The Republic

( 8 )

Overview

Without doubt the greatest and most provocative work of political philosophy ever produced in the West, The Republic is here presented in the stately and melodious Jowett translation-a perfect mirror of the beauty of Plato's style.

Beginning as an inquiry into justice as it operates in individuals, The Republic soon becomes an inquiry into the problems of constructing the perfect state. Are the masses really qualified to choose virtuous leaders? Should the rulers of a state ...

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Overview

Without doubt the greatest and most provocative work of political philosophy ever produced in the West, The Republic is here presented in the stately and melodious Jowett translation-a perfect mirror of the beauty of Plato's style.

Beginning as an inquiry into justice as it operates in individuals, The Republic soon becomes an inquiry into the problems of constructing the perfect state. Are the masses really qualified to choose virtuous leaders? Should the rulers of a state receive a special education to prepare them to exercise power virtuously? What should such an education consist of? Should artists who do not use their gifts in a morally responsible way still be allowed a place in society? The Republic's answers to these and related questions make up a utopian (or, perhaps, dystopian) program that challenges many of the modern world's most dearly held assumptions-and leads us to reexamine and better understand those assumptions.

Author Biography:
Plato (c. 427-347 B.C.) was born into a wealthy and prominent family, and grew up during the conflict between Athens and the Peloponnesian states. The execution of his mentor, Socrates, in 399 B.C. on charges of irreligion and corrupting the young, necessitated Plato's leaving Athens. He traveled to Egypt as well as to southern Italy, where he became conversant with Pythagorean philosophy. Plato returned to Athens c. 387 B.C. and founded the Academy, an early forerunner of the modern university. Aristotle was among his students.

The most important of the Socratic dialogues, The Republic is concerned with the construction of an ideal commonwealth and thus is the earliest of utopias.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

"Joe Sachs, known and respected for his excellent translations of Aristotle, deserves great praise for this new translation of Plato's Republic. Based on the latest definitive edition of the Greek text and guided by a sense that Greek in English need not read like an old, foreign tongue, Sachs' translation captures the flow of the conversation in an English that reads smoothly, even when the ideas expressed force one to pause and look again. Fluid, yet accurate, Sachs' translation allows the thoughtful reader deeper entry into this all-important book. The editorial guides and typographical signs to remind the reader of who has joined the argument most recently are all highly helpful and most welcome. I look forward to reading this with students."
—Charles E. Butterworth, University of Maryland
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781484953839
  • Publisher: CreateSpace Publishing
  • Publication date: 5/14/2013
  • Pages: 324
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 0.68 (d)

Meet the Author

Plato (424/423 BC[a] - 348/347 BC), was a Classical Greek philosopher, mathematician, student of Socrates, writer of philosophical dialogues, and founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. Along with his mentor, Socrates, and his student, Aristotle, Plato helped to lay the foundations of Western philosophy and science.
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Read an Excerpt


Socrates: I went down yesterday to Piraeus with Glaucon, Ariston’s son, to pray to the goddess, wanting at the same time also to see the way they were going to hold the festival, since they were now conducting it for the first time. The parade of the local residents seemed to me to be beautiful, while the one that the Thracians put on looked no less appropriate. And having prayed and having seen, we went off toward the city. Spotting us from a distance then as we headed home, Polemarchus, Cephalus’s son, ordered his slave to run and order us to wait for him. And grabbing me from behind by my cloak, the slave said “Polemarchus orders you to wait.” And I turned around and asked him where the man himself was. “He’s coming along from behind,” he said. “Just wait.” “Certainly we’ll wait” said Glaucon.
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Table of Contents

Preface and background to the Republic xiii

Introduction xxiii

Principal Dates xlvii

Current Opinions of Justice Refuted (Book 1) 1

Introductory Dialogue (Socrates and Cephalus, 328c-331d) 2

First Definition (Cephalus, 331a-d) 5

Refutation (332c-335d) 6

Third Definition (Thrasymachus, 338c-343a) 13

Refutation (339b-e) 14

Redefinition of Ruler (340d-341a) 15

Refutation (341c-343a) 16

New Argument (343a-348a) 18

Refutations of (a): i) 345b-348a) 20

Refutation of (b), 352d-354a 28

Conclusion (354a-c) 30

Justice Reexamined, in the State and in the Individual (Books 2-4) 31

Adeimantus (362d-367e) 35

The Problem Examined and Solved (368c-445e) 40

Second State of the State (372d-427c) 44

Elementary Education of the guardians (376c-415d) 48

Gymnastics (physical education), 403c-412b 73

Instilling and testing patriotism and leadership, 412c-415d 81

Living arrangements of guardians and auxiliaries (415d-427c) 85

Conclusion (427c-434d) 94

Wisdom = the knowledge of the guardians (428a-429a) 95

Courage = the auxiliaries’ opinion of “what is and is not to be feared” (429a-30c) 96

Temperance = agreement of all three classes about who should rule and be ruled (430d-432b) 97

Justice = each of the three classes “tending its own business” and not preempting the work of another (432b-434d) 99

Composition of the Soul (434d-441c) 101

Conclusion (441d-444e) 109

Degeneration Regimes and Souls, Interrupted (445b-449a) 113

Digression: The Best Regime and Men (Books 5-7) 114

Organization of the Best Regime (451c-461e) 116

Women and children will not be private possessions but common to all of the men. Marriage arrangements, eugenics (457c-461e) 122

The Superiority and Possibility of Such a City (462a-473e) 126

Excursus: regulations for warfare (466e-471c) 131

Such a city is not impossible (471e-473c) 136

Reminder that the best state is only a model, not completely realizable in practice (472b-473b). It is possible only if philosophers become kings or kings philosophers (473c-3), 138

The Best Men: Philosopher Kings (Guardians), Book 5, 474b-Book 7 139

The Philosophic Nature (485a-503e) 147

Higher Education of the Guardians (504a-535a) 165

The Simple of the Sun (506e-509b) 168

The Simile of the Divided Line (509d-511e) 171

The Simile of the Cave (514a-521b) 174

Curriculum (521c-535a) 181

Plane geometry, 526c-527c 186

Harmonics, 530d-531c 190

Selection of the Guardians (535a-540c) 195

Brief Excursus (540d-541b) 200

Degenerate Regimes and Souls, Resumed From Book 5 (Books 8 and 9) 201

Cause of Change or Decline in a State: Civil War (545c-547c) 203

Degenerate Regimes and Men, Described and Compared (547c-592b) 205

Oilgarchy (rule of the wealthy few) and the oligarchic man (550c-555b) 208

Democracy (rule of the people) and the democratic man (555b-562a) 213

Tyranny (dictatorship) and the tyrannical man (562a-580a) 220

The five types are judged for their goodness and happiness and ranked in the order in which they were presented: Aristocracy and the aristocratic man are the best and happiness; tyranny and the tyrant are the worst and most miserable (580a-588a) 237

Conclusion: The aristocrat is just, the tyrant unjust. Therefore justice makes a man happy, injustice makes him unhappy (588b-592b) 247

Denunciation of Imitative Poetry (Book 10, 595a-608b) 251

Imitative poetry appeals to the emotions rather than to the mind (602c-605c) 259

Imitative poetry deforms character (605c-608b) 263

Immortality and the Rewards of Justice (608b-End) 265

Rewards of Justice and Punishments of Injustice in This Life (612b-614a) 269

Rewards and Punishments After Death (614a-621d) 271

Appendix: The Spindle of Necessity 279

Bibliography 283

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Customer Reviews

Average Rating 4.5
( 8 )
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  • Anonymous

    Posted January 11, 2014

    Hi

    Test

    1 out of 1 people found this review helpful.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted January 11, 2014

    Hi

    Test

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  • Posted September 11, 2013

    The Republic was written by a philosopher named Plato in a Socra

    The Republic was written by a philosopher named Plato in a Socratic method around 380 BC. Plato starts off by discussing the definition of justice and the order and character of the just man in the city-state where he is from. He challenges what people think of Justice. He summarizes that Justice is the interest of the stronger when other people in the time period; and additionally onto today the majority of persons would argue that Justice is the equivalent to equalizing powers of the many social classes when in reality it drives a greater wedge into these classes. Plato writes down what Socrates deducts from multiple sources to answer questions to make the question more reasonable than what it started off to be. The argument/ debate is done in a dialogue. It is Plato's best-known work is proven to be one of the basis for philosophy and political theory.

    Additionally, Socrates and other Athenian and Greek philosophers discuss the meaning of justice and examine just man and unjust man by examining different societies in this time period and other places around the world. Plato along with all the other philosophers spread a theory of a perfect governing body/ administration that includes a city and an oligharchial (this is the term I have decided to use to suggest for Plato's Ideal Governing Administration) ruled the few intellectual philosophers and everything in the city should be revolved around intellect. He examined the techniques used in the existing regimes and discussed the advantages and disadvantages to each of them. The extensive list of philosophers included immortality of the soul and the roles of philosophers and other occupations in the societies mentioned. I would recommend this book to any philosphy major/ government officiates and intend that if regarded in close possession should intend to make the world a better place.

    Number of Remaining Characters:1587

    0 out of 1 people found this review helpful.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted October 18, 2009

    Good, but perhaps spend a bit more on a better version

    The book itself is good and this particular version is competitively priced, but just be aware that if you're buying this for a class, it has no becker numbers in the margins which make it a pain in the butt when the whole class isn't using the same book.

    0 out of 1 people found this review helpful.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted May 18, 2003

    Good Luck.

    First Off, Plato is the Greek Moses. To all us Goyim, or heathens, (i.e.) anything other then Jew:) This be our prophet. Some body on this short list said, '..this book is thought provoking', O.K. .... This whole book is THOUGHT provoking. The Whole Book is about thought or IDEAS!!! That other guy who said 'every university sudent should read'; That quote applies to you. For those who never read anything about Plato, or know nothing, about his Philosophy, or what Philosophy means. This is where it starts. This is where you awake, and see a brief flicker of light. What I mean is, your present conceptions or Justice, or the Good, will be shattered. If I am stronger then my brother, I can rule over him, and that is right and just! wrong. It is good to be rich so that I may bang every women that still breathes air. wrong. and much more. Much, much more awaits you in this book:)

    0 out of 1 people found this review helpful.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted March 3, 2002

    the gratest book ever

    see headline

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  • Anonymous

    Posted December 20, 2008

    No text was provided for this review.

  • Anonymous

    Posted March 29, 2010

    No text was provided for this review.

  • Anonymous

    Posted November 2, 2008

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  • Anonymous

    Posted November 12, 2013

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