The Power of Critical Thinking: Effective Reasoning About Ordinary and Extraordinary Claims / Edition 4

Paperback (Print)
Rent
Rent from BN.com
$29.19
(Save 67%)
Est. Return Date: 07/02/2015
Used and New from Other Sellers
Used and New from Other Sellers
from $46.43
Usually ships in 1-2 business days
(Save 47%)
Other sellers (Paperback)
  • All (23) from $46.43   
  • New (5) from $73.87   
  • Used (18) from $46.43   

Overview

The Power of Critical Thinking: Effective Reasoning About Ordinary and Extraordinary Claims explores the essentials of critical reasoning, argumentation, logic, and argumentative essay writing while also incorporating important topics that most other texts leave out, such as "inference to the best explanation," scientific reasoning, evidence and authority, visual reasoning, and obstacles to critical thinking.

The text integrates many pedagogical features, including hundreds of diverse exercises, examples, and illustrations; text boxes that apply critical thinking to student experience; step-by-step guidelines for evaluating claims, arguments, and explanations; a glossary of important terms; and many reminders, summaries, and review notes.

SUPPORT PACKAGE:

The text is supplemented by an Instructor's Manual and Test Bank in print and an Instructor's Manual with Computerized Test Bank on CD. The Computerized Test Bank is a completely customizable bank of questions to aid in the creation of exams and quizzes. Both versions of the Instructor's Manual feature notes on using the text effectively, sample syllabi, links to websites of interest, lectures in PowerPoint format, chapter summaries, and answers to the exercises in the text.

A Companion Website at www.oup.com/us/criticalthinking includes all of the information found in the Instructor's Manual. It also offers a student study guide featuring a summary of the main points of each chapter, study questions, short review quizzes, flashcards, web links, and additional chapter exercises.

Course Cartridges for a variety of e-learning environments allow instructors to create their own course websites with the interactive material from the instructor and student companion websites.

Read More Show Less

Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"The Power of Critical Thinking is unique with its diverse collection of exercises—including field problems, writing exercises, and quizzes—which facilitate students' digestion of the material. I love the design. Both the photos and the art are helpful."—Stephen K. Ma, California State University, Los Angeles

"This book is very successful in its presentation of inference to the best explanation. It also does an excellent job of teaching writing skills along with critical-thinking skills. I highly recommend this text for its engaging writing style, clear layout, and variety of possible in-class and online exercises and assignments."—Carol McGury, DePaul University

"This is a very good text that covers the material clearly. So far this is the best such text I've seen."—Joseph Monast, Modesto Junior College

"Most importantly, this book provides well-organized skill-building exercises and resources that are essential to any critical-thinking class."—Marlisa Moschella, University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Read More Show Less

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780199856671
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • Publication date: 8/31/2012
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 4
  • Pages: 624
  • Sales rank: 60,890
  • Product dimensions: 9.90 (w) x 8.00 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Meet the Author

Lewis Vaughn is the author or coauthor of several books, including Philosophy Here and Now: Powerful Ideas in Everyday Life (2012), Contemporary Moral Arguments, Second Edition (2012), Great Philosophical Arguments (2011), Philosophy: The Quest for Truth, Eighth Edition (2011), and The Moral Life, Fourth Edition (2010), all published by Oxford University Press.

Read More Show Less

Table of Contents

*=New to this Edition
Preface
PART 1. BASICS
1. The Power of Critical Thinking
Why It Matters
How It Works
Claims and Reasons
Reasons and Arguments
Arguments in the Rough
Key Words
Summary
Exercises
Field Problems
Self-Assessment Quiz
Writing Assignments
2. Obstacles to Critical Thinking
Psychological Obstacles
The Almighty Self
The Power of the Group
Philosophical Obstacles
Subjective Relativism
Social Relativism
Skepticism
Key Words
Summary
Exercises
Field Problems
Self-Assessment Quiz
Integrative Exercises
Writing Assignments
3. Making Sense of Arguments
Argument Basics
Judging Arguments
Finding Missing Parts
Argument Patterns
Diagramming Arguments
Assessing Long Arguments
Key Words
Summary
Field Problems
Self-Assessment Quiz
Integrative Exercises
Writing Assignments
PART 2. REASONS
4. Reasons for Belief and Doubt
When Claims Conflict
Experts and Evidence
Personal Experience
Impairment
Expectation
Innumeracy and Probability
Fooling Ourselves
Resisting Contrary Evidence
Looking for Confirming Evidence
Preferring Available Evidence
Claims in the News
Inside the News
Sorting Out the News
Advertising and Persuasion
Identification
Slogans
Misleading Comparisons
Weasel Words
Key Words
Summary
Exercises
Field Problems
Self-Assessment Quiz
Integrative Exercises
Writing Assignments
5. Fallacies and Persuaders
Fallacies: Irrelevant Premises
Genetic Fallacy
Composition
Division
Appeal to the Person
Equivocation
Appeal to Popularity
Appeal to Tradition
Appeal to Ignorance
Appeal to Emotion
Red Herring
Straw Man
* Two Wrongs Make a Right
Fallacies: Unacceptable Premises
Begging the Question
False Dilemma
* Decision-Point Fallacy
Slippery Slope
Hasty Generalization
Faulty Analogy
* Persuaders: Rhetorical Moves
* Innuendo
* Euphemisms and Dysphemisms
* Stereotyping
* Ridicule
* Rhetorical Definitions
Key Words
Summary
Exercises
Field Problems
Self-Assessment Quiz
Integrative Exercises
Writing Assignments
PART 3. ARGUMENTS
6. Deductive Reasoning: Propositional Logic
Connectives and Truth Values
Conjunction
Disjunction
Negation
Conditional
Checking for Validity
Simple Arguments
Tricky Arguments
Streamlined Evaluation
Key Words
Summary
Field Problems
Self-Assessment Quiz
Integrative Exercises
Writing Assignments
7. Deductive Reasoning: Categorical Logic
Statements and Classes
Translations and Standard Form
Terms
Quantifiers
Diagramming Categorical Statements
Sizing Up Categorical Syllogisms
Key Words
Summary
Field Problems
Self-Assessment Quiz
Integrative Exercises
Writing Assignments
8. Inductive Reasoning
Enumerative Induction
Sample Size
Representativeness
Opinion Polls
Analogical Induction
Causal Arguments
Testing for Causes
Causal Confusions
Necessary and Sufficient Conditions
Key Words
Summary
Field Problems
Self-Assessment Quiz
Integrative Exercises
Writing Assignments
PART 4. EXPLANATIONS
9. Inference to the Best Explanation
Explanations and Inference
Theories and Consistency
Theories and Criteria
Testability
Fruitfulness
Scope
Simplicity
Conservatism
Telling Good Theories from Bad
A Doomed Flight
An Amazing Cure
Key Words
Summary
Field Problems
Self-Assessment Quiz
Integrative Exercises
Writing Assignments
10. Judging Scientific Theories
Science and Not Science
The Scientific Method
Testing Scientific Theories
Judging Scientific Theories
Copernicus Versus Ptolemy
Evolution Versus Creationism
Science and Weird Theories
Making Weird Mistakes
Leaping to the Weirdest Theory
Mixing What Seems with What Is
Misunderstanding the Possibilities
Judging Weird Theories
Crop Circles
Talking with the Dead
Summary
Field Problems
Self-Assessment Quiz
Integrative Exercises
Writing Assignments
11. Critical Thinking in Morality and the Law
Moral Arguments
Moral Premises
Moral Theories
Evaluating Moral Theories
Two Important Theories
* Legal Reasoning
A Coherent Worldview
Key Words
Summary
Exercises
Field Problems
Self-Assessment Quiz
Integrative Exercises
Writing Assignments
Appendix A: Essays for Evaluation
1. "Death Penalty Discriminates Against Black Crime Victims," USA Today
2. "Marine Parks," Bill Daly
* 3. "A Feminist Defense of Pornography," Wendy McElroy
* 4. "A Defense of Homosexuality," John Corvino
5. "More Innocents Die When We Don't Have Capital Punishment," Dennis Prager
* 6. "What's Wrong with Adultery?" Bonnie Steinbock
* 7. "A Pat-Down Is Better than a Blow-Up," Caroline Baum
8. "The Cohabitation Epidemic," Neil Clark Warren
* 9. "Not Being Vaccinated Is Not Acceptable," David Ropeik
* 10. "Women and the Afghanistan Peace Process," Ann Jones
11. "A Deviance from God's Norm," Richard Land
12. "Marriage Still Evolving, as Ever," Buffalo News
13. "Slouching Toward Chimeras," Jeremy Rifkin
* 14. "Fighting Islamic Extremists Who Stifle Free Speech," Ayaan Hirsi and Daniel Huff
* 15. "Is Sluttishness a Feminist Statement?" Wendy Kaminer
16. "Torture: Time for Congress to End the Debate," USA Today
17. "Torture: Severe Interrogations Work," Trent Franks
18. "Freedom of Expression: Protect Student Speech—Even 'Unwise' Bong Banner," USA Today
19. "Freedom of Expression: Policy Reflects Common Sense," Kenneth W. Starr
* 20. "It's Irresponsible to Spread Fear of Vaccine," USA Today
21. "Flag Amendment: Flag Needs Protection," Dianne Feinstein
Appendix B: Answers to Exercises
Appendix C: Answers to Self-Assessment Quizzes
Appendix D: Critical Thinking and Writing
Notes
Glossary
Credits
Index

Read More Show Less

Customer Reviews

Be the first to write a review
( 0 )
Rating Distribution

5 Star

(0)

4 Star

(0)

3 Star

(0)

2 Star

(0)

1 Star

(0)

Your Rating:

Your Name: Create a Pen Name or

Barnes & Noble.com Review Rules

Our reader reviews allow you to share your comments on titles you liked, or didn't, with others. By submitting an online review, you are representing to Barnes & Noble.com that all information contained in your review is original and accurate in all respects, and that the submission of such content by you and the posting of such content by Barnes & Noble.com does not and will not violate the rights of any third party. Please follow the rules below to help ensure that your review can be posted.

Reviews by Our Customers Under the Age of 13

We highly value and respect everyone's opinion concerning the titles we offer. However, we cannot allow persons under the age of 13 to have accounts at BN.com or to post customer reviews. Please see our Terms of Use for more details.

What to exclude from your review:

Please do not write about reviews, commentary, or information posted on the product page. If you see any errors in the information on the product page, please send us an email.

Reviews should not contain any of the following:

  • - HTML tags, profanity, obscenities, vulgarities, or comments that defame anyone
  • - Time-sensitive information such as tour dates, signings, lectures, etc.
  • - Single-word reviews. Other people will read your review to discover why you liked or didn't like the title. Be descriptive.
  • - Comments focusing on the author or that may ruin the ending for others
  • - Phone numbers, addresses, URLs
  • - Pricing and availability information or alternative ordering information
  • - Advertisements or commercial solicitation

Reminder:

  • - By submitting a review, you grant to Barnes & Noble.com and its sublicensees the royalty-free, perpetual, irrevocable right and license to use the review in accordance with the Barnes & Noble.com Terms of Use.
  • - Barnes & Noble.com reserves the right not to post any review -- particularly those that do not follow the terms and conditions of these Rules. Barnes & Noble.com also reserves the right to remove any review at any time without notice.
  • - See Terms of Use for other conditions and disclaimers.
Search for Products You'd Like to Recommend

Recommend other products that relate to your review. Just search for them below and share!

Create a Pen Name

Your Pen Name is your unique identity on BN.com. It will appear on the reviews you write and other website activities. Your Pen Name cannot be edited, changed or deleted once submitted.

 
Your Pen Name can be any combination of alphanumeric characters (plus - and _), and must be at least two characters long.

Continue Anonymously

    If you find inappropriate content, please report it to Barnes & Noble
    Why is this product inappropriate?
    Comments (optional)