The Principal's Quick-Reference Guide to School Law: Reducing Liability, Litigation, and Other Potential Legal Tangles / Edition 2

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These recognized school law experts translate school law into proactive day-to-day practice to minimize legal risk and respect legal rights in the school community.

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Editorial Reviews

Stephen Handley
"The authors have taken a topic that could cover volumes and produced a concise, easily understood desk reference that I have already used on the job."
Michelle Kocar
“The examples and vignettes are right on target! The authors share the information most relevant to the daily activities of administrators, and their coverage is very complete.”
Cynthia Church
“Hachiya, Shoop, and Dunklee make a distinct contribution to the field. Rather than a review of legal cases, the book addresses risk management. This approach to the legal aspects of the day-to-day operations of a school is a useful planning guide as well as a resource when questions arise. I referenced other copies of my school law books and found this book to be the most useful for my role as a school principal.”
Dr. Thomas J. McCormack
"This book vastly exceeded our expectations as both a quality school law textbook and a legal reference book. It is one of the most complete school law texts available, covering the important legal issues of the day. It is an excellent resource for practicing school leaders to utilize in their efforts to develop, implement, and maintain risk management initiatives. The examples, vignettes, and cases are extremely helpful in assisting principals to accurately implement statutory law and case law in public school settings. It also has a unique design that can assist practicing school administrators deal with legal issues but not require the school administrator to become a lawyer."
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781412925938
  • Publisher: Corwin Press
  • Publication date: 3/27/2006
  • Edition description: Second Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 440
  • Product dimensions: 7.10 (w) x 10.00 (h) x 1.20 (d)

Meet the Author

Dr. Dennis R. Dunklee is an Emeritus Professor in the Education Leadership Department in the Graduate School of Education at George Mason University. During his twenty-five years in public schools, he served as a teacher, elementary school principal, junior high and middle school principal, high school principal, and central office administrator. During his more than twenty years at George Mason University, he taught courses in education law and school leadership and served as an advisor and chair for master’s and doctoral candidates in school leadership.
Because of his expertise and practical experience, he continues to be frequently called on to consult in the areas of effective schools, school law, administrator evaluation, instructional supervision, school-community relations, problem solving, and conflict resolution. In addition, he continues to be actively involved as a consultant and expert witness in numerous school-related lawsuits nationwide. As a university scholar and researcher, he has published, and continues to publish, textbooks, monographs, and articles on issues in the fields of school law, business management, administrative practice, and leadership theory. He also continues to present papers at international, national, regional, state, and local conferences and is a widely sought-after clinician for inservice workshops. Dr. Dunklee was an invited participant and presenter at the 2005 Oxford (University) Round Table on Education Law: Individual Rights and Freedoms.

He received his Ph.D. in school administration and foundations from Kansas State University. His major area of research was in the field of education law, and his dissertation was on tort liability for negligence. He holds a master’s degree in elementary and secondary school administration from Washburn University.

This is Dr. Dunklee’s eighth book for Corwin Press. His other Corwin books are You Sound Taller on the Telephone: A Practitioner’s View of the Principalship (1999); If You Want to Lead Not Just Manage (2000); The Principal’s Quick Reference Guide to School Law (2002 and 2006, with Robert J. Shoop); Strategic Listening for School Leaders (2005, with Jeannine Tate); Anatomy of a Lawsuit: What Every Education Leader Should Know About Legal Actions (2006, with Robert J. Shoop); and Poverty Is NOT a Learning Disability (2009, with Tish Howard and Sandy Grogan Dresser).

Dr. Robert J. Shoop is Professor of Education Law and Senior Scholar in the Leadership Studies Program at Kansas State University. He has served as a teacher, community education director, and principal, and he was the Ohio State Evaluator of Student Rights and Responsibilities. He is the author or coauthor of more than one hundred journal articles, fifteen books, and several monographs and book chapters on various legal issues. His most recent books are Virtuous Leadership (2004); Sexual Exploitation of Students: How to Spot it and Stop It (2003); Leadership Lessons from Bill Snyder (1998); Sexual Harassment Prevention (1997); Sexual Harassment on Campus: A Guide for Administrators, Faculty Members, and Students (1996, co-edited with Dr. Bernice Sandler); and How to Stop Sexual Harassment in Our Schools (1994).

He is also the co-producer of a number of video programs on eliminating sexual harassment. These productions have received national and international recognition, including First Place Award, 1996 National Council of Family Relations Annual Media Competition; 1996 Gold Award of Merit, Houston Film Festival; and 1995 Golden Camera Award, International Film and Video Festival. Dr. Shoop is the 1996 recipient of the Michael C. Holen Excellence in Graduate Teaching Award, a past recipient of Kansas State University’s Outstanding Undergraduate Teacher Award, and a past member of the Board of Directors of the Educational Law Association. He has consulted with national associations, community colleges, universities, government agencies, and businesses and educational organizations throughout the United States and in several foreign countries. Dr. Shoop is a nationally recognized expert in the area of school law, with a focus on sexual harassment and abuse prevention and risk management. He has appeared as a guest on CNN, The Today Show with both Katie Couric and Matt Lauer, ABC’s 20/20, MSNBC with Lester Holt, CNN, Day and Date, The Jim Bohannon Show, The Oliver North Show, The Mark Furman Show, The Mark Walberg Show, and Outside the Lines with Bob Ley.

This is the seventh law-related book written by the team of Shoop and Dunklee. Their other books are School Law for the Principal (1992); A Primer for School Risk Management (1993); The Legal Manual for Programming Professionals (1994); The Principal’s Quick-Reference Guide to School Law (2002); and Anatomy of a Lawsuit: What Every Education Leader Should Know About Legal Actions (2005).

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Table of Contents

Foreword   Charles J. Russo     xxiii
Preface and Advisement     xxv
Acknowledgments     xxvii
About the Authors     xxix
Introduction     1
Focus Point: Understanding Judicial Decisions     3
Preventive Law: Developing Risk and Crisis Management Programs     6
Focus Point: Tenets of Preventive Law and Risk Management     7
Focus Point: What Is Preventive Law?     8
Focus Point: Identifying Potential Risks     8
Focus Point: Affirmative Duty of School-Based Personnel in Risk Management and Prevention     11
Focus Point: Adopting a Preventive Law Mind-Set     13
Examples of Management Cues     14
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     14
Focus Point: Working With the Media     15
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     15
Chapter Resources     16
The School and the Legal Environment     17
Foundations of the School's Relationship to the Legal Environment     18
Focus Point: Basic Principles of Our Legal System     18
Focus Point: Constitutional Law, Common Law, Statutory Law, and Administrative Law     19
Focus Point: How Laws Are Made and Enforced     20
FocusPoint: Court Functions     22
Clauses of and Amendments to the U.S. Constitution That Affect Education Practice     23
Focus Point: General Welfare Clause     23
Focus Point: First Amendment     24
Focus Point: Fourth Amendment     24
Focus Point: Fifth Amendment     24
Focus Point: Fourteenth Amendment     24
Other Provisions of the U.S. Constitution of Interest to Educators     25
Landmark Supreme Court Rulings That Affect Education Practice     27
Focus Point: Desegregation     27
Focus Point: School Finance     29
Focus Point: Student and Teacher Rights     31
Focus Point: Special Education     33
Focus Point: Church and State     34
Highlights of Selected Portions of Federal Statutes That Affect Education Practice     34
Focus Point: Civil Rights Acts of 1866,1870     42
U.S.C. [section section] 1981 and 1988; Civil Rights Acts of 1871-42 U.S.C. [section section] 1983, 1985, and 1986; Civil Rights Acts of 1964, Titles IV and VII-42 U.S.C. [section section] 2000d, 2000e-2     34
Focus Point: Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 and the Title IX Regulations 34 C.F.R. [section] 106-1 et seq.     35
Focus Point: Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 (FERPA), 20 U.S.C. [section] 1232g     36
Focus Point: Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), Pub. L. No. 101-336, 42 U.S.C. [section section] 12101-12213     38
Focus Point: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), as Amended in 1997, Pub. L. No. 105-17, 20 U.S.C. [section section] 1400-1485     38
Focus Point: Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA), 29 U.S.C. [section] 621 ([section] 623)     38
Examples of Management Cues     39
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     39
Focus Point: Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 29 U.S.C. [section] 794 ([section] 504)     39
Focus Point: Equal Educational Opportunities Act, 20 U.S.C. [section] 1703     40
Focus Point: The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA), Pub. L. No. 103-3, 29 C.F.R. [section] 825     40
Workers' Compensation     41
Focus Point: General Provisions Regarding Workers' Compensation     42
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     45
Legal Status of School Choice     45
Focus Point: Legislation Governing Charter Schools and Vouchers     46
Examples of Management Cues     48
Suggested Risk Management Guideline     49
Statute of Limitations for Federal Cases     49
Examples of Leading U.S. Supreme Court Cases on Education     49
Additional Cases of Interest to Educators     52
Chapter Resources     53
The No Child Left Behind Act: Implications of NCLB on Local Schools     56
Major Provisions of NCLB of Interest to Principals     57
Focus Point: Highly Qualified Teachers     57
Examples of Management Cues     58
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     53
Focus Point: NCLB and Annual Testing     58
Focus Point: NCLB and ELLs     59
Example of a Management Cue     59
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     59
Focus Point: Public School Choice     59
Examples of Management Cues     60
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     60
Focus Point: Unsafe Schools and Choice     61
Examples of Management Cues     61
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     61
Focus Point: Supplemental Educational Services     61
Examples of Management Cues     62
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     62
Focus Point: NCLB and Military Recruiters     62
Examples of Management Cues     62
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     63
Current Legal Challenges to NCLB     63
Focus Point: State Standards More Rigorous Than NCLB Mandates     63
Focus Point: Conflicts between NCLB and Federal Special Education Law     64
Focus Point Unfunded Mandate-States and Schools Have Insufficient Funds to Comply With NCLB Mandates     65
Examples of Management Cues     66
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     66
Chapter Resources     67
Constitutional and Statutory Foundations of Staff Selection, Contracting, and Evaluation     68
Equal Employment     69
Focus Point: Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964     69
Examples of Management Cues     70
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     70
Focus Point: The Equal Pay Act of 1963     71
Example of a Management Cue     72
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     72
Focus Point: The Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA)     72
Example of a Management Cue     72
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     73
Focus Point: The Rehabilitation Act of 1973     73
Examples of Management Cues     74
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     74
Focus Point: The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA)     74
Examples of Management Cues     75
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     75
Focus Point: The Veterans' Reemployment Rights Act of 1940     75
Example of a Management Cue     76
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     76
Focus Point: The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA)     77
Examples of Management Cues     77
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     77
Focus Point: Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972     77
Examples of Management Cues     78
Suggested Risk Management Guideline     78
Staff Selection     79
Focus Point: Employment Selection     80
Example of a Management Cue     80
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     80
Negligent Hiring, Defamation, and Referencing     84
Focus Point: Negligent Hiring     84
Examples of Management Cues     88
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     88
Focus Point: Defamation and Referencing     89
Examples of Management Cues     90
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     90
Performance Evaluation     91
Focus Point: Evaluation Guidelines and Congruence     92
Example of a Management Cue     95
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     95
Chapter Resources     96
Teachers' Constitutional Rights, Terms, and Conditions of Employment     97
Licensure and Employment Contracts     98
Focus Point: Probationary Contracts, aka Term Contracts     99
Examples of Management Cues     100
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     100
Focus Point: Tenure, aka Continuing Contracts     100
Examples of Management Cues     101
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     101
Focus Point: Supplementary Contracts, aka Addendum to Contract, aka Supplemental Duty     101
Examples of Management Cues     102
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     103
Focus Point: Employment Requirements     103
Example of a Management Cue     104
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     105
Focus Point: Collective Bargaining and Contracts     105
Examples of Management Cues     106
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     106
Teachers' Rights     107
Focus Point: Teachers' Rights to Hearings and Procedural Due Process     108
Examples of Management Cues     109
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     109
Focus Point: Teachers' Rights in Evidence and Bias     110
Example of a Management Cue     110
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     111
Focus Point: Teachers' Rights in a Reduction in Force (RIF)     111
Examples of Management Cues     111
Suggested Risk Management Guideline     112
Focus Point: Teachers' Rights Regarding Property Interests     112
Examples of Management Cues     112
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     112
Focus Point: Teachers' Rights and the Concept of Vagueness     113
Examples of Management Cues     113
Suggested Risk Management Guideline     113
Focus Point: The Student Teacher or Intern-Substitute Teachers     114
Examples of Management Cues     115
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     115
Teacher Behaviors     116
Focus Point: Teacher Behavior-The Concept of Nexus     117
Examples of Management Cues     117
Suggested Risk Management Guideline     117
Focus Point: Teacher Behavior-The Concept of Privacy     118
Example of a Management Cue     118
Suggested Risk Management Guideline     118
Focus Point: Teacher Behavior-Freedom of Speech in Evaluation and Other Teacher and Principal Matters     119
Example of a Management Cue     119
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     119
Focus Point: Teacher Behavior-Incompetence     120
Examples of Management Cues     121
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     121
Focus Point: Teacher Behavior-Insubordination     122
Examples of Management Cues     122
Suggested Risk Management Guideline     123
Focus Point: Teacher Behavior-Immoral Conduct     123
Examples of Management Cues     124
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     125
Focus Point: Teacher Behavior-Other Causes for Dismissal     126
Examples of Management Cues     127
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     128
Examples of Leading U.S. Supreme Court Cases on Education     128
Additional Cases of Interest to Educators     130
Chapter Resources     130
Students' Rights     131
Students' Rights to Symbolic Expression     131
Focus Point: Symbolic Expression through Buttons, Jewelry, and So Forth     132
Example of a Management Cue     133
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     133
Focus Point: Symbolic Expression through Dress and Hairstyle     133
Examples of Management Cues     134
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     134
Focus Point: Symbolic Expression through Physical Gestures     134
Examples of Management Cues     135
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     135
Focus Point: Symbolic Expression through School Mascots     135
Example of a Management Cue     135
Suggested Risk Management Guideline     136
Focus Point: Symbolic Expression through Gang-Related Regalia and Behaviors-Related Issue: Cults and Satanism     136
Examples of Management Cues     137
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     137
Students' Rights to Oral and Written Expression     138
Focus Point: Expression through Students' Oral Communication     138
Examples of Management Cues     139
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     139
Focus Point: Expression through Students' Written Communication     139
Examples of Management Cues     141
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     142
Students' Rights to Freedom of Assembly     143
Focus Point: Expression through Freedom of Assembly     144
Example of a Management Cue     144
Suggested Risk Management Guideline     144
Students' Rights to Have Wireless Communication Devices     144
Focus Point: The Prohibition of Wireless Communication Devices     145
Examples of Management Cues     145
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     145
Examples of Leading U.S. Supreme Court Cases on Education     145
Additional Cases of Interest to Educators     146
Chapter Resources     147
Student Discipline     149
Exclusion from School     150
Focus Point: Short-Term Suspension     151
Example of a Management Cue     152
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     152
Focus Point: Long-Term Suspension and Expulsion     152
Examples of Management Cues     153
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     153
Corporal Punishment, Reasonable Punishment, Excessive Punishment, Intentional Torts     153
Focus Point: Corporal Punishment     153
Examples of Management Cues     155
Suggested Risk Management Guideline     156
Disciplining Students for Acts Off School Grounds     156
Focus Point: Institutional Authority Off School Grounds     156
Examples of Management Cues      158
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     158
Liability for the Violation of Students' Rights     159
Focus Point: Liability for Violation of Students' Rights-The Civil Rights Act of 1871     159
Examples of Management Cues     160
Suggested Risk Management Guideline     160
Zero Tolerance     160
Focus Point: Zero Tolerance Policy Development and Implementation     160
Examples of Management Cues     163
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     164
Examples of Leading U.S. Supreme Court Cases on Education     164
Chapter Resources     165
The Principal's Responsibilities in Providing Special Education Services     166
Key Terminology and Principles in Special Education Law     169
Focus Point: Free, Appropriate, Public Education (FAPE)     170
Examples of Management Cues     170
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     171
Focus Point: The IDEA Definition of Disability     171
Examples of Management Cues     171
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     172
Focus Point: Special Education, Related Services, and Supplementary Aids and Services     172
Examples of Management Cues     173
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     174
Focus Point: Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)     174
Examples of Management Cues     175
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     175
Focus Point: Procedural Safeguards     175
Examples of Management Cues     177
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     177
Special Education Procedures     177
Focus Point: Conducting Prereferral Interventions     178
Examples of Management Cues     179
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     179
Focus Point: Early Intervening Services     180
Examples of Management Cues     180
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     181
Focus Point: Determining Eligibility for Services under IDEA     181
Examples of Management Cues     182
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     183
Focus Point: Developing a Student's IEP     183
Examples of Management Cues     185
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     186
Focus Point: Making Placement Decisions     186
Examples of Management Cues     187
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     187
Focus Point: Implementing Required Procedural Safeguards      188
Examples of Management Cues     190
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     190
Focus Point: Participation of Students with Disabilities in State and Districtwide Assessments     190
Examples of Management Cues     191
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     191
Focus Point: Disciplining Students with Disabilities     191
Examples of Management Cues     193
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     194
Focus Point: Determining Eligibility for Services under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973     194
Examples of Management Cues     195
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     195
Focus Point: Ensuring That School-Based Special Education Teachers Are Highly Qualified     196
Examples of Management Cues     197
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     197
Examples of Leading U.S. Supreme Court Cases on Special Education     197
Chapter Resources     198
Academic Issues and Student Records     200
Grade Assignment, Grade Reduction, and Minimum Competency Tests     200
Focus Point: Grade Assignment and Minimum Competency Testing     201
Examples of Management Cues     201
Suggested Risk Management Guideline      201
Focus Point: Grade Reduction and Student Attendance     202
Example of a Management Cue     202
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     202
Focus Point: Grade Reduction, Withholding a Diploma, and Student Misconduct     203
Examples of Management Cues     203
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     203
Participation in Extracurricular Activities     203
Focus Point: Academic and State Standards for Athletics and Other Extracurricular Activities     204
Focus Point: Disabled Student Athletes     205
Examples of Management Cues     206
Suggested Risk Management Guideline     206
Focus Point: Participation Fee Plans     206
Student Records     207
Focus Point: Family Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA), aka the Buckley Amendment     207
Focus Point: FERPA and IDEA     210
Focus Point: FERPA and Privacy in the Classroom     210
Examples of Management Cues     211
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     212
Chapter Resources     213
Copyright Law     217
Focus Point: What Copyright Protects     218
Focus Point: The Source of Copyright Law     219
Focus Point: Public Domain      220
Focus Point: Fair Use Doctrine     220
Focus Point: School-Sponsored Internet     222
Focus Point: Educational Media Projects     224
Examples of Management Cues     224
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     226
Chapter Resources     232
Search and Seizure     233
Focus Point: Proper or Improper Search and Seizure     234
Examples of Management Cues     238
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     238
Additional Cases of Interest to Educators     239
Chapter Resources     239
The Principal's Responsibilities in Program Management     240
School Attendance     240
Focus Point: Constitutional Right to an Education     241
Focus Point: Home Instruction     242
Examples of Management Cues     243
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     243
Focus Point: Homeless Children and Youth     243
Examples of Management Cues     245
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     245
Bilingual and Special Language Programs     246
Focus Point: Court Rulings That Have Affected the Education of Language Minority Students     246
Examples of Management Cues      250
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     250
Focus Point: Education of Migrant Children     251
Religion in Public Schools     252
Focus Point: Official Neutrality Regarding Religious Activity     254
Focus Point: School Prayer and Bible Reading     254
Focus Point: Distribution of Religious Literature by Students     257
Focus Point: Accommodation of Students With Special Religious Needs     257
Focus Point: Teaching About Religion     258
Focus Point: Religious Holidays     260
Focus Point: Religious Excusals     260
Focus Point: Released Time     260
Focus Point: Character Education     261
Focus Point: Student Attire     261
Focus Point: The Equal Access Act     261
Focus Point: Using Federal Funds for Remedial Education Services     264
Focus Point: Pledge of Allegiance     264
Focus Point: The Ten Commandments     265
Focus Point: Distribution of Bibles in Public Schools     266
Focus Point: Public Aid to Private Schools     266
Focus Point: The Religious Freedom Restoration Act     267
Examples of Management Cues     267
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines      268
The Marketplace of Ideas     269
Focus Point: Community Service     269
Focus Point: Censorship of Print Material     270
Focus Point: The Harry Potter Argument     273
Examples of Management Cues     274
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     275
Focus Point: Issues Related to the Use of the Internet     275
Examples of Management Cues     277
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     277
Focus Point: Internet Privacy for Student Files     278
Examples of Management Cues     279
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     279
Focus Point: Technology and Student Misconduct     280
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     281
Health and Safety Issues     281
Focus Point: School Violence and Liability for Failing to Protect Students     281
Examples of Management Cues     283
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     284
Focus Point: Drug Testing of Students     285
Examples of Management Cues     287
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     287
Focus Point: Drug Testing of School Employees     288
Examples of Management Cues     289
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     290
Focus Point: Child Abuse     290
Examples of Management Cues     292
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     293
Focus Point: Teacher Abuse of Students     293
Examples of Management Cues     294
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     294
Focus Point: Child Abduction     294
Examples of Management Cues     295
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     295
Focus Point: Students With AIDS     296
Examples of Management Cues     298
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     298
Focus Point: Medication Administration     300
Focus Point: Immunization     300
Examples of Management Cues     300
Suggested Risk Management Guideline     301
Examples of Leading U.S. Supreme Court Cases on Education     301
Additional Cases of Interest to Educators     302
Chapter Resources     302
Sexual Harassment     310
Focus Point: Sexual Harassment Defined and Categorized     312
Focus Point: School Liability for Sexual Harassment     314
Focus Point: Appropriate Physical Contact versus Unwelcome Conduct or Hostile Environment     316
Focus Point: Harassment of Males     318
Focus Point: Duty to Prevent Antigay Student Harassment     318
Focus Point: Affirmative Response to a Complaint     322
Focus Point: Defense Against Allegations     322
Focus Point: Protecting Teachers' Reputations     324
Suggested Risk Management Guideline (Prohibited Conduct regarding Sexual Orientation)     324
Suggested Risk Management Guideline (Advice for Parents)     325
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines (Policy Development)     325
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines (Policy Implementation and Enforcement)     326
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines (Codes of Conduct and Training to Support Policy)     327
Suggested Risk Management Guideline (For Teachers and Other Employees)     327
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines (Cautions)     328
Suggested Risk Management Guideline (Compliance)     329
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines (Additional Considerations)     329
Chapter Resources     330
State-Created Danger and Deliberate Indifference     332
Focus Point: School District Liability at the Federal Civil Level, Based on the Fourteenth Amendment's Due Process Clause and Section 1983 of Chapter 42 of the United States Code     332
Example of a Management Cue      337
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     337
Chapter Resources     338
The Principal's Tort Liability for Negligence as Applied to Expected Duty and Standards of Care     339
The Law of Torts and the Concept of Negligence     340
Focus Point: The Law of Torts     340
The Concept of Negligence and Its Application to Duty and Standards of Care     344
Focus Point: The Concept of Negligence     345
Examples of Management Cues     347
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     347
Focus Point: The Concept of Duty and Standard of Care     349
Examples of Management Cues     351
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     351
The Concepts of Negligence, Duty, and Standards of Care and Their Application to Proper Instruction, Proper Supervision, Proper Maintenance, Field Trips, Postinjury Treatment, Athletic Liability, and Spectator Safety     353
Focus Point: The Application of Negligence to Proper Instruction     354
Examples of Management Cues     357
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     357
Focus Point: The Application of Negligence to Proper Supervision     359
Examples of Management Cues     363
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     363
Focus Point: The Application of Negligence to Proper Maintenance     363
Example of a Management Cue     368
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     368
Focus Point: The Application of Negligence to Field Trips     369
Examples of Management Cues     372
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     373
Focus Point: The Application of Negligence to Postinjury Treatment, Athletic Liability, and Spectator Safety     373
Examples of Management Cues     376
Suggested Risk Management Guidelines     377
Additional Cases of Interest to Educators     378
Chapter Resources     379
Index     381
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