 46
From Catherine Church, 23 February 48
From Thomas T. Davis, 23 February 49
To Thomas Leiper, 23 February 50
To Meriwether Lewis, 23 February 51
List of John Adams's Appointments, 23 February 52
From John Moody, 23 February 53
From Francis Say, 23 February 53
To Samuel Harrison Smith, 23 February 54
To James Wilkinson, 23 February 54
From James Bowdoin, 24 February 55
From Elbridge Gerry, 24 February 56
From William Jackson, 24 February 58
From Thomas Lewis, Jr., 24 February 59
To Robert R. Livingston, 24 February 61
From Jonathan H. Nichols, 24 February 61
From Joseph Nourse, 24 February 62
From Marinus Willett, 24 February 62
From John Gardiner, 25 February 64
From William Heath, 25 February 65
To Thomas Lomax, 25 February 66
To Richard Richardson, 25 February 67
From Benjamin Stoddert, 25 February 68
From Isaac Weaver, Jr., 25 February 68
From Joseph Anderson and William Cocke, 26 February 69
From Samuel Bryan, [ca. 26 February] 71
From Pierce Butler, 26 February 74
From Nicolas Gouin Dufief, 26 February 75
From William Findley, 26 February 77
From Philippe de Létombe, 26 February 81
To Robert Morris, 26 February 81
From Patrick Sim, 26 February 82
From John Strode, 26 February 83
From John Beckley, 27 February 84
From Delamotte, 27 February 87
From Johann Eckstein, 27 February 90
From William Evans, 27 February 91
From George Jefferson, 27 February 92
From George Logan, 27 February 93
To Tarleton Bates, [28] February 94
From Joseph Hardy, 28 February 95
From Philippe de Létombe, 28 February 96
From James Madison, 28 February 99
To the Senate, 28 February 101
From John Vanmetre, 28 February 102
From Burgess Allison, 1 March 104
From Joseph Anderson, 1 March 105
From Elijah Boardman, 1 March 106
From William Duane, 1 March 108
From Benjamin Hawkins, 1 March 109
From John Garland Jefferson, 1 March 110
From Matthew Lyon, 1 March 111
From Rembrandt Peale, 1 March 114
From Elizabeth House Trist, 1 March 115
From Stephen Burrowes, 2 March 116
From Joseph Eggleston, 2 March 116
To James Hillhouse, 2 March 117
From James Hillhouse, [2 March] 118
To John Marshall, 2 March 119
From John Marshall, 2 March 120
From Robert Morris, 2 March 121
From Anonymous, [before 3 March] 122
From David Jones, 3 March 123
From Matthew Lyon, 3 March 125
From James Monroe, 3 March 126
From Samuel A. Otis, 3 March, enclosing Orders on the Inauguration, 2 March 128
From Theodore Peters, 3 March 129
From Moses Robinson, 3 March 129
To the Senate, 3 March 131
From Benjamin Stoddert, 3 March 132
From Stephen Thorn, 3 March 132
First Inaugural Address, 4 March 134
I. First Draft, [before 4 March] 139
II. II. Revised Draft, [before 4 March] 143 III. First Inaugural Address, [4 March] 148 From Arthur Campbell, 4 March 152 From Thomas Claxton, 4 March 153 From the District of Columbia Commissioners, enclosing Suspension of Certain Building Regulations, 4 March 154 From William Falkener, enclosing From Warren County Inhabitants, 4 March 155
From Fayetteville Republican Citizens, 4 March 156
From Cyrus Griffin, 4 March 157
To George Jefferson, 4 March 157
From George Jefferson, 4 March 158
From Peter Legaux, 4 March 160
From Francis Mentges, 4 March 161
From the New Jerusalem Church of Baltimore, 4 March 162
From Richard Dobbs Spaight, 4 March 164
From John Cleves Symmes, 4 March 166
From James Warren, 4 March 167
From "Your Unknown Friend," 4 March 168
From Joseph Yznardi, Sr., 4 March 169
Circular Letter to Midnight Appointees, [after 4 March] 172
From Joseph Anderson and William Cocke, 5 March 174
From Abraham Baldwin and Benjamin Taliaferro, 5 March 175
From William Findley, 5 March 178
From Nicholas King and Others, 5 March 180
To Philippe de Létombe, 5 March 181
To Levi Lincoln, 5 March 181
Receipt from John Minchin, 5 March 182
From James Monroe, 5 March 182
Notes on New Jersey Patronage, [ca. 5 March-before June] 183
From John Page, 5 March 184
From Charles Pinckney, 5 March 186
From Providence Citizens, 5 March 187
To the Senate, 5 March 188
From John R. Smith, 5 March 189
From Edward Thornton, 5 March 190
From Joseph Anderson, 6 March 191
From Abraham Baldwin, 6 March 191
From Columbia, South Carolina, Citizens, 6 March 194
From Thomas T. Davis, 6 March 195
From Jonathan Dayton and Aaron Ogden, 6 March 195
To John Dickinson, 6 March 196
From Albert Gallatin, 6 March 197
From Robert R. Livingston, 6 March 199
To Robert Morris, 6 March 201
To Charles Pinckney, 6 March 201
From John W. Pratt, 6 March 202
To Thomas Mann Randolph, 6 March 203
From James Reed Dermott, 7 March 204
From John Hall, 7 March 205
From James Madison, 7 March 207
To James Monroe, 7 March 208
From Wilson Cary Nicholas, 7 March 209
From Jonathan Williams, 7 March 210
From the Borough of Wilmington, 7 March 211
From John Woodward, 7 March 212
To John Adams, 8 March 213
To James Bowdoin, 8 March 213
From Jeremiah Brown, 8 March 214
To Horatio Gates, 8 March 215
From Thomas Leiper, 8 March 215
From John F. Mercer, 8 March 217
Notes on a Cabinet Meeting, 8 March 219
From Charles Willson Peale, 8 March 221
From Benjamin Ring, 8 March 224
From William Lee, [before 9] March 225
From David Austin, 9 March 226
To John Hargrove, 9 March 228
From Tobias Lear, 9 March 229
To Thomas McKean, 9 March 229
From John Mitchell, 9 March 231
To Jonathan H. Nichols, 9 March 232
Notes on a Cabinet Meeting, 9 March 232
From Henry Roosen, 9 March 233
To Samuel Smith, 9 March 234
From John Stuart, 9 March 234
From George Taylor, 9 March 235
From Benjamin Smith Barton, 10 March 236
From George Caines, 10 March 236
From Tench Coxe, 10 March 237
From Samuel Hanson, 10 March 238
From Meriwether Lewis, 10 March 238
From Henry Whetcroft, 10 March 239
From William Bache, 11 March 240
From William Brent, 11 March 241
From Mary Glenholmes, 11 March 242
From Samuel Hanson, 11 March 244
From Samuel Kennedy, 11 March 244
From Samuel A. Otis, 11 March 245
From John Smith, 11 March, enclosing Certificate from John Beckley, 10 March 246
From Benjamin Stoddert, 11 March 248
From Samuel Smith, [before 12 March] 250
To John James Barralet, 12 March 251
Pardon for David Brown, 12 March 251
To Stephen Burrowes, 12 March 252
To John Dawson, 12 March 253
To Nicholas Gouin Dufief, 12 March 253
To Cyrus Griffin, 12 March 254
From Samuel Hanson, 12 March 254
From Robert R. Livingston, 12 March 255
To James Madison, 12 March 255
From James Monroe, 12 March 256
From Thomas Newton, 12 March 258
From Charles Pinckney, [12 March] 259
To Thomas Mann Randolph, 12 March 259
From Benjamin Rush, 12 March 260
From Benjamin Stoddert, 12 March 263
From Daniel Trump, 12 March 265
To John Wright, 12 March 266
From Nathaniel Anderson, 13 March 266
To Gabriel Duvall, 13 March 267
To Andrew Ellicott, 13 March 268
From Carlos Martínez de Irujo, 13 March 268
To Lafayette, 13 March 270
From Francis Peyton, 13 March 271
To Samuel Smith, 13 March 271
To Benjamin Stoddert, 13 March 272
From Elizabeth House Trist, 13 March 273
To Joel Barlow, 14 March 274
From Albert Gallatin, enclosing Estimate of Receipts and Expenditures for 1801, Estimate of Receipts and Expenditures after 1801, and Estimate of Military Expenditures, 14 March 275
From Benjamin Galloway, 14 March 281
From Abel Janney, 14 March 282
From Walter Jones, 14 March 283
To Tadeusz Kosciuszko, 14 March 288
From Richard Parrott, 14 March 289
From Thomas Mann Randolph, 14 March 290
From Benjamin Stoddert, 14 March, enclosing Account of French Prisoners, [14 March] 291
From Benjamin Stoddert, 14 March 291
To the Borough of Wilmington, 14 March 293
From Joseph Yznardi, Sr., 14 March 293
From David Austin, 15 March 295
From the Aliens of Beaver County, Pennsylvania, 15 March 297
From Charles Copland, 15 March, enclosing Charles Copland to Ariana Randolph, 31 January 299
From Tench Coxe, 15 March 300
From Edmond Custis, 15 March 301
From Philippe de Létombe, 15 March 302
From Andrew Shepherd, 15 March 303
From Benjamin Vaughan, 15 March 303
From Joseph B. Barry, 16 March 306 From Carlo Bellini, 16 March 306
From Benjeman Bryen, 16 March 307
From Aaron Burr, 16 March 308
Pardon for James Thomson Callender, 16 March 309
From William Branch Giles, 16 March 310
From Samuel Hanson, 16 March 312
From Henry Knox, 16 March 313
From Robert R. Livingston, 16 March 314
From John Strode, 16 March 315
From Leonard Vandegrift, Sr., 16 March 315
From John James Barralet, 17 March 316
From Mathew Carey, 17 March 316
From Thomas Cooper, 17 March 317
From Samuel Dexter, 17 March 318
To Fayetteville Republican Citizens, 17 March 319
To Samuel Hanson, 17 March 319
From Samuel Hanson, 16 [i. e. 17] March 320
From William Hardy, 17 March 320
To David Humphreys, with Levi Lincoln, [17] March 321
From Robert R. Livingston, 17 March 323 To Philip Mazzei, 17 March 328
Memorandum from Aaron Burr, [ca. 17 March] 330
Memorandum from Charles Pinckney, [ca. 17 March] 333
From James Monroe, 17 March 334
To Charles Pinckney, 17 March 335
From Benjamin Rittenhouse, 17 March 336
To William Short, 17 March 337
From Samuel Smith, 17 March 339
To Benjamin Stoddert, 17 March 340 To Volney, 17 March 341
From Thomas Waterman, 17 March 342
From John Beckley, 18 March 343 To Napoleon Bonaparte, 18 March 344
To Daniel Carroll Brent, 18 March 345
From Gabriel Duvall, 18 March 346 To Oliver Ellsworth and William Vans Murray, with Levi Lincoln, [18] March 346
From John Wayles Eppes, 18 March 349
From Carlos Martínez de Irujo, 18 March 350
To William Jones, 18 March 351
From Ephraim Kirby, 18 March 352
From James Monroe, 18 March 353
From Benjamin Nones, 18 March 356
To Thomas Paine, 18 March 358
From Henry Shea?, 18 March 359
From James D. Westcott, 18 March 360
From Joseph Yznardi, Sr., 18 March 362
From Joseph Barnes, 19 March 363
From Thomas Cogswell, 19 March 365
To Philippe de Létombe, 19 March 366
From George Meade, 19 March 367
From Francis Peyton, 19 March 368
To Thomas Mann Randolph, 19 March 369
From Hugh Rose, 19 March 369
To Madame de Tessé, 19 March 369
To Pierre Samuel Du Pont de Nemours, 20 March 371
From Andrew Ellicott, 20 March 371
To Albert Gallatin, 20 March 372
To Joseph Mathias Gérard de Rayneval, 20 March 373
From Christian G. Hahn, 20 March 374
From John Hobby, 20 March 375
From Henry Ingle, 20 March 377
From Jacob Lewis, 20 March 378
From John Thomson Mason, 20 March 380 From Sarah Mease, 20 March 380 From Samuel Smith, 20 March, enclosing From Allegany County Republican Citizens, 4 March 382 To Warren County Inhabitants, 20 March 383 From Joseph Yznardi, Sr., 20 March 384
From Joseph Yznardi, Sr., 20 March 385
From David Austin, 21 March 386
From Samuel Bryan, 21 March 387
From Stephen Burrowes, 21 March 388
To George Caines, 21 March 389
From Levi Lincoln, 21 March 389
To George Logan, 21 March 390
From Thomas McKean, 21 March 391
To Joseph Priestley, 21 March 393
From Henry Rose, 21 March 395
From Stephen Sayre, 21 March 396
To James Warren, 21 March 398
From Washington, D. C., Inhabitants, [ca. 21 March] 399
To Isaac Weaver, Jr., 21 March 400
From John Dawson, 22 March 401
To Joseph Fay, 22 March 401
From Joseph Fenwick, 22 March 402
To Elijah Griffiths, 22 March 402
To Nathaniel Niles, 22 March 403
From Joseph Allen Smith, 22 March 404
Memorial from Eliakim Littell and Squier Littell, [before 23 March] 407
From Joseph Louis d'Anterroches, 23 March 408
To Columbia, South Carolina, Citizens, 23 March 409
From Tench Coxe, 23 March 410
From Theodore Foster, 23 March 411
To William Branch Giles, 23 March 413
From Joseph Habersham, 23 March 415
From William Jones, 23 March 416
From William Kilty, 23 March 416
From James Magon, 23 March 417
From James Monroe, 23 March 419
To Thomas Newton, 23 March 420
From Jonathan H. Nichols, 23 March 421
To John Page, 23 March 422
To Moses Robinson, 23 March 423
From Andrew Rounsavell, 23 March 424
To Andrew Rounsavell, 23 March 425
From John Adams, 24 March 426
From Charles Burrall, 24 March 426
To William Findley, 24 March 427
To Philip Ludwell Grymes, 24 March 428
To Joseph Habersham, 24 March 429
To Carlos Martínez de Irujo, 24 March 430
To Peter Legaux, 24 March 430
From James Linn, 24 March 432
To Robert R. Livingston, 24 March 433
From Rembrandt Peale, [24 March] 433
To Thomas Perkins, 24 March 434
From Andrew Rounsavell, 24 March 435
To Benjamin Rush, 24 March 436
To Samuel Smith, 24 March, enclosing To Allegany County Republican Citizens, 23 March 438
To Thomas Sumter, 24 March 440 To Joseph Yznardi, Sr., 24 March 441 From Gideon Granger, 25 March, enclosing From Sufield Citizens, 16 March 441
From John Gregorie, 25 March 444
From Joseph Habersham, 25 March 444
To John Strode, 25 March 445
From John Sutton, 25 March 446
From Samuel Hanson, 26 March 446
To Tobias Lear, 26 March 447
From Tobias Lear, 26 March 447
From Philippe de Létombe, 26 March 449
From Levi Lincoln, 26 March 451
To James Madison, 26 March 452
To Thomas McKean, 26 March 453
To Sarah Mease, 26 March 454
From John Miller, 26 March 455
To Thomas Mann Randolph, 26 March 456
To Samuel Smith, 26 March 456
To Joseph Yznardi, Sr., 26 March 457
From Alexander Boyd, 27 March 458
To Catherine Church, 27 March 459
To John Wayles Eppes, 27 March 459
To Gibson & Jefferson, 27 March 461
From George Hadfield, 27 March 462 From William Hylton, 27 March 464
To George Jefferson, 27 March 465 To Henry Knox, 27 March 465 From Ralph Mather, 27 March 467 From Joseph H. Nicholson, 27 March 469
To Providence Citizens, 27 March 475
From Stephen Sayre, 27 March 476
From Joseph Yznardi, Sr., 27 March 477
From John Barnes, 28 March 478
From Thomas U. P. Charlton, 28 March 479
From the District of Columbia Commissioners, 28 March 480
To John Wayles Eppes, 28 March 482
From John Vaughan, 28 March 482
From Joseph Yznardi, Sr., 28 March 483
From Joseph Yznardi, Sr., 28 March 485
From Joseph Yznardi, Sr., 28 March 486
To Samuel Adams, 29 March 487
From Jabez Bingham, 29 March 488
To Pierpont Edwards, 29 March 489
To Elbridge Gerry, 29 March 490
To Gideon Granger, 29 March 492
From John Garland Jefferson, 29 March 494
From Henry Knox, 29 March 495
To Thomas Leiper, 29 March 496
From Robert R. Livingston, 29 March 497
From David Austin, 30 March 498
From Samuel Dexter, [30] March 499
To Enoch Edwards, enclosing Instructions for a Carriage, 30 March 500
To Benjamin Stoddert, 30 March 502
From Mathew Carey, 31 March 502
Statement of Account with Thomas Carpenter, 31 March 502
From John Dawson, 31 March 504
To Henry Dearborn, 31 March 504
To Samuel Dexter, 31 March 505
To William Evans, 31 March 505
To Walter Jones, 31 March 506
To Philippe de Létombe, 31 March 506
To Meriwether Lewis, 31 March 507
To Charles Little, 31 March 507
From John Thomson Mason, 31 March 508
To Benjamin Vaughan, 31 March 511
To Caspar Wistar, 31 March 511
Jacob Wagner's Memorandum on State Department Clerks, [March] 512
Notes on South Carolina Patronage, [March-November] 513
From Jean Chas, 1 April 515
From Auguste de Grasse, 1 April 517
From Benjamin Hichborn, 1 April 519
From Robert Leslie, 1 April 521
From "A. B.," 2 April 522 From Thomas Cooper, 2 April 523
From Thomas Lomax, 2 April 524
From Louis André Pichon, 2 April 525
From Samuel Smith, 2 April 527
From Enoch Edwards, 3 April 527
From George Helmbold, 3 April 529
From Meriwether Lewis, 3 April 530
From Joseph Rapin, 3 April 530
From "A Vermont Republican," 3 April 532 From Matthew Lyon, 4 April 534
From Oliver Pollock, 4 April 537
From Tench Coxe, 5 April 539
From Samuel Hanson, 6 April 540
From George Jefferson, 6 April 542
From Michael Leib, 6 April 543
From James Monroe, 6 April 543
From John Page, 6 April 544
From Samuel Smith, 6 April 545
From Alexander White, 6 April 546
From John Dickinson, 7 April 547
From George Jefferson, 7 April 548
From "A Married Female," 7 April 548
From Joseph Yznardi, Sr., 7 April 549
From Stephen Cathalan, Jr., 8 April 551
To John Wayles Eppes, 8 April 551
From Peter Jaquett, 8 April 552
From Levi Lincoln, 8 April 553
From Gouverneur Morris, 8 April 554
From Thomas Newton, 8 April 554
To Archibald Stuart, 8 April 555
From Caspar Wistar, [before 9 April] 556
From Levi Lincoln, 9 April 557
From Joseph Whipple, 9 April 559
From Joseph Barnes, 10 April 561
From Stephen Cathalan, Jr., 10 April 564
To Rufus King, 10 April 565
From Meriwether Lewis, 10 April 565
To Levi Lincoln, 10 April 566
From Joseph Priestley, 10 April 567
From Stephen Sayre, 10 April 568
To Mary Jefferson Eppes, 11 April 570
From Joseph Fay, 11 April, enclosing From Samuel Broome, 8 April 570
From Solomon Southwick, 11 April 572
From James Thomson Callender, 12 April 573
From Thomas Law, 12 April 575
From Salimbeni, 12 April 575
From Benjamin W. Stuart, 12 April 577
From John West Butler, 13 April 578
From Andrew Ellicott, 13 April 580
From Silas Hubbell, 13 April 582
From Montgomery County, Kentucky, Citizens, [13 April] 583
From Thomas Newton, 14 April 584
From Jonas Simonds, 14 April 584
From John Broadbent, 15 April 585
From James Currie, 15 April 586
From Gideon Granger, 15 April 587
From Hammuda Pasha, Bey of Tunis, 15 April 591
From Matthew McAllister, 15 April 593
From Joseph Léonard Poirey, 15 April 594
From John Barnes, 16 April 595
From Joseph Fenwick, 16 April 596
From Levi Lincoln, 16 April 596
From William C. C. Claiborne, 17 April 599
To Thomas Cooper, 17 April 600
From Enoch Edwards, 17 April 600
To John Hoomes, 17 April 602
To George Jefferson, 17 April 602
To George Jefferson, 17 April 603
To Levi Lincoln, 17 April 604
To James Madison, 17 April 604
To Joseph Rapin, 17 April 605
To Samuel Smith, 17 April 605
From Thomas Sumter, Sr., 17 April 607
From Peter Delabigarre, 18 April 608
To Enoch Edwards, 18 April 609
From John Wayles Eppes, 18 April 610
From Mary Jefferson Eppes, 18 April 611
From Tench Coxe, enclosing Tench Coxe's Key to Federal Positions, with Jefferson's Notes, 19 April 612
From William Short, 19 April 615
From Elizabeth Barnet, 20 April 618
From John Browne Cutting, 20 April 618
To George Jefferson, 20 April 619
From Nathaniel Macon, 20 April 620
From Charles Pinckney, 20 April 621
From Thomas Sumter, Jr., 20 April 624 Petition from Colin C. Wills, 20 April 625
From Aaron Burr, 21 April 626
To George Jefferson, 21 April 628
From Caesar A. Rodney, 21 April 628
From James Madison, [22 April] 630
From Thomas Oben, and Enclosure, 22 April 630
From Tench Coxe, 23 April 633
From Albert Gallatin, 23 April 637
From Nathaniel Macon, 23 April 637
From Samuel Adams, 24 April 638 Statement of Account with Gibson & Jefferson, 24 April 639
From Haden Edwards, 25 April 640
To John Wayles Eppes, 25 April 641
To Levi Lincoln, 25 April 642
To James Madison, 25 April 642
To John Monroe, 25 April 643
To Archibald Stuart, 25 April 643
From William Barton, 26 April 644
From Thomas Mendenhall, 27 April 644
From James Woodhouse, 27 April 647
From Walter Boyd, 28 April 648
From Theodore Foster, 28 April 650
From Caleb Haskell, 28 April 652
From Samuel Fulton, 29 April 653
From Elbridge Gerry, 29 April 655
From James Monroe, 29 April 657
From Charles Goodwin, 30 April 657
To James Madison, 30 April 658
From John Monroe, 30 April 659
From Henry Brinkerhoff, April 660
Appendix I: Lists of Appointments and Removals, 5 March 663
1. List of Candidates, [ca. 23 December 1800-31 March 1801] 665
2. List of Appointments and Removals, [ca. May 1802] 668
3. List of Appointments and Removals, [after 10 May 1803] 670
4. List of Appointments and Removals, [5 March 1801-14 May 1802] 674

Appendix II: Notations by Jefferson on Senate Documents 681
Appendix III: Letters Not Printed in Full 685
Appendix IV: Letters Not Found 689
Index 693

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