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The Professional Chef, the official text of The Culinary Institute of America's culinary degree program, has taught tens of thousands of chefs the techniques and fundamentals that have launched their careers.

Now in a revolutionary revision, The Professional Chef, Seventh Edition not only teaches the reader how, but is designed to reflect why the CIA methods are the gold standard for chefs. With lavish, four-color photography and clear, instructive text, The Professional Chef, Seventh Edition guides culinary students--professional aspirants and serious home cooks, alike--to mastery of the kitchen. Over 660 classic and contemporary recipes, with almost 200 variations, were chosen especially for their use of fundamental techniques. These techniques and recipes form a foundation from which a professional chef or home cook can build a personal repertoire.

From mise en place (preparation) to finished dishes, the book covers Stocks, Sauces, and Soups; Meats, Poultry, Fish, and Shellfish; Vegetables, Potatoes, Grains, and Legumes, Pasta and Dumplings; Breakfast and Garde Manger; Baking and Pastry. In addition to a comprehensive treatment of techniques and recipes, The Professional Chef, Seventh Edition teaches readers other critical elements of the professional chef's domain--much of it universally applicable to any kitchen. From "An Introduction to the Professional," to the identification of tools and ingredients, to nutrition, food science and food and kitchen safety, the book is a wealth of beautifully presented information useful for any cook.

The Culinary Institute of America has been hailed as "The nation's most influential training schoolfor professional cooks" by Time magazine. The Professional Chef, Seventh Edition, the cornerstone of its program in book form, belongs on the shelf of every serious cook.

The Professional Chef, Seventh Edition, the cornerstone of its program in book form, belongs on the shelf of every serious cook.

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Editorial Reviews

From Barnes & Noble
This thorough revision of the standard book for professional chefs will please nonprofessionals as well. Once as plain-looking as a drab textbook, The Professional Chef has become as visually appealing as its 660 recipes are appetizing. With full-color photographs and attractive page layout, this classic presents tool and ingredient identifications, finished meals, and kitchen techniques with a clarity that any food lover will welcome.
Library Journal
In the seventh revised edition of the basic textbook for the Culinary Institute of America (CIA), the editors claim that they explain to the potential chef not just how to cook, but why the CIA insists on doing things the way it does. Since the CIA is often criticized for problems ranging from its devotion to classic French technique to its role in maintaining the patriarchy that dominates the profession, such justification seems in order. But there is actually little of it, either in the introductory essays or in the text that follows. There is little else to find fault with in this well-organized, comprehensive text. But while anyone aspiring to a career in food service may find it useful, it falls short of being a good learning text for the average cook. Its recipes are all written in scaled formulas, rather than in the cups and spoons measures most consumers use. In addition, those recipes mostly yield ten servings, and the task of reducing them to manageable proportions will put off most nonprofessional users. So although this is an excellent guide to the profession, it is recommended only for academic libraries supporting culinary programs and larger public libraries with comprehensive cookery collections. Tom Cooper, Richmond Heights Memorial Lib., MO Copyright 2001 Cahners Business Information.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780471382577
  • Publisher: Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 9/28/2001
  • Series: Pro Chef Temp Series
  • Edition description: REV
  • Edition number: 7
  • Pages: 1056
  • Product dimensions: 8.95 (w) x 11.22 (h) x 1.93 (d)

Meet the Author

The Culinary Institute of America (Hyde Park, NY, and St. Helena, CA) was founded in 1946. Known as the Harvard of cooking schools, and credited with having "changed the way Americans eat" by the James Beard Foundation, CIA has trained tens of thousands of foodservice professionals.
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Read an Excerpt

The Professional Chef

John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0-471-38257-4

Chapter One


Sauces are often considered one of the greatest tests of a chef's skill. The successful pairing of a sauce with a food demonstrates technical expertise, an understanding of the food, and the ability to judge and evaluate a dish's flavors, textures, and colors.


At one time the term "brown sauce" was equated exclusively with the classic sauces Espagnole and demiglace. Today it may also indicate jus de veau lié, pan sauces, or reduction-style sauces based on a brown stock.

Espagnole sauce is prepared by bolstering a brown stock with additional aromatics and thickening it with roux. Demiglace is made by combining equal parts of espagnole and brown stock and reducing by half. Jus liés are made by reducing brown stocks (with added flavorings if desired) and thickening them with a pure starch slurry. Pan sauces and reduction sauces are produced as part of the roasting or sautéing cooking process; thickeners can be either roux, reduction, or pure starch slurries. Regardless of the approach taken, though, the end goal is the same - to make a basic brown sauce that is good enough to be served as is but can also be used as the foundation for several other specific sauces.


4 1/2 quarts/4.25 liters Brown Stock (see page 252)

4 pounds/1.8 kilograms additional bones and trim

1 pound/450 grams large-cut mirepoix,well-browned oil, for browning bones and trim and mirepoix

3 to 4 ounces/85 to 115 grams tomato paste or purée

12 ounces/340 grams roux (see page 238) or 1 ounce/30 grams arrowroot or other pure starch

1 sachet d'épices or bouquet garni


THE ULTIMATE SUCCESS of this sauce depends directly on the base stock, usually Brown Veal Stock (page 252). The stock must be of excellent quality with a rich appealing flavor and aroma and well-balanced flavor without any strong notes of mirepoix, herbs, or spices that might overwhelm the finished sauce.

Bones and trim are added to the sauce to improve the flavor of the base stock. If the stock is extremely flavorful, additional bones and trim may not be necessary. If used, cut them into small pieces for better and faster flavor development.

Mirepoix, cut into large dice, may be added to the sauce base; if there is sufficient flavor in the stock, then it may be unnecessary. Mushroom trimmings, herbs, garlic, or shallots may also be added to the sauce as it develops.

Roux (see page 238) may be prepared ahead of time, or it may be prepared as part of the sauce-making process. The thickener of choice for jus lié is arrowroot, though another pure starch, such as potato starch or cornstarch, may be used. Arrowroot is preferred because it results in a translucent, glossy sauce.

Jus lié is generally prepared in a saucepan or pot that is wider than it is tall. This is the most effective means of extracting flavors fully and quickly into the finished sauce. You will also need a kitchen spoon, ladle, or skimmer to skim the developing sauce, and tasting spoons, fine strainers, and containers to hold the finished sauce. Additional containers are necessary for both cooling and storing the sauce.


1. Brown the trim and/or bones and mirepoix.

The flavor of the base stock is usually fortified with well-browned meaty bones and lean trim meat and mirepoix, or a commercial base. Browning these ingredients will enrich the finished sauce and help darken its color. Brown them by roasting in a little oil in a hot oven (425° to 450° F/220° to 230° C) or over medium to high heat on the stovetop in the same pot that will be used to simmer the sauce. Let the bones, trim, and mirepoix reach a deep golden-brown color.

2. Add the tomato paste and cook out until rust-colored.

Allowing the tomato paste to "cook out" (pincé) reduces excessive sweetness, acidity, or bitterness, which might affect the finished sauce. It also encourages the development of the sauce's overall flavor and aroma. When browning the mirepoix in the oven, add the tomato paste to the roasting pan with the vegetables. If browning the mirepoix on the stovetop, add the paste when the vegetables are nearly browned. (Tomato paste cooks out very quickly on the stovetop. Do not let it burn.) Deglaze the pan and add the deglazing liquid to the sauce.

3. Add the brown stock to the bones and/or trim and mirepoix and simmer for 2 to 4 hours, skimming as necessary throughout the cooking time. Let the sauce base simmer long enough for the richest possible flavor to develop. Simmering develops flavor in two ways: It extracts flavor from the bones, trim, and mirepoix; and it reduces the volume of liquid, concentrating flavor. (Optional: Add a prepared roux now, if desired, to prepare a sauce Espagnole.)

Skim the surface often throughout simmering time. Pulling the pot off center on the burner encourages impurities to collect on one side of the pot, where they are easier to collect.

Taste the sauce base frequently as it develops and adjust the seasoning as necessary by adding aromatics or seasonings. Remove from the heat once the desired flavor is achieved.

4. Strain the sauce.

Optional: For jus lié, add a pure starch slurry now, if desired, and simmer until thickened either before or after straining. Use a fine-mesh sieve or a double thickness of cheesecloth. It is now ready to finish for service, or it may be rapidly cooled and stored (see page 64).

5. Finish as desired and hold at 165°F/73°C for service.

Return the sauce to a simmer and make any necessary adjustment to its flavor or consistency. (If the sauce requires thickening, either reduce it by simmering over high heat or add a starch slurry now.)

If the sauce has already been thickened, either with a roux or arrowroot or by reduction, no additional thickener is necessary.

Brown sauces can be finished for service by adding reductions, fortified wines, garnishes, and/or whole butter (see Finishing a Brown Sauce, page 261).

Brown sauces sometimes develop a skin when they are held uncovered. To avoid this, the sauce can be topped with melted whole or clarified butter to make an airtight seal. Alternately, a fitted cover for the bain-marie can be put on top, or a piece of parchment paper or plastic wrap cut to fit the pan can be placed directly on the surface of the sauce.

6. Evaluate the quality of the finished brown sauce.

A brown sauce of excellent quality has a full, rich flavor. The initial roasting of bones, trimmings, and/or mirepoix gives the finished sauce a pleasant roasted or caramel aroma, readily discernible when the sauce is heated, and a predominant flavor of roasted meat or vegetables. The aromatics, mirepoix, and tomatoes should not overpower the main flavor. There should be no bitter or burnt flavors, which can be caused by over-reduction or burning the bones, mirepoix, or tomato paste.

Good brown sauces have a deep brown color without any dark specks or debris. The color is affected by the color of the base stock, the amount of tomato paste or puree (too much will give a red cast to the sauce), the amount of caramelization on the trim and mirepoix, proper skimming, the length of simmering time (reduction factor), as well as any finishing or garnishing ingredients.

The texture and, to some extent, the color of a brown sauce depend on the type of thickener used. A roux-thickened brown sauce (Espagnole) is opaque with a thick body. A sauce thickened with pureed mirepoix is also thick and opaque but with a slightly rougher, more rustic texture. A sauce thickened with both roux and reduction (demiglace) is translucent and highly glossy with a noticeable body, although it should never feel tacky in the mouth. A pure starch-thickened sauce (jus lié) has a greater degree of clarity than other brown sauces as well as a lighter texture and color.



2 fl oz / 60 mL vegetable oil 4 lb / 1.8 kg lean veal trim


8 oz / 225 g medium-dice onions 4 oz / 115 g medium-dice carrot 4 oz / 115 g medium-dice celery 4 oz / 115 g tomato puree 4 1/2 / qt 4.5 L BROWN VEAL STOCK (page 252) sachet d'épices, containing 2 to 3 parsley stems, 1/2 tsp/2 mL thyme, 1/2 tsp/2 mL cracked black peppercorns, 1 bay leaf, and 1 garlic clove 1 oz / 30 g arrowroot or cornstarch, diluted with cold water or stock to make a slurry salt, as needed pepper, as needed

1 Heat the oil in a rondeau over medium heat. Add the trim and mirepoix and sauté, stirring from time to time, until the veal, onions, and carrots have taken on a rich brown color, about 25 to 30 minutes.

2 Add the tomato purée and continue to cook over medium heat until it turns a rusty brown color and has a rich sweet aroma, about 1 minute.

3 Add the stock and bring to a simmer. Continue to simmer, skimming as necessary, until a good flavor develops, 2 to 4 hours, depending on the size cut used for the trim and mirepoix. Add the sachet, if desired, during the last hour of cooking time.

4 Strain this sauce base. It can now be finished, or it may be rapidly cooled and stored for later use (see page 64).

5 Return the sauce base to a simmer. Stir the slurry to recombine if necessary and gradually add to the sauce base, adding just enough to achieve a good coating consistency. (nappé). The amount of slurry needed depends on the batch itself and its intended use.

6 Taste the sauce and adjust the seasoning. Hold at 165°F/67°C for service.

Jus de Volaille Lié Replace the Brown Veal Stock with a Brown Chicken Stock (page 252) and replace the veal bones and trim with an equal weight of chicken bones and trim.

Jus de Canard Lié Replace the Brown Veal Stock with a Brown Duck Stock (page 252) and replace the veal bones and trim with an equal weight of duck bones and trim.

Jus d'Agneau Lié Replace the Brown Veal Stock with Brown Lamb Stock (page 252) and replace the veal bones and trim with an equal weight of lamb bones and trim.

Jus de Gibier Lié Replace the Brown Veal Stock with Brown Game Stock (page 252) and replace the veal bones and trim with an equal weight of venison bones and trim.


A brown sauce can be served as is or used to prepare derivative brown sauces. The main ways of finishing a brown sauce to create special sauces are through reductions, garnishes, fortified wines, or finishing with butter


For small amounts of sauce, wine (with or without aromatics) may be used to deglaze the sauté pan or roasting pan or the wine and aromatics may be simmered separately and then added to a large batch of finished sauce, as you might do for banquet service.


High-moisture items like mushrooms, shallots, or tomatoes are usually cooked before being added to a sauce. The sauce is then simmered again to return it to the correct consistency and to develop flavors fully. Then, the final seasoning adjustments are made.


Port, Madeira, Marsala, or sherry are often blended into the simmering sauce just before serving.


This step can be employed to enrich any brown sauce. Cold or room temperature butter is swirled or whisked into the sauce just before serving.


The white sauce family includes the classic sauces velouté and béchamel, both produced by thickening a liquid with roux.

A classic velouté, which translates from French as "velvety, soft, and smooth to the palate," is prepared by thickening a white stock (veal, chicken, or fish) with blond roux. In Escoffier's time, a béchamel sauce was made by adding cream to a relatively thick velouté sauce. Today, it is made by thickening milk (sometimes infused with aromatics for flavor) with a white roux.


1 gallon/3.75 liters flavorful liquid (white stock for velouté, milk for béchamel)

1 sachet d'épices or bouquet garni or other aromatics (white roux, minced onions, or mushroom trimmings, for instance) and seasonings as appropriate

an appropriate amount of roux


add 10 to 12 ounces/285 to 340 grams blond or white roux


increase the amount of roux to 12 to 14 ounces/340 to 400 grams


increase the amount of roux to 16 to 18 ounces/450 to 510 grams


LIQUIDS USED TO MAKE white sauces include white stocks (veal, chicken, fish, or vegetable) and milk. They may be brought to a simmer separately, and, if desired, infused with aromatics and flavorings to produce a special flavor and/or color in the finished sauce.

Blond roux is the traditional thickener for veloutés; blond or white roux may be used for a bechamel (the darker the roux, the more golden the sauce will be). Roux may be prepared in advance, or produced by cooking fat and flour together with the aromatics. The amount of roux (see page 238) determines the thickness of a white sauce.

Additional mirepoix, mushroom trimmings, or members of the onion family are sometimes added, either to bolster the flavor of the sauce or to create a specific flavor profile. Cut them into small dice or slice them thin to encourage rapid flavor release into the sauce.

White sauces scorch easily if they are not tended, and can take on a grayish cast if prepared in an aluminum pan. Choose a heavy-gauge nonaluminum pot with a perfectly flat bottom for the best results. Simmer white sauces on a flattop for gentle, even heat, or use a heat diffuser if available.


1. Sweat the appropriate aromatics in fat.

Vegetables are occasionally allowed to sweat to make a flavor base for a white sauce. Any meat trimmings included should be gently cooked with them.

2. (Optional) Add flour and cook, stirring frequently.

A roux may be cooked in the pot, as part of the sauce-making process, by adding flour to the oil and aromatics in the pot. Add more oil or butter as needed to produce a roux. Let the roux cook for about 4 to 5 minutes or to a light blond color. Some recipes call for a prepared roux to be added to the aromatics to soften. In other recipes, the liquid is added to the aromatics and brought to a simmer; then a prepared roux is whisked into the simmering liquid.

3. Add the liquid to the roux gradually. Add a sachet d'épices or bouquet garni, if desired.

Many chefs add cool or room-temperature stock or milk to the roux.


Excerpted from The Professional Chef Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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Table of Contents

Introduction to the Profession.
Menus and Recipes.
The Basics of Nutrition and Food Science.
Food and Kitchen Safety.
Equipment Identification.
Meats, Poultry, and Game Identification.
Fish and Shellfish Identification.
Fruit, Vegetable, and Fresh Herb Identification.
Dairy and Egg Purchasing and Identification.
Dry Goods Identification.
Mise en Place for Stocks, Sauces, and Soups.
Mise en Place for Meats, Poultry, and Fish.
Fabricating Meats, Poultry, and Fish.
Grilling and Broiling, Roasting and Baking.
Sauteing, Pan Frying and Deep Frying.
Steaming and Submersion Cooking.
Braising and Stewing.
Mise en Place for Vegetables and Fresh Herbs.
Cooking Vegetables.
Cooking Potatoes.
Cooking Grains and Legumes.
Cooking Pasta and Dumplings.
Cooking Eggs.
Salad Dressings and Salads.
Hor d'Ouevre and Appetizers.
Charcuterie and Garde Manger.
Baking Mise en Place.
Yeast Breads.
Quickbreads, Cakes, and Other Batters.
Pastry Doughs and Cookies.
Icings, Dessert Sauces, and Creams.
Readings and Resources.
Recipe Index.
Subject Index.
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Customer Reviews

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Sort by: Showing all of 5 Customer Reviews
  • Anonymous

    Posted February 9, 2004

    The book came out a little dry

    Recipes are more like a musical scores, each subject to the interpretation of the conductor and arranger. I bought CIA7 to review the methodology of a full professional kitchen which is very different in terms of equipment and perspective than the home cook and kitchen. I was looking for a nuanced, precise, conceptually more rarefied discussion of what it means to subject foodstuffs to heat and enhancement. I am not sure I found it. At 1000 pages it is clearly compendious and I have not read it, all. But it has been my secret sharer for 5 days as I binge cooked for a week or so. Some people prefer Robert Parker to Hugh Johnson, the scientist to the sensualist. I prefer the latter, CIA the former, which makes for dry reading. I found CIA7 somewhat heavy handed, too much fat, too much flour. They have the most exquisite discussion on how to make a roux, alas then they use it in recipes. It appears as an academic, middle of the road approach, that has ignored much of culinary history since Michel Guerard¿s cuisine minceur in 1977, up through the new lightness of fusion cooking in Barcelona. How does one froth nori? Not in here. It helps to know how to cook very well before hand. Julia Child presents a far more succinct, far more intelligible, and far more complete presentation of pastry dough in all its permutations than does CIA7. Timing to doneness, as both quantity and doneness are variables, is rarely mentioned. One ought to know. True but sometime a hint would be informative. None the less I am glad I have it. It is the Joy of Cooking for people who care about food, but not necessarily an inspiration. Yet by its own purposes it succeeds.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted January 6, 2003

    Tried and True

    I have been a professional chef for over 18 years and ALWAYS have my pro chef nearby. The seventh edition is the finest book available by far. I have used several of the recipes and always have got great response from my customers, family members and friends. It has very informative step by step techniques that are as classic as the Culinary Institute itself. This book is the best - for professional or home cooks.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted December 14, 2002

    The everything you need book....

    This book is awesome! It's got everything you need to know about cooking and then some. It's a HUGE book (over 1000 pages), so you might need some help carrying it to the kitchen. You name it, it's got it. A MUST HAVE for the serious cook.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted November 16, 2002


    This is not a "cook book". Instead, it's about restaurant and hotel cooking, from the food-safety and business and service issues, though pantry management and equipment to ingredients and fabrication and preparation -- and that's before you get to the techniques and recipes. It's haute and francophilic to a fault, and sometimes just plain too much and over-the-top. But, whatever's described here is absolutely reliable and the unqualified best. You can always figure out the shortcuts later.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted September 19, 2002

    culinary student

    Im a first quarter culinary student and the pro Chef was one of the books required. It really is an excellant book. It has great information on cooking tequniques, ratios, mesurements etc. It aslo tells how to prepare fish, chicken, etc. It also has a ton of definitions for cooking terms. plus the recipies are AWESOME.

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