The Particulars of Rapture: Reflections on Exodus

The Particulars of Rapture: Reflections on Exodus

by Avivah Gottlieb Zornberg
     
 

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Avivah Zornberg grew up in a world of rabbinic tradition and scholarship and received a Ph.D. in English literature from Cambridge University. The Particulars of Rapture, the sequel to her award-winning study of the Book of Genesis, takes its title from a line by the American poet Wallace Stevens about the interdependence of opposite things, such as male and

Overview

Avivah Zornberg grew up in a world of rabbinic tradition and scholarship and received a Ph.D. in English literature from Cambridge University. The Particulars of Rapture, the sequel to her award-winning study of the Book of Genesis, takes its title from a line by the American poet Wallace Stevens about the interdependence of opposite things, such as male and female, and conscious and unconscious. To her reading of the familiar story of the Israelites and their flight from slavery in Egypt, Avivah Zornberg has brought a vast range of classical Jewish interpretations and Midrashic sources, literary allusions, and ideas from philosophy and psychology. Her quest in this book, as she writes in the introduction, is "to find those who will hear with me a particular idiom of redemption," who will hear "within the particulars of rapture . . . what cannot be expressed."

Zornberg's previous book, The Beginning of Desire: Reflections on Genesis, won the National Jewish Book Award for nonfiction in 1995 and has become a classic among readers of all religions. The Particulars of Rapture will enhance Zornberg's reputation as one of today's most original and compelling interpreters of the biblical and rabbinic traditions.

Editorial Reviews

Publishers Weekly - Publisher's Weekly
A stellar sequel to Zornberg's book on Genesis (The Beginning of Desire, which won the Jewish Book Award in 1995), this hefty volume offers a literary look at the second book of the Bible. Zornberg, who has taught English literature at Hebrew University in Jerusalem, is especially interested in women, exploring why, after women play such a vital role in Genesis, they are all but absent from Exodus. Even when Zornberg departs from that question--and from the larger biblical themes of exodus and redemption--she offers clever analysis on almost every page. For Bible-readers who rely on English translations, Zornberg explains some of the Torah's Hebrew word-plays (such as the repetition of the Hebrew root for "life" when Pharaoh, who ordered the midwives to kill all Hebrew baby boys, asks them why they have instead let the babies live). Zornberg shows the literary similarities between the conversion of Jethro (Moses' father-in-law) and the revelation of the Torah on Mount Sinai. She weaves together insights from the Talmud, Emmanuel Levinas, Rav Kook, Franz Rosenzweig and T.S. Eliot. The book will be a challenge for readers who aren't highly literate in Judaism, which means that many interested Jewish and Christian readers will find themselves lost, wondering too often, "Who is the Sefath Emeth? Who or what is the Targum?" This is unfortunate, because this book's many riches should be accessible to the entire Exodus-reading world. (Feb.) Copyright 2000 Cahners Business Information.
Library Journal
In his poem "Notes Toward a Supreme Fiction," Wallace Stevens wrote of "the particulars of rapture" that come when "two things of opposite natures...depend on one another." In these essays, Zornberg (Jewish studies, Univ. of London; The Beginnings of Desire: Reflections on Genesis) reflects on the "multiple alternative narratives" that coexist both in the Book of Exodus as well as in its many and various midrashic interpretations. Indeed, she demonstrates that the biblical text cannot stand alone but depends on the stories provided by the commentary and interpretation to fill in the gaps in the written text. To a wealth of midrashic commentary (from the Babylonian and Jerusalem Talmuds to the Zohar and the writings of the Baal Shem Tov, Maimonides, and Rashi), Zornberg adds her own wide-ranging literary critiques (of Kafka, Mann, William Blake, among others) and psychoanalytic analyses (of Freud, Gaston Bachelard, D.W. Winnocott, et al.). Zornberg's essays provide rich, rapturous, and brilliant insight into the themes of Exodus's "grand narrative": revelation, betrayal, and the quest for "God in our midst." Highly recommended.--Marcia Welsh, formerly with Guilford Free Lib., CT Copyright 2001 Cahners Business Information.
Kirkus Reviews
A masterly volume of biblical interpretation from a virtuoso of exegesis. Zornberg follows her prize-winning Genesis: The Beginning of Desire (1995) with this series of reflections on the second book of the Pentateuch. As before, she brings a profound learning in the traditions of Jewish hermeneutics and a wide and engaged reading in modern and postmodern writers and theorists from Kierkegaard to Lacan to bear on the biblical narrative. What ensues is a rich and challenging exploration in which the scriptural text is explained, interrogated, constructed, and deconstructed by an interpretive tradition that takes the Torah so seriously as God's book that even the seams in the text, the repetition or variation of stories or phrases, the absences and lacunae, must be made to yield a meaning. And, drawing on the midrashic literature, the meanings she finds are sometimes startling—from the hidden meaning of the mirrors the women of Israel bring to Moses at the end of Exodus to the presence-through-absence of God enacted at Sinai and in the Tabernacle. Throughout, the author stresses the remarkable parallels between her project and psychoanalysis: both"represent a dissatisfaction with surface meanings," and the midrash stands to the biblical text in somewhat the same relation as the unconscious does to the conscious (bearing"encrypted traces of more complex meaning"). All students of the Bible will be grateful for the opportunity to study this most central of texts from a perspective at once old and new, with a teacher of such dazzling intelligence.

From the Publisher
“I know of no other book that presents the enormous subtleties and complexities of rabbinic biblical interpretation with such skill, intelligence, literary flair, and sheer elegance of style. Quite simply, a masterpiece.”
—The Washington Post Book World
 
“What is exciting about Zornberg’s work is not solely her use of varied sources, but her objective in their use . . . So great is her love of, reverence for, and belief in Torah, it is contagious.”
—The Catholic Worker
 
“All students of the Bible will be grateful for the opportunity to study with a teacher of such dazzling intelligence.”
—Kirkus Reviews
 
“Zornberg is one of Jerusalem’s most exciting teachers of Torah, not only because of the subtlety of her thinking but also because of the beauty of her language and the sophistication of her presentation . . . Engaging and brilliant.”
—Tikkun

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780385491532
Publisher:
The Doubleday Religious Publishing Group
Publication date:
11/19/2002
Edition description:
Reprint
Pages:
592
Product dimensions:
6.20(w) x 9.30(h) x 1.20(d)

Read an Excerpt

Shemoth

The Mirror of Redemption

Exodus 1:1-6:1]

1. Fit for Redemption? The Human Context

Israel and Egypt: The Mosaic Distinction

In Jewish tradition, the Exodus from Egypt marks the birth of the Israelite nation and religion. Conceptually, it marks a basic separation between cultures: a distinction between true and false in religion that Jan Assmann, in Moses the Egyptian, calls the Mosaic distinction: "The space severed or cloven by this distinction is the space of Western monotheism."1

How was this distinction conceived? What are the symbolic values attached to each of the two figures, Israel and Egypt? Underlying the issues of truth and falsehood, the Mosaic distinction, in its more profound ethical dimensions, attributes psychological and spiritual values to each figure. The stakes of redemption, of birth to a full selfhood, are large: the issue is not narrowly theological but rather is related to all that makes individual and collective life fruitful or sterile.

Particularly in the midrashic sources and in Chasidic texts, questions as to the inner meaning of redemption generate a construction of Egypt as the world of constriction, paralysis, and silence. The pun often found in Chasidic writings associates Mitzrayim (Egypt) with meitzarim (straits). Egypt becomes a country of the spirit, constricted and, in a real sense, inescapable.

This is the fundamental issue of the Exodus: how to be redeemed when Egypt, that enervating soulscape, has one in its pincer grip? From such a perspective, Israel in Egypt cannot be redeemed; no separation is possible—in the same way as, in terms of mythic thought, the babyheld in the womb cannot be born, must remain monstrously but all-too-plausibly immobilized forever.

The peculiar suffering of such inertia haunts the midrashic accounts of the time before the Exodus: "No slave ever escaped from Egypt" (Mekhilta). What makes release possible, or, in midrashic language, what makes the people fit for redemption? What is the turning point in the history of this unarticulated misery? And what, again in midrashic language, is the secret of redemption?

"And they swarmed. . ."

—Blessing or Critique?

Exodus, the book of Exile and Redemption,2 begins with a list of names:

These are the names of the sons of Israel who came to Egypt with Jacob, each coming with his household: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah; Issachar, Zebulun, and Benjamin; Dan and Naftali, Gad and Asher. The total number of persons that were of Jacob's issue came to seventy, Joseph being already in Egypt. Joseph died, and all his brothers, and all that generation. (Exod 1:1-6)

These are the dead; listed, to tell the reader that they are no more. In Jewish tradition, the book is called The Book of Names: the reference is clearly to the names of the children of Israel, those individuals who, in a moment in history, went down to Egypt and died there, together with their brother, Joseph, who had preceded them.

What follows, however, on this meticulous listing of the dead, is an explosion of life, an almost surrealistic description of the spawning of a nation:

And the children of Israel were fruitful and swarmed and multiplied and increased very greatly, so that the land was filled with them. (1:7)

Nameless, faceless, these too are the "children of Israel." How are we to read this description of their anonymous fecundity? There are two possible understandings. On the one hand, this is a celebration of fullness, of life burgeoning and uncontained. This reading would be a fulfillment of God's promise to Jacob: "Fear not to go down to Egypt, for I will make you there into a great nation" (Gen 46:3).3 The redundant expressions of fertility have been read as denoting multiple births, healthy development, absence of fetal, infant, or adult mortality.4 In the midrashic readings, there is a miraculous, even a whimsical sense of the outrageous victory of life over death: these, for instance, take the six expressions of fertility (they were fruitful, they swarmed, they multiplied, they increased, very, very much) to indicate that each woman gave birth to sextuplets ("six to a belly").5

The affirmation of life contained in these pounding synonyms intimates, in its very excess, a transcendent order of meaning: "Even though Joseph and his brothers died, their God did not die, but the children of Israel were fruitful and multiplied. . ."6 The midrash here wants to decipher the cascade of births not only as blessing but as the "survival of God." The generation that connects with the meaningful past is all gone. But in some way that is not fully explained here, God expresses His undimmed vitality in the language of physical fertility.

An alternative reading of this passage, however, would take its cue from the ambiguous expression vayishretzu—"they swarmed." This can mean the blessing of extraordinary increase;7 but it connotes a reptilian fecundity, which introduces a bizarre note in a description of human fertility.8 In this second view, vayishretzu is a repellent description for a family fallen from greatness.

Seforno, the sixteenth-century Italian commentator, articulates this tragic historical reading most clearly. At first, he writes, there were individuals, named, highly evolved persons, who went down to Egypt. Immediately upon their deaths, names cease. What we have is masses of unindividuated "insect-like" conformists, whose whole effort is to assimilate to their surroundings, and whose unconscious drive is for lemming-like suicide:

After the seventy original immigrants had died, they inclined toward the ways of sheratzim, of reptiles (an uncomplimentary reference to the pagan nations, whose concerns are entirely this-worldly). They ran through their lives in a headlong rush towards the abyss (a pun on sheratzim/she-ratzim = "those who run.") (1:7)

1. Jan Assmann, Moses in Egypt: the Memory of Egypt in Western Monotheism (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1997), 2.

2. This is Ramban's description of the theme of Exodus (Chavel [Hebrew], vol. 1, 279).

3. See Hizkuni on 1:7.

4. See Rashbam and Rashi on 1:7.

5. See Shemoth Rabba 1:7. The hypothesis about multiple birth is merely the basis for further speculation: perhaps each belly held twelve babies? Or sixty?

6. Shemoth Rabba 1:7.

7. Rashi bases the sextuple-birth idea on vayishretzu, presumably after the midrashic notion that sheratzim (reptiles) produce no fewer than six young at a time (see Pesikta d'Rav Kahana [10:85b]).

8. Compare the use of shiretzu in God's instructions to Noah after the flood (Gen 9:7), where it connotes both divine blessing and the compulsive drive to fill the denuded, post-flood world. Also, see my The Beginning of Desire, 10-17, for a discussion of the two axes of human experience—the horizontal, "swarming" axis, and the vertical, "dominating" axis--in the Creation narrative.

Copyright 2001 by Avivah Gottlieb Zornberg

Meet the Author

AVIVAH GOTTLIEB ZORNBERG is the author of The Begginning of Desire: Reflections on Genesis (and winner of the National Jewish Book Award), The Particulars of Rapture: Reflections on Exodus, and The Murmuring Deep: Reflections on the Biblical Unconscious. She lectures widely in Israel, the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. She lives in Jerusalem.

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