The Psychology of Expertise: Cognitive Research and Empirical AI

Overview

This volume investigates our ability to capture, and then apply, expertise. In recent years, expertise has come to be regarded as an increasingly valuable and surprisingly elusive resource. Experts, who were the sole active dispensers of certain kinds of knowledge in the days before AI, have themselves become the objects of empirical inquiry, in which their knowledge is elicited and studied — by knowledge engineers, experimental psychologists, applied psychologists, or other experts — involved in the development ...

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The Psychology of Expertise: Cognitive Research and Empirical Ai

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Overview

This volume investigates our ability to capture, and then apply, expertise. In recent years, expertise has come to be regarded as an increasingly valuable and surprisingly elusive resource. Experts, who were the sole active dispensers of certain kinds of knowledge in the days before AI, have themselves become the objects of empirical inquiry, in which their knowledge is elicited and studied — by knowledge engineers, experimental psychologists, applied psychologists, or other experts — involved in the development of expert systems. This book achieves a marriage between experimentalists, applied scientists, and theoreticians who deal with expertise. It envisions the benefits to society of an advanced technology for capturing and disseminating the knowledge and skills of the best corporate managers, the most seasoned pilots, and the most renowned medical diagnosticians. This book should be of interest to psychologists as well as to knowledge engineers who are "out in the trenches" developing expert systems, and anyone pondering the nature of expertise and the question of how it can be elicited and studied scientifically. The book's scope and the pivotal concepts that it elucidates and appraises, as well as the extensive categorized bibliographies it includes, make this volume a landmark in the field of expert systems and AI as well as the field of applied experimental psychology.

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
Investigates the ability to capture and use the knowledge and skills of such experts as corporate managers, pilots, and medical diagnosticians. The 17 papers, from a conference in Garden City, New York, May 1989, are primarily concerned with artificial intelligence topics, but some may interest psychologists as well. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781461397359
  • Publisher: Springer New York
  • Publication date: 7/31/2012
  • Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1992
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 395
  • Product dimensions: 7.00 (w) x 10.00 (h) x 0.85 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface
Contributors
1 Doing Psychology in an AI Context: A Personal Perspective and Introduction to This Volume 3
2 Knowledge and Knowledge Acquisition in the Computational Context 12
3 Modeling Human Expertise in Expert Systems 29
4 Mental Models and the Acquisition of Expert Knowledge 61
5 Conceptual Analysis as a Basis for Knowledge Acquisition 80
6 Implications of Cognitive Theory for Knowledge Acquisition 99
7 Knowledge Acquisition and Constructivist Epistemology 121
8 Eliciting and Using Experiential Knowledge and General Expertise 137
9 Managing and Documenting the Knowledge Acquisition Process 149
10 Using Knowledge Engineering to Preserve Corporate Memory 170
11 On Being an Expert: A Cost-Benefit Analysis 191
12 Mnemonics and Expert Knowledge: Mental Cuing 204
13 The Role of General Ability in Cognitive Complexity: A Case Study of Expertise 218
14 Expert-Novice Differences and Knowledge Elicitation 233
15 When Novices Elicit Knowledge: Question Asking in Designing, Evaluating, and Learning to Use Software 245
16 The Programmer's Burden: Developing Expertise in Programming 269
17 The Psychology of Expertise and Knowledge Acquisition: Comments on the Chapters in This Volume 297
Appendix A. Bibliography: Psychological Theory and Reviews 314
Appendix B. Bibliography: Empirical and Experimental Investigations of Expertise 324
Appendix C. Bibliography: Knowledge Elicitation 338
Appendix D. Bibliography: Automated Knowledge Elicitation, Representation, and Instantiation ("Knowledge Acquisition") 346
Appendix E. Bibliography: Expertise in Programming 359
Appendix F. Bibliography: AI Theory, Philosophy, and Reviews of Expert Systems 363
Appendix G. Bibliography: Applications of Expert Systems 371
Appendix H. Bibliography: Programming, Building, and Verifying Expert Systems 378
Subject Index 383
Author Index 387
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