The Philosopher's Way: Thinking Critically About Profound Ideas Plus MySearchLab with eText / Edition 4

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Overview

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Students learn to critically think about philosophy.

The Philosopher’s Way inspires students to think like a philosopher, helping them become more accomplished critical thinkers and develop the analytical tools needed to think philosophically about important issues.

This text features readings from major philosophical texts and commentary to guide students in their understanding of the topics. It is organized by questions central to the main branches of philosophy and examines the ideas of philosophers past and present.

A better teaching and learning experience
This program will provide a better teaching and learning experience–for you and your students. Here’s how:

  • Personalize Learning — MySearchLab delivers proven results in helping students succeed, provides engaging experiences that personalize learning, and comes from a trusted partner with educational expertise and a deep commitment to helping students and instructors achieve their goals.
  • Improve Critical Thinking — Critical thinking features challenge students to go beyond their reading and explore the connections philosophy has in their everyday lives.
  • Engage Students — Full-color visuals bring topics to life, and writing examples give students a foundation for their own philosophical exploration.
  • Support Instructors — MySearchLab, Instructor’s Manual, Test Bank, MyTest, and PowerPoint slides are available to be packaged with this text.

Note: MySearchLab does not come automatically packaged with this text. To purchase MySearchLab, please visit: www.mysearchlab.com or you can purchase a ValuePack of the text + MySearchLab (at no additional cost): ValuePack ISBN-10: 0205885888 / ValuePack ISBN-13: 9780205885886.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205885886
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 2/14/2012
  • Series: MyThinkingLab Series
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 4
  • Pages: 672
  • Sales rank: 626,634
  • Product dimensions: 7.90 (w) x 9.90 (h) x 0.40 (d)

Table of Contents

Found in this section:

1. Brief Table of Contents

2. Full Table of Contents


1. BRIEF TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter 1What is Philosophy? Thinking Philosophically About Life

Chapter 2 What is the Philosopher’s Way? Socrates and the Examined Life

Chapter 3 Who are You? Consciousness, Identity, and the Self

Chapter 4 Are You Free? Freedom and Determinism

Chapter 5 How Can We Know the Nature of Reality? Philosophical Foundations

Chapter 6 What is Real? What is True? Further Explorations

Chapter 7 Is there a Spiritual Reality? Exploring the Philosophy of Religion

Chapter 8 Are there Moral Truths?Thinking About Ethics

Chapter 9 What are Right Actions? Constructing an Ethical Theory

Chapter 10 What is Social Justice? Creating a Just State


2. FULL TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preface

Chapter 1: What is Philosophy? Thinking Philosophically About Life

1.1 Why Study Philosophy?

1.2 Defining Philosophy

Philosophy Is the Pursuit of Wisdom

Philosophy Begins with Wonder

Philosophy Is a Dynamic Process

The Ultimate Aim of Philosophy

1.3 Thinking Philosophically: Becoming a Critical Thinker

Thinking Philosophically What Is Your Philosophy of Life?

Qualities of a Critical Thinker

Thinking Philosophically Who Are Your Models of Critical Thinking?

The Process of Critical Thinking

Thinking Philosophically Applying the Critical Thinking Model

Stages in Critical Thinking

1.4 Understanding Arguments

The Structure of Arguments

Evaluating Arguments

Deductive Arguments

Inductive Arguments

Informal Fallacies

Thinking Philosophically Evaluating Arguments

1.5 Branches of Philosophy

Metaphysics

Thinking Philosophically Are You Willing to Question Your Beliefs?

Thinking Philosophically How Do You Know What Is True?

Epistemology

Ethics

Thinking Philosophically Do You Have a Moral Philosophy?

Political and Social Philosophy

Aesthetics

1.6 Reading Critically: Working with Primary Sources

Bertrand Russell, from The Value of Philosophy

Reading Critically Analyzing Russell on the Value of Philosophy

1.7 Making Connections: The Search for a Meaningful Life

Thinking Philosophically What Do You Hope to Learn?

Writing About Philosophy Analyzing Your Beliefs

visual summary

chapter review

for further reading, viewing & research

Chapter 2: What is the Philosopher’s Way? Socrates and the Examined Life

2.1 Socrates: A Model for Humanity

Hesiod, Homer, and the Birth of Philosophy

Karl Jaspers, The Axial Period

A Man of Greece

A Midwife of Ideas

The Wisest of Men?

Plato, from The Apology

Reading Critically Analyzing Socrates on Wisdom and Humility

2.2 The Socratic Method

Plato, from The Republic

Reading Critically Analyzing a Socratic Dialogue

2.3 Socrates’ Central Concern: The Soul

Plato, from The Apology

Reading Critically Analyzing the Core Teachings of Socrates

2.4 The Trial and Death of Socrates

Plato, from The Apology

Thinking Philosophically Countering Personal Attacks

Reading Critically Analyzing Socrates on Trial

2.5 Making Connections: Socrates’ Legacy

Thinking Philosophically Is Socrates Relevant Today?

Writing About Philosophy A Socratic Dialogue

visual summary

chapter review

for further reading, viewing & research

Chapter 3: Who are You? Consciousness, Identity, and the Self

3.1 Know Thyself?

Thinking Philosophically Do You Know Yourself?

3.2 The Soul Is Immortal: Socrates and Plato

Plato, from Phaedo

Reading Critically Analyzing Socrates on the Self

Plato, from Phaedrus, The Chariot Analogy

3.3 St. Augustine’s Synthesis of Plato and Christianity

Thinking Philosophically Do you believe in an immortal soul?

3.4 Descartes’ Modern Perspective on the Self

Rene Descartes, from Meditations on First Philosophy

Thinking Philosophically Are you a Seeker After Truth?

Reading Critically Analyzing Descartes on the Mind/Body Problem

3.5 The Self Is Consciousness: Locke

John Locke, from On Personal Identity

Thinking Philosophically Applying Locke’s Ideas

Reading Critically Analyzing Locke on the Conscious Self

3.6 There Is No Self: Hume

David Hume, from On Personal Identity

Reading Critically Analyzing Hume on the Absence of Self

3.7 We Construct the Self: Kant

Immanuel Kant, from Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics

Immanuel Kant, from Critique of Pure Reason

Thinking Philosophically Sense, Perception, and Your Self

Reading Critically Analyzing Kant’s Unity of Consciousness

3.8 The Self Is Multi-Layered: Freud

Sigmund Freud, from An Outline of Psychoanalysis

Reading Critically Analyzing Freud’s Ideas about Mind

3.9 The Self Is How You Behave: Ryle

Gilbert Ryle, from The Concept of Mind

Reading Critically Analyzing Ryle’s View of Self as Behavior

3.10 The Self Is the Brain: Materialism

Churchland, from On Eliminative Materialism

Reading Critically Analyzing Churchland’s Materialism

3.11 The Self is Embodied Subjectivity: Husserl and Merleau-Ponty

Marcel Proust, from In Search of Time Lost

Thinking Philosophically Applying Phenomenology

Marcel Proust, from Within a Budding Grove

3.12 Buddhist Concepts of Self

Milindaphanha, The Simile of the Chariot

Reading Critically Analyzing the Buddhist Chariot Analogy

3.13 Making Connections: In Search of the Self

Thinking Philosophically What Is Your Concept of the Self?

Writing About Philosophy Defining the Self

visual summary

chapter review

for further reading, viewing & research

Chapter 4: Are You Free? Freedom and Determinism

4.1 Are You the Master of Your Fate?

Thinking Philosophically What Are Your Assumptions About Freedom?

4.2 Determinism

Baron d’Holbach, from The System of Nature

Thinking Philosophically Do You Choose Freely?

Reading Critically Analyzing Baron d’Holbach on the Illusion of Freedom

4.3 Compatibilism

External Constraints May Limit Freedom: Stace

W. T. Stace, from Religion and the Modern Mind

Internal Constraints May Also Limit Freedom: Schlick

Free Will Is a Human Creation: Dennett

Reading Critically Evaluating Compatibilism

4.4 Indeterminism and Libertarianism

We Live in a World of Possibilities: James

William James, from The Will to Believe

Reading Critically Analyzing James on Free Will

We Create Ourselves Through Our Choices: Sartre

Jean-Paul Sartre, from Existentialism Is a Humanism

Reading Critically Analyzing Sartre on Freedom, Choice, and Responsibility

4.5 A Feminist Analysis of Freedom

Jean Grimshaw, from Autonomy and Identity in Feminist Thinking

Reading Critically Analyzing Jean Grimshaw on Autonomy

4.6 Making Connections: Creating a Synthesis

Overcoming Limitations to Your Freedom

Confronting External Constraints

Confronting Internal Constraints

Thinking Philosophically What Are the Limitations to Your Freedom?

Writing About Philosophy Understanding Personal Freedom

visual summary

chapter review

for further reading, viewing & research

Chapter 5: How Can We Know the Nature of Reality? Philosophical Foundations
5.1 What Is the Nature of Reality?

Thinking Philosophically What Is Your Concept of Reality?

5.2 Reality Is the Eternal Realm of the Forms: Plato

The Divided Line

The Theory of Innate Ideas

Plato, from Meno

Reading Critically Analyzing Plato’s Theory of Innate Ideas

The Path to Knowledge of Reality: The Cave Allegory

Plato, from The Republic

Reading Critically Analyzing Plato’s Allegory of the Cave

5.3 Reality Is the Natural World: Aristotle

Aristotle’s Two Categories: Matter and Form

Entelechy

The Four Causes

Aristotle, from Metaphysics

Reading Critically Analyzing Aristotle’s Concept of Reality

5.4 Can Reality Be Known? Descartes

René Descartes, from Meditations on First Philosophy

Reading Critically Analyzing Descartes’ Radical Doubt

5.5 Making Connections: Your Beliefs About the World

Thinking Philosophically Evaluating the Accuracy of Your Beliefs

Writing About Philosophy Analyzing Philosophical Themes in a Fictional Work

visual summary

chapter review

for further reading, viewing & research

Chapter 6: What is Real? What is True? Further Explorations

6.1 Questioning Independent Reality

Bertrand Russell, from Appearance and Reality

Reading Critically How Do You Know What Is “Real”?

6.2 All Knowledge Comes from Experience: Locke

Locke’s Critique of “Universality”

John Locke, from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding

Leibniz’s Case Against Locke

Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, from New Essays Concerning Human Understanding

Locke’s Causal Theory of Perception

John Locke, from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding

Reading Critically Analyzing Locke’s Empirical View

6.3 Reality Depends on Perception: Berkeley

George Berkeley, from A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge

Reading Critically Analyzing Berkeley’s Subjective Idealism

6.4 Understanding Reality Demands Skepticism: Hume

David Hume, from An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding

Reading Critically Analyzing Hume’s Case for Skepticism

6.5 We Constitute Our World: Kant

Immanuel Kant, from Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics

Hume’s Challenge to Philosophy

Kant’s Solution: Transcendental Idealism

Immanuel Kant, from Critique of Pure Reason

Two Realities: Phenomenal and Noumenal

Reading Critically Analyzing Kant’s Synthesizing Project

Applying Kant’s Theory

Three Accounts of the Assassination of Malcolm X

Reading Critically How Is Knowledge Constructed?

6.6 Emotions Shape Our Understanding: Jaggar

Alison M. Jaggar, from Love and Knowledge: Emotion in Epistemology

Reading Critically Analyzing Jaggar on the Role of Emotions

6.7 Making Connections: Developing Informed Beliefs

Thinking Philosophically What Are the Limits of Your Knowledge?

Writing About Philosophy Constructing Knowledge

visual summary

chapter review

for further reading, viewing & research

Chapter 7: Is there a Spiritual Reality? Exploring the Philosophy of Religion

7.1 Thinking Philosophically About Religious Beliefs

Thinking Philosophically What Are Your Religious Beliefs?

7.2 What Is Religion?

Ways of Defining Religion

Frederick Streng, from What Is Religion?

Reading Critically Analyzing Streng on Definitions of Religion

God Is a Human Projection: Feuerbach

Ludwig Feuerbach, from The Essence of Christianity

Reading Critically Analyzing Feuerbach on Religion as Anthropomorphism

Religion Is Vital Quest: Nishitani

Keiji Nishitani, from Religion and Nothingness

Reading Critically Analyzing Nishitani on the Religious Quest

7.3 A Brief Survey of World Religions

Hinduism

Buddhism

Daoism (Taoism)

Judaism

Christianity

Islam

Indigenous Sacred Ways

Thinking Philosophically Expanding Your Religious Understanding

7.4 Can We Prove the Existence of God?

The Ontological Argument

Saint Anselm and Gaunilo, from The Ontological Argument

Reading Critically Analyzing the Ontological Argument

The Cosmological Argument

Saint Thomas Aquinas, from Summa Theologica

Reading Critically Analyzing the Cosmological Argument

The Argument from Gradations of Perfection

The Argument from Design

William Paley, from Natural Theology

Reading Critically Analyzing the Argument from Design

The Argument from Morality

Immanuel Kant, from Critique of Practical Reason

Reading Critically Analyzing the Argument from Morality

7.5 The Problem of Evil

J.L. Mackie, from Evil and Omnipotence

Reading Critically Analyzing Mackie on the Problem of Evil

John Hick, from Philosophy of Religion

Reading Critically Analyzing Hick on the Problem of Evil

Edward H. Madden and Peter H. Hare, A Critique of Hick’s Theodicy

Reading Critically Analyzing Madden and Hare’s Critique of John Hick’s Theodicy

7.6 Faith and Religious Experience

Religious Faith as a Wager: Pascal

Blaise Pascal, “A Wager” from Thoughts on Religion

Reading Critically Analyzing “Pascal’s Wager”

Religious Beliefs Require Sufficient Evidence: Clifford

W. K. Clifford, from The Ethics of Belief

Reading Critically Analyzing Clifford on the Ethics of Belief

Religious Belief Is Legitimate and Compelling: James

William James, from The Will to Believe

Reading Critically Analyzing James on the Will to Believe

Subjective Knowing: The Leap of Faith

Søren Kierkegaard, from The Leap of Faith and the Limits of Reason

Søren Kierkegaard, from Concluding Unscientific Postscript

Reading Critically Analyzing Kierkegaard on Faith and Reason

7.7 Making Connections: Reflections on the Philosophy of Religion

visual summary

chapter review

for further reading, viewing & research

Chapter 8: Are there Moral Truths? Thinking About Ethics

8.1 Your Moral Compass

Ethics and Values

Thinking Philosophically What Are Your Moral Values?

Thinking Critically About Ethics

Thinking Philosophically Making Moral Decisions

8.2 Ethical Relativism

Ethical Subjectivism: Each Person Determines What Is Morally Right

Thinking Philosophically How Subjective Are Your Ethics?

Cultural Relativism: Each Culture Determines What Is Morally Right

Ruth Benedict, from Anthropology and the Abnormal

Thinking Philosophically Cultural Relativism and Your Moral Perspective

Reading Critically Analyzing Benedict on Culture and Values

8.3 Ethical Absolutism: Some Moral Values Are Universal

Thinking Philosophically Do You Believe in Universal Values?

W. T. Stace, from The Concept of Morals

Reading Critically Analyzing Stace’s Critique of Ethical Relativism

8.4 Egoism as a Universal Principle

Arguments for Egoism

Plato, from The Republic, “The Myth of Gyges”

Reading Critically Analyzing “The Myth of Gyges”

Ayn Rand, from The Virtue of Selfishness

Reading Critically Analyzing Rand on the Virtue of Selfishness

Arguments Against Egoism

James Rachels, from Egoism and Moral Skepticism

Reading Critically Analyzing Rachels’s Critique of Egoism

8.5 Religion and Universal Values

Divine Command Theory

Thinking Philosophically Religion and Your Ethical Values

The Story of Abraham and Isaac, from the Bible

Natural Law Theory

Thinking Philosophically Do You Believe in Natural Laws?

Martin Luther King Jr., from Letter from a Birmingham Jail

Reading Critically Analyzing King on Universal Values

8.6 Making Connections: On Becoming an Ethical Person

Robert Coles, from The Disparity Between Intellect and Character

Thinking Philosophically Can Morality Be Learned in College?

visual summary

chapter review

for further reading, viewing & research

Chapter 9: What are Right Actions? Constructing an Ethical Theory

9.1 Expanding Your Knowledge of Moral Philosophy

9.2 Character: Virtue Ethics

Thinking Philosophically What Is Your Moral Character?

Aristotle, from The Nicomachean Ethics

Reading Critically Analyzing Aristotle’s Virtue Ethics

9.3 Maxims: Duty to Moral Laws

Immanuel Kant, from Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals

Thinking Philosophically The Categorical Imperative and Your Moral Compass

Immanuel Kant, from Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals

Reading Critically Analyzing Kant on Duty and Reason

9.4 Consequences: Utilitarianism

The Greatest Happiness for the Greatest Number: Bentham

Jeremy Bentham, from An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation

Thinking Philosophically Applying the Hedonistic Calculus

Higher Pleasures Have Greater Worth: Mill

John Stuart Mill, from Utilitarianism

Reading Critically Analyzing Utilitarianism

Consider the Interests of Animals: Singer

Peter Singer, from Animal Liberation

Reading Critically Analyzing Singer on Animal Rights

9.5 Authenticity: Existentialist Ethics

“The Crowd Is Untruth”: Kierkegaard

Søren Kierkegaard, from On the Dedication to ‘That Single Individual’

Søren Kierkegaard, from The Present Age

Reading Critically Analyzing Kierkegaard on Authenticity

Beyond Good and Evil: Nietzsche

Friedrich Nietzsche, from The Gay Science

Friedrich Nietzsche, from Beyond Good and Evil

Reading Critically Analyzing Nietzsche on Morality

Authenticity and Ethical Responsibility: Sartre

Jean-Paul Sartre, from Existentialism Is a Humanism

Reading Critically Analyzing Sartre on Moral Responsibility

Our Interplay with Others Defines Us: de Beauvoir

Simone de Beauvoir, from Ethics of Ambiguity

Reading Critically Analyzing de Beauvoir on Moral Choices

Courage Is the Highest Value: Camus

Camus, from The Myth of Sisyphus

Reading Critically Analyzing the Myth of Sisyphus

9.6 Empathy: The Ethics of Care

Nel Noddings, from Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education

Reading Critically Analyzing Noddings on the Ethics of Care

9.7 Making Connections: Your Moral Compass Revisited

Thinking Philosophically Constructing an Ethical Theory

Writing About Philosophy Analyzing Moral Choices in a Film or Novel

visual summary

chapter review

for further reading, viewing & research

Chapter 10: What is Social Justice? Creating a Just State

10.1 Elements of a Just Society

Thinking Philosophically Examining Our Society

10.2 Classical Theories of Society: Confucius, Plato, and Aristotle

Society Should Be Based on Virtue: Confucius

Reading Critically Analyzing Confucius on the Social Order

Society Should Be Based on Function and Harmony: Plato

Plato, from The Republic

Reading Critically Analyzing Plato on Social Harmony

Society Is the Natural State of Humanity: Aristotle

Aristotle, from Politics

Reading Critically Analyzing Aristotle on Community

10.3 Justice Depends on a Social Contract: From Hobbes and Locke to Rawls

We Need a Social Contract to Coexist: Hobbes

Thomas Hobbes, from Leviathan

Reading Critically Analyzing Hobbes on the Social Contract

The Social Contract Protects Natural Rights: Locke

John Locke, from The Second Treatise of Civil Government

Thomas Jefferson et al., from The Declaration of Independence: A Transcription

Reading Critically Analyzing Locke on Natural Rights

The State of Nature: Assumptions and Questions

The State of Nature Is a Conceptual Tool: Rawls

John Rawls, from A Theory of Justice

Thinking Philosophically Creating a Just Society

Reading Critically Analyzing Rawls on Justice and Equality

10.4 Justice Is Based on Need and Ability: Marx and Engels

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, from Manifesto of the Communist Party

Reading Critically Analyzing Marx and Engels on Social Justice

10.5 Justice Is What Promotes the General Welfare: Mill

Thinking Philosophically Analyzing Mill’s Concept of Justice

John Stuart Mill, from On Liberty

Reading Critically Analyzing Mill on Liberty

10.6 Justice Is What Promotes Gender Equality: Okin

Susan Moller Okin, from Justice, Gender, and the Family

Reading Critically Analyzing Okin on Gender Equality

10.7 Making Connections: An Ideal Society

Thinking Philosophically Your Ideal Society

Writing About Philosophy Your Ideal Society

visual summary

chapter review

for further reading, viewing & research

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