2. The Context.
The Constitutional Framework.
States as Electoral Units.
Social and Political Contexts.
3. Congressional Candidates.
The Incumbency Factor.
Measuring the Value of Incumbency.
The Vanishing Marginals.
Sources of the Incumbency Advantage.
The Institutional Characteristics of Congress.
Changes in Voting Behavior.
The Variability of the Incumbency Advantage.
Discouraging the Opposition.
Money in Congressional Elections.
The Connection Between Money and Success.
Why Campaign Money Is More Important to Challengers.
The Career in the District.
4. Congressional Campaigns.
Political Action Committees.
Self-Financing by Candidates.
Candidates for Open Seats.
“Voter Education” and “Issue Advocacy” Campaigns.
5. Congressional Voters.
Turnout in Congressional Elections.
Partisanship in Congressional Elections.
Alternative Interpretations of Party Identification.
Partisanship and Voting.
Information and Voting.
Recall and Recognition of Candidates.
The Effects of Campaign Spending.
Models of Voting Behavior.
Issues in Congressional Elections.
6. National Politics and Congressional Elections.
Political Interpretations of Congressional Elections.
Models of Aggregate Congressional Election Results.
National Conditions and Strategic Politics.
House Elections, 1980-1998.
The Clinton Problem.
Nationalizing the Vote.
The Scandal and the Campaigns.
House Election Patterns, 1980-1998.
Senate Elections, 1980-1998.
7. Elections and the Politics of Congress.
The Congressional Parties.
The Committee Systems.
Serving the Organized.
Doing the Right Thing.
The Budgetary Process.
8. Representation, Responsibility, Impeachment Politics, and the Future of Congressional Elections.
Beyond Policy Congruence.
Responsiveness without Responsibility.
The Revival of Party Cohesion.
Ideological Polarization in Congress and the Electorate.
Party Polarization: The Electoral Connection.
Diverging Electoral Constituencies.
Chicken or Egg?
Party Polarization and the Politics of Impeachment.
Divided Government in the 1990s.
The Public's Evaluation of Congress.
Toward the Millennium.