The Science of Defoaming: Theory, Experiment and Applications / Edition 2

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In the 20 years since the publication of the author’s multi-contributor volume on defoaming, a vast amount of new work has been published and many new insights have been revealed. A cohesive, single-authored book, The Science of Defoaming: Theory, Experiment and Applications provides comprehensive coverage of the topic. It describes the mode of action of antifoams, presenting the relevant theory and the supporting experimental evidence. Beginning with an introductory chapter that discusses the intrinsic properties of foam, the book then describes experimental methods for measuring foam properties important for studying antifoam action and techniques used in establishing the mode of action of antifoams.

Since most commercially effective antifoams are oil based, a chapter is devoted to the entry and spreading behavior of oils and the role of thin film forces in determining that behavior. The book reviews the mode of action of antifoams, including theories of antifoam mechanisms and the role of bridging foam films by particles and oil drops. It also addresses issues related to the effect of antifoam concentration on foam formation by air entrainment and the process of deactivation of mixed oil–particle antifoams during dispersal and foam generation.

For applications where chemical antifoam use is unacceptable, the text examines mechanical means of defoaming, such as the use of rotary devices and ultrasound. The final chapters consider the application of defoaming in radically different contexts including waterborne latex paints and varnishes, machine washing of textiles, gas–oil separation in crude oil production, and cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Focusing on the basic science of defoaming, this book presents a balanced view, which also addresses the challenges that may arise for these specific defoaming applications.

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Editorial Reviews

Reviews the known mechanisms for controlling foam in a variety of industries, including crude oil production, detergent manufacture, pharmaceuticals, textile dying, and brewing. Discusses the theory of the mode of action of synergistic oil/particle antifoams now used, details the origins of problems, draws heavily on the patent literature to survey solutions, and offers ideas for the design of new antifoam agents. For chemists, engineers, and graduate students in relevant fields. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781420060416
  • Publisher: Taylor & Francis
  • Publication date: 7/18/2013
  • Series: Surfactant Science Series
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 598
  • Product dimensions: 6.10 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 1.50 (d)

Meet the Author

After working for Unilever Research for almost thirty years at Port Sunlight and for a short time at Bangalore, Peter Garrett retired, acquiring visiting professorships at the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom and briefly at Rice University, Houston, Texas. He has worked on various aspects of interfacial science in a career lasting 40 years. These included the equilibrium and dynamic adsorption behavior of surfactant solutions, solubilization in microemulsions, kinetics of surfactant dissolution and mesophase growth, and of course both the basic science of defoaming and its application especially in the detergents industry.

Professor Garrett is author or coauthor of more than 30 journal articles and is named as inventor on 14 patents, the majority of which concerned the application of antifoam technology. He is also editor of the book Defoaming, Theory and Applications published in 1993. A member of the Royal Society of Chemistry, he received his Ph.D. from the University of Leicester in the United Kingdom in 1971.

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Table of Contents

Some General Properties of Foams
The Structure of Foams
Foam Films
Processes Accompanying Aging of Foam
Summarizing Remarks

Experimental Methods for Study of Foam and Antifoam Action
Measurement of Foam
Observations With Single Foam Films
Air–Water–Oil Pseudoemulsion Films
Spreading Behavior of Oils
Summarizing Remarks

Oils at Interfaces: Entry Coefficients, Spreading Coefficients, and Thin Film forces
Classical Entry and Spreading Coefficients
Generalized Entry Coefficients, Pseudoemulsion Films, and Thin Film forces
Mode of Rupture of Pseudoemulsion Films
Generalized Spreading Coefficients and Thin Film forces
Spreading Behavior of Typical Antifoam Oils at Aqueous Surfaces
Non-Equilibrium Effects due to Surfactant Transport
Summarizing Remarks

Mode of Action of Antifoams
Antifoam Effects due to Solubilized Oils
Effect on Foamability of Mesophase Precipitation in Aqueous Surfactant Solutions
Surface Tension Gradients and Theories of Antifoam Mechanism
Oil Bridges and Antifoam Mechanism
Antifoam Behavior of Emulsified Liquids
Inert Hydrophobic Particles and Capillary Theories of Antifoam Mechanism for Aqueous Systems
Mixtures of Hydrophobic Particles and Oils as Antifoams for Aqueous Systems
Summarizing Remarks
Appendix 4.1: Some Examples of Early Antifoam Patents Concerning Mixtures of Hydrophobic Particles and Oils

Effect of Antifoam Concentration on Volumes of Foam Generated by Air Entrainment
Statistical Theory of Antifoam Action
Summarizing Remarks
Appendix 5.1: Effect of Excluded Volume on Antifoam Concentration in A Film Exhibiting Reynolds Drainage

Deactivation of Mixed Oil–Particle Antifoams During Dispersal and Foam Generation in Aqueous Media
Deactivation of Antifoam Effect of Polydimethylsiloxane Oils Without Particles
Early Work With Hydrophobed Silica–Polydimethylsiloxane Antifoams
Deactivation of Hydrophobed Silica–Polydimethylsiloxane Antifoams By Disproportionation
Effect of Oil Viscosity on Deactivation of Hydrophobed Silica–Polydimethylsiloxane Antifoams
Deactivation in Other Types of Oil–Particle Antifoams
Theories of Foam Volume Growth in Presence of Deactivating Antifoam
Summarizing Remarks

Mechanical Methods for Defoaming
Defoaming Using Rotary Devices
Defoaming Using Ultrasound
Defoaming Using Packed Beds of Appropriate Wettability
Summarizing Remarks
Appendix 7.1: Summary of Empirical Studies of Mechanical Defoaming by Rotary Devices

Antifoams for Detergent Products
Powders for Machine Washing of Laundry
Liquids for Machine Washing of Laundry
Machine Dishwashing
General Hard-Surface Cleaning Products
Summarizing Remarks
Appendix 8.1: Examples of Patents Claiming Incorporation of Polysiloxane-Hydrophobed Silica Antifoams in Detergent Powders for Machine Washing of Textiles

Control of Foam in Waterborne Latex Paints and Varnishes
Foam and Antifoam Behaviour
Specific Issues Concerning Oil-Based Antifoams
Summarizing Remarks

Antifoams for Gas–Oil Separation in Crude Oil Production
Surface Activity at Gas–Hydrocarbon and Gas–Crude Oil interfaces
Causes of Foam formation in Gas–Crude Oil Systems
Use of Antifoams
Summarizing Remarks

Medical Applications of Defoaming
Use of Simethicone Antifoam in Treatment of Gastrointestinal Gas
Defoaming of Blood During Cardiopulmonary Bypass Surgery
Summarizing Remarks

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