The Quelbe Method: Music Fundamentals in Quelbe Ensembles [NOOK Book]

Overview

In the early 1700s, the Danish administration of the Virgin Islands suppressed African music. Undeterred, Virgin Island minstrels combined the African, European, and Taino music elements that created the eclectic genre quelbe. In The Quelbe Method, Dale Francis offers a comprehensive approach that demystifies music, develops artistry in tandem with fundamentals, and provides repertoire to build musicianship and individual performance skills.

Francis shares his classical and jazz...

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The Quelbe Method: Music Fundamentals in Quelbe Ensembles

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Overview

In the early 1700s, the Danish administration of the Virgin Islands suppressed African music. Undeterred, Virgin Island minstrels combined the African, European, and Taino music elements that created the eclectic genre quelbe. In The Quelbe Method, Dale Francis offers a comprehensive approach that demystifies music, develops artistry in tandem with fundamentals, and provides repertoire to build musicianship and individual performance skills.

Francis shares his classical and jazz guitar skills, teaching practices, and performing artist perspective in an innovative approach to learning music. The three-part arrangements are open to interpretation and variation. Part two simulates the banjo, ukulele or guitar sound, and part three portrays a bass pattern that can be played on a one-string washtub bass. Students can learn cultural rhythmic, melodic, and harmonic concepts in addition to learning to play melodies and chord progressions by ear.

The Quelbe Method provides a comprehensive approach to learning music through practical theory, ear training, rhythm, technique, and performance activities, enabling both adult and young musicians to further develop their abilities to read and write music, play by ear, and improvise.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781475926859
  • Publisher: iUniverse, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 5/31/2012
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eBook
  • Pages: 254
  • File size: 27 MB
  • Note: This product may take a few minutes to download.

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The QUELBE Method

Music Fundamentals in Quelbe Ensembles
By Dale Francis

iUniverse, Inc.

Copyright © 2012 Dale Francis
All right reserved.

ISBN: 978-1-4759-2684-2


Chapter One

THE CHROMATIC SCALE

Study Guide 1

The chromatic scale has twelve different notes. The notes are in chronological order according to pitch. Each note in the scale is either a half step higher or a half step lower than the note next to it. A half step is the closest that a note can be to another note on an instrument that uses the twelve tone chromatic scale.

The 12 notes of the chromatic scale are named with the first seven letters of the alphabet along with five sharps (#) or flats (b). The seven letters are A, B, C, D, E, F, and G. The five sharps are A#, C#, D#, F#, and G#. The five flats are Ab, Bb, Db, Eb, and Gb. Flats and sharps are enharmonic. Therefore, A# is Bb, C# is Db, D# is Eb, F# is Gb, and G# is Ab.

A chromatic scale can start on any note. The chromatic scale starting from A is A, A#, B, C, C#, D, D#, E, F, F#, G, G#, A. Notice that there is no sharp or flat between B and C, and E and F. Therefore, from B to C is a half step. Likewise, E to F is a half step.

Review Activity:

I. Create 10 quiz questions and answers from this study guide. Exchange quizzes with a study partner and answer the questions. Next, put your questions on flashcards and use them to become familiar with the chromatic scale information. Grade yourself after each review.

II.

1. Which note is one half step above A?

2. Which note is one half step above A#?

3. Which note is one half step above B?

4. Which note is one half step above C?

5. Which note is one half step below A?

6. Which note is one half step below Ab?

7. Which note is one half step below G?

8. Which note is one half step below Gb?

9. Which note is one half step below F?

10. Which note is one half step below E?

III.

1. Write the chromatic scale going up starting from A. Use sharps as required.

2. Write the chromatic scale going down starting from A. Use flats as required.

SCALES & VOCAL SYLLABLES

Chromatic

Above is a chromatic scale nomenclature with vocal syllables. However, each scale tone plays an important role in producing the overall sound that becomes the scale. Therefore, the pitch of each note must be "in tune" to produce the correct scale sound.

Each note should be in tune in relation to its position in the scale, and in relation to the adjacent higher and lower notes that are played before or after in succession. Considering that the chromatic scale has all half steps, all the notes should sound symmetric in relation to the preceding notes.

Scale notes are numbered according to their position in the scale. As seen in the diagram, the starting note is number one.

• Practice singing the chromatic scale going up and down using the vocal syllables

• Practice playing the chromatic scale going up and down starting from A, and C.

Major

Knowing the major scale sound is very important for developing an ear for music. When the major scale is sung with the vocal syllables, it produces the familiar "Do, Re, Me" song sound.

The major scale uses whole and half steps. A whole step is the distance of two half steps. For example, note that from C to D is a whole step on both the chromatic and major scale charts.

Sing the major scale and try to figure out which steps are whole steps and which are half steps. For more information, refer to the major scale study guide on page 56 or the intervals guide on page 88.

• Practice singing the major scale going up and down using the vocal syllables

• Practice playing the major scale going up and down starting from the notes C, and A.

GUITAR CHROMATIC FINGERING CHART

This chart shows the guitar fretboard chromatic pattern. To develop chromatic fingering, start with the open string (0) and play each note in order up to the 12th fret on each string. First, spread the four fingers apart over each of the first four frets. Secondly, press the string to the fretboard securely with the tip top of each finger in order from the pointer (1st) to the pinky (4th) finger. After playing in the first position, shift all four fingers and thumb to the next four frets, the fifth position. In the ninth position the pinky can play the 12th fret note. Page 229 has an introductory guitar technique lesson with activities.

This chart shows the guitar fretboard with the enharmonic flat names. Use this chart to become familiar with the flats. Play the notes and say the names simultaneously. Use the sharp names when playing the scale going up and the flat names going down.

Open String Notation

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

STAFF & CLEF SIGNS

Study Guide 2

The music staff is used to notate music. It has five lines and four spaces. The bottom line is one and the top line is five. Similarly, the bottom space is one and the top is four. When a note is placed on the staff, it gets the name of the line or space on which it is placed. Therefore, a note placed on the second line gets the name of that line. Likewise, a note placed in the second space gets the name of that space. However, the staff does not have any letter names until a clef sign is placed on it to establish the alphabetical order.

Three basic clef signs are treble "G" clef, alto "C" clef, and bass "F" clef. The treble clef indicates that the second line is G. The alto clef indicates that the third line is C, and the bass clef indicates that the fourth line is F.

All the other lines and spaces are named in alphabetical order starting from the line that is named by the clef sign. The alphabetical order goes upward through the staff using only the letters A through G. After G, the alphabetical sequence continues with A. Therefore, the note A comes next after the note G and the alphabetical sequence proceeds upward alternately naming the lines and spaces for the higher notes. Therefore, if a note is placed in the second space of the G clef, that note is A.

G Clef

The names of the lines in the G clef are E, G, B, D, F, and the spaces are F, A, C, E. Together they are E, F, G, A, B, C, D, E, F. The mnemonic "Every Good Boy Does Fine" is effective for learning the lines in the G clef. The G clef spaces spell "face."

C Clef

The names of the lines in the C clef are F, A, C, E, G, and the spaces are G, B, D, F. Together they are F, G, A, B, C, D, E, F, G. A common mnemonic for the lines is "Frank And Carl Eat Grapes." For the spaces, "Good Boys Do Fine" works well. However, creating personalized mnemonics can be interesting.

F Clef

The names of the lines in the F clef are G, B, D, F, A, and the spaces are A, C, E, G. Together they are G, A, B, C, D, E, F, G, A. Familiar mnemonics are "Good Boys Do Fine Always," and "All Cows Eat Grass."

STAFF & CLEF SIGNS

Review Activity:

I. Set up three staffs. Place a treble clef on the top staff, an alto clef on the middle staff, and a bass clef on the bottom staff. Check each clef sign to ensure that it designates the correct line of the staff. To the left of each clef sign write the letter names of the lines next to each line.

II. Set up three staffs. Place a treble clef on the top staff, an alto clef on the middle staff, and a bass clef on the bottom staff. Be sure that each clef sign designates the correct line of the staff. To the right of each clef sign write the corresponding mnemonic on the lines and spaces.

III. Create 20 quiz questions and answers from this study guide. Exchange quizzes with a partner and answer the questions. Next, put your questions on flashcards and use them to become fluent with the staff and clef information. Grade yourself after each review.

IV. Create a staff with the applicable clef sign for your instrument or voice. Practice identifying the lines. Point at each line and say its name as quickly as possible while selecting lines in a sequential order going up or down. When speed and accuracy is developed, randomly select the lines to be identified. Repeat the process to develop speed and accuracy identifying the spaces. Finally, practice identifying both lines and spaces together.

Notation

Whole Note Whole Rest Half Note & Rest Quarter Notes & Rest Eighth Notes & Rest

Written notes and rests show how long music should be sounded or silenced. The above nomenclature shows notes and rests on a staff with the corresponding names and counts above the staff.

Notation uses a system of counts. Notes and rests that have the same amount of counts have the same time value and mathematical name. Therefore, whole notes or whole rests get four counts, half notes or rests two counts, quarter notes or rests one count, and eighth notes or rests get one half of a count.

Half counts are illustrated with a plus sign between the count numbers. The plus (+) is called "and." It is played on the second half of the beat (the up portion) when the foot comes up during the foot patting process. In practice, notes or rests are played simultaneously with their counts to ensure that they get the correct span of time in the music.

RHYTHM

Study Guide 3

Rhythm is the long and short pattern of notes in music. The notes and rests have time values that define how long or short they are to be played. These time values are part of the rhythm and pitch notation system. The notation system uses a staff, bar lines, measures, and time signatures.

A staff has five horizontal lines and four spaces. It works with bar lines, measures, and time signatures to notate music. A bar line is a vertical line across the staff that divides it into measures.

A measure is a space between two bar lines that captures the beats that are designated by the time signature. Each beat is counted with a number. So, a beat is also called a count. For example, in 4/4 time which has four beats, the count is (one, two, three, four) for each beat in each measure. Similarly in 3/4 time, the count is (one, two, three) in each measure.

The top number in a time signature tells how many beats are in the measure, and the bottom number tells what type of note gets one beat. For example, in 4/4 time there are four beats and each quarter note gets one beat. Therefore X/8 signifies that an eighth note gets one beat, X/2 signifies that a half note gets one beat, and X/4 signifies that a quarter note gets one beat. So, 4/4 signifies four quarter notes, 6/8 signifies six eighth notes, and 2/2 signifies two half notes.

The time signature depicted with a "C" means common time which is 4/4. The "C" time signature dissected with a vertical line means cut-time which is 2/2.

Time Signatures

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Review Activity:

I. Create 10 quiz questions and answers from this study guide. Exchange quizzes with a partner and answer the questions. Next, put your questions on flashcards and use them to become fluent with the rhythm information. Grade yourself after each review.

II. Set up two staffs with four measures on each by using the appropriate number of bar lines. Place a 4/4 time signature on the top staff and a 3/4 time signature on the bottom staff. Fill each staff with the appropriate number of notes. Then, write the counts above the notes in each measure.

III. Set up two staffs with four measures on each by using the appropriate number of bar lines. Place a 4/4 time signature on the top staff and a 3/4 time signature on the bottom staff. Fill each staff with the appropriate number of rests. Then, write the counts above the rests in each measure. Repeat this activity using both notes and rests in each measure.

Learn "Be Ye Rhythmic" in four bar segments. Beginners can learn up to measure twelve.

1. Pat one foot and sing the name of the notes or say "rest" in time with a steady beat.

2. Pat and clap the rhythm. Be sure to hold the hands together for the full value of each note.

3. Pat the beats along with a metronome and play the notes on an instrument.

Note that the down and up beats of the foot pat should always be equal. Similarly, the hands should remain together for the duration of the up beats as required when clapping notes.

QUELBE STRUMS

Strum Activities

A strum is played by swiping a finger, thumb, or guitar pic across more than one string at a time. Beginners can learn the chord changes using strum number one. Intermediate players, should first pat and count the strum rhythms. Secondly, pat and clap the rhythms to a steady beat. Then, pat and strum the patterns.

Strum 1

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Strum 2

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Strum 3

Guitar diagrams show the low E (sixth) string on the left and the high E (first) string on the right. The shaded dots indicate where each string should be pressed. Strings with no dots may be played "open" (without being pressed) when the diagram has a circle above the string. The chords on the staff represent the highest three notes from the chord diagram above the measure. In this exercise, only the first, second and third string notes are played. Chord diagrams in lead sheets are helpful but not mandatory.

Generally, it is best to locate chords in the same fret position where the melody is played on the guitar. To play a chord with the melody, a guitarist may create a special chord voicing. In the cord melody approach, the melody is typically played on the top two strings; E and B, the harmony on the middle two; G and D, and the bass part on the lower two; A and E.

QUELBE & BAMBOULA RHYTHMS

Quelbe

The quelbe beat accompanies various Virgin Island folk music and dance forms including the quadrille and two-step dances. Although quelbe is a specific form of music, the word quelbe refers to "some music." As the name suggests, quelbe serves as an umbrella term that covers the Virgin Islands folk music genre.

A scratch band is used to play quelbe. The scratch band instrumentation includes acoustic string, percussion and wind instruments. Over the years, acoustic string instruments included the violin, banjo, ukulele, guitar, wash tub bass, and double bass. Other bass instruments used were the marimboula, bass pipe, and subsequently the electric bass guitar. The percussions are triangle, quiro, snare, and hand drums. Wind instruments that have been used are the fife, flute, saxophone, bombadine and trumpet.

Bamboula

The bamboula drum is from the Caribbean African Diaspora while the dance and music can be linked to the Congo in Africa. The bamboula drum itself did not exist in Africa, but because the drum was made for bamboula festivities, it acquired the name bamboula. In the Virgin Islands, it was made from a hollowed tree and skins with the local African influenced drum making craftsmanship.

The bamboula beat was played with the drum laid on its side. A performer straddled the drum to play it with the fingers while periodically pressing the skin with the heel to change the tones. Another player would use kata sticks to play rhythms on the top side of the back of the drum. The drumming provided lively music for improvised group singing and dancing. Modern carnival songs that are highly dependent on syncopation and polyrhythms to evoke frenzied dancing are reminiscent of the bamboula tradition.

BOMBOLO, CARISO & SEVEN STEP RHYTHMS

Bombolo

Bombolo may have been an alternate name for bamboula or a code name considering that bamboula drumming was prohibited.

Cariso

Cariso was sung by a queen, or caller with responders and percussion instruments. The style had notable motivational qualities. Cariso messages apparently impacted the freedom movements of the 1800s.

Seven Step

The seven step rhythms both in 4/4 and 12/8 provide seven beats for seven step music and dance.

Some rhythm sheets use slash notation. Each slash represents a beat. Strum along with the beat and continue strumming a chord if no new chord appears for the following slashes. Read the chords and sing the melody. Listen to distinguish the sound of each chord, and learn to hear when to change chords.

This song is in the key of C major. Therefore, C is the one (I) chord, F is the IV chord and G is the V chord. The order in which chords are played is called a chord progression. Notice that this song has a I, IV, V, I chord progression. Also note that the progression in a verse may be different from the progression in the chorus.

Furthermore, the form is the order in which the verse and chorus sections are played. When the form is noted, it uses letters such as A and B to illustrate the order. Therefore, if a verse is sung two times and the chorus is sung once before the verse is sung again, the form is A, A, B, A.

(Continues...)



Excerpted from The QUELBE Method by Dale Francis Copyright © 2012 by Dale Francis. Excerpted by permission of iUniverse, Inc.. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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Table of Contents

Contents

The Chromatic Scale, study guide 1....................1
Scale & Vocal Syllables....................2
Guitar Chromatic Fingering Chart....................3
Staff and Clef, study guide 2....................4
Staff and Clef, study guide 2 activity....................5
Guitar Finger Chromatics....................6
Rhythm, study guide 3....................7
BE Ye Rhythmic....................8
Quelbe Strums....................9
Quelbe & Bamboula Rhythms....................10
Bombolo, Cariso & Seven Step Rhythms....................11
ROLL ISABELLA ROLL, rhythm sheet....................12
ROLL ISABELLA ROLL, lead sheet....................13
YOUNG GIRL IN THE RING, rhythm sheet....................14
YOUNG GIRL IN THE RING, lead sheet....................15
QUEEN MARY....................16
LA BEGA CAROUSEL....................17
MAMA BAKE A JOHNNY CAKE....................18
GOOD MORNING, GUAVABERRY SONG....................19
BROWN SKIN GIRL....................20
CAROLINE....................21
MERENGUE IN C MINOR....................22
ARABELLA....................23
MAZURKA DE RICO....................24
SOLDIER CRAB....................25
QUADRILLE....................26
SEVEN STEP MELODY....................27
SEEDY BELL....................28
UNCLE HERMAN'S WALTZ....................29
Chromatic Fingering in the Ensemble....................30
Fingering & Positions chart, violin & viola....................31
Chromatic Fingering ..., violin....................32
Chromatic Fingering ..., viola....................33
Fingering & Positions chart, cello & bass....................34
Chromatic Fingering ..., cello....................35
Chromatic Fingering ..., bass....................36
ROLL ISABELLA ROLL, Guitar....................37
ROLL ISABELLA ROLL, Viola....................39
ROLL ISABELLA ROLL, C Ensemble....................41
Bb Lead Sheet....................43
Eb Lead Sheet....................44
F Lead Sheet....................45
Bass Clef Lead Sheet....................46
YOUNG GIRL IN THE RING, Guitar....................47
YOUNG GIRL IN THE RING, Viola....................49
YOUNG GIRL IN THE RING, C Ensemble....................51
YOUNG GIRL IN THE RING, Bb Lead....................53
Eb Lead Sheet....................54
Bass Clef Lead Sheet....................55
Major Scale, study guide 4....................56
QUEEN MARY, Guitar....................57
Queen Mary, Viola....................58
Queen Mary, C Ensemble....................59
Bb Lead Sheet....................60
Eb Lead Sheet....................61
Bass Clef Lead Sheet....................62
The Major Scale Ensemble, guitar....................63
The Major Scale Ensemble, violin....................64
The Major Scale Ensemble, viola....................65
The Major Scale Ensemble, cello....................66
The Major Scale Ensemble, contrabass....................67
LA BEGA CAROUSEL, Guitar....................68
LA BEGA CAROUSEL, Viola....................69
LA BEGA CAROUSEL, C Ensemble....................70
Bb Lead Sheet....................71
Eb Lead Sheet....................72
F Lead Sheet....................73
Bass Clef Lead Sheet....................74
Dotted Rhythm Stew....................75
MAMA BAKE A JOHNNY CAKE, Guitar....................76
MAMA BAKE A JOHNNY CAKE, Viola....................77
MAMA BAKE A JOHNNY CAKE, C Ensemble....................78
Bb Lead Sheet....................79
Eb Lead Sheet....................80
Bass Clef Lead Sheet....................81
GOOD MORNING, GUAVABERRY, Guitar....................82
GOOD MORNING, GUAVABERRY, Viola....................83
GOOD MORNING, GUAVABERRY, C Ensemble....................84
Bb Lead Sheet....................85
Eb Lead Sheet....................86
Bass Clef Lead Sheet....................87
Intervals, study guide 5....................88
BROWN SKIN GIRL, Guitar....................89
BROWN SKIN GIRL, Viola....................91
BROWN SKIN GIRL, C Ensemble....................94
Bb Lead Sheet....................97
Eb Lead Sheet....................98
F Lead Sheet....................99
Bass Clef Lead Sheet....................100
Chords & Harmony, study guide 6....................101
CAROLINE, Guitar....................102
CAROLINE, Viola....................103
CAROLINE, C Ensemble....................104
Bb Lead Sheet....................105
Eb Lead Sheet....................106
Bass Clef Lead Sheet....................107
Diatonic Chords & Intervals, chart....................108
MERENGUE IN C MINOR, Percussion....................109
MERENGUE IN C MINOR, Viola....................112
MERENGUE IN C MINOR, Piano....................115
Bb Lead Sheet....................118
Eb Lead Sheet....................119
F Lead Sheet....................120
Bass Clef Lead Sheet....................121
Triple Meter Kallalloo....................122
ARABELLA, Guitar....................123
ARABELLA, Viola....................125
ARABELLA, C Ensemble....................127
Bb Lead Sheet....................129
Eb Lead Sheet....................130
Bass Clef Lead Sheet....................131
MAZURKA DE RICO, Guitar....................132
MAZURKA DE RICO, Viola....................134
MAZURKA DE RICO, C Ensemble....................136
Bb Lead Sheet....................138
Eb Lead Sheet....................139
Bass Clef Lead Sheet....................140
Key Signature, study guides 7 & 8....................141
Quelbe Diatonic Chord Etude....................143
SOLDIER CRAB, Guitar....................144
SOLDIER CRAB, Viola....................146
SOLDIER CRAB, C Ensemble....................148
Bb Lead Sheet....................150
Eb Lead Sheet....................151
Bass Clef Lead Sheet....................152
Quelbe Improvisational Figures, study....................153
QUADRILLE, Guitar....................156
QUADRILLE, Viola....................157
QUADRILLE, C Ensemble....................158
QUADRILLE, F Ensemble....................159
Bb Lead Sheet....................160
Eb Lead Sheet....................161
Bass Clef Lead Sheet....................162
SEVEN STEP MELODY, Guitar....................163
SEVEN STEP MELODY, Viola....................165
SEVEN STEP MELODY, C Ensemble....................167
SEVEN STEP MELODY, Bb Ensemble....................169
SEVEN STEP MELODY, Eb Ensemble....................171
SEVEN STEP MELODY, F Ensemble....................173
Bb Lead Sheet....................175
Eb Lead Sheet....................176
F Lead Sheet....................177
Bass Clef Lead Sheet....................178
Major Scale Diatonic Chord Etude....................179
SEEDY BELL, Guitar....................180
SEEDY BELL, Viola....................182
SEEDY BELL, C Ensemble....................185
Bb Lead Sheet....................188
Eb Lead Sheet....................189
F Lead Sheet....................190
Bass Clef Lead Sheet....................191
TWO STEP, Violin 1....................192
TWO STEP, Violin 2....................193
TWO STEP, Viola....................194
TWO STEP, Cello....................195
TWO STEP, Contra bass....................196
UNCLE HERMAN'S WALTZ, Guitar....................197
UNCLE HERMAN'S WALTZ, Viola....................200
UNCLE HERMAN'S WALTZ, C Ensemble....................203
Bb Lead Sheet....................206
Eb Lead Sheet....................207
F Lead Sheet....................208
Bass Clef Lead Sheet....................209
Chromatic Fingering ..., score....................210
The Major Scale Ensemble, score....................213
Two Step, score....................216
Quelbe Method Class Activities....................222
Quelbe Method Data & Activities....................223
Guitar Class Curriculum Guide....................228
Guitar Technique....................229
Chromatic scale, study guide 1 TEST....................230
Staff & Clef, study guide 2 TEST....................231
Rhythm, study guide 3 TEST....................232
Major Scale, study guide 4 TEST....................233
Major Scale, chart....................234
Chord/Harmony Exercises, Part 1....................235
Chord/Harmony Exercises, Pt 2....................236
Sharp Key Signature, activity....................237
Flat Key Signatures, activity....................238
Sharp Key Signatures, study guide 7 TEST....................239
Flat Key Signatures, study guide 8 TEST....................240
References....................241
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