The Science of Nutrition

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781615309207
  • Publisher: Britannica Educational Publishing
  • Publication date: 12/15/2012
  • Series: Britannica Food and Society Series
  • Pages: 248
  • Age range: 14 - 17 Years
  • Product dimensions: 9.00 (w) x 6.20 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Table of Contents

Introduction xii

Ch. 1 Food and the Human Body 1

The Utilization of Food by the Body 4

Calories and Kilocalories: Energy Supply 4

BMR and REE: Energy Balance 6

Body Mass, Body Fat, and Body Water 9

Body Mass Index 10

Dietary and Nutrient Recommendations 11

Dietary Guidelines 12

Food Guide Pyramids and Other Aids 12

Adapting Guidelines to Culture 14

Nutrient Recommendations 16

Dietary Reference Intakes 17

Nutrition Throughout the Life Cycle 19

Pregnancy and Lactation 19

Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence 21

Adulthood 24

Elsie Widdowson 26

Ch. 2 The Essential Nutrients 28

Carbohydrates 28

Glucose 29

Sir Norman Haworth 30

Other Sugars and Starch 30

Dietary Fibre 32

Lipids 34

Triglycerides 34

Phospholipids 36

Sterols 37

Proteins 38

Amino Acids 39

Protein Intake 41

Vitamins 42

Minerals 43

Water 46

Ch. 3 The Vitamins 49

Biological Significance of Vitamins 49

Discovery and Original Designation 51

Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins 52

Regulatory Role 54

Sources 55

Requirements in Living Things 56

Results of Deficiencies 57

Evolution of Vitamin-Dependent Organisms 57

The Water-Soluble Vitamins 58

Basic Properties 58

Functions 59

Metabolism 60

The Fat-Soluble Vitamins 61

Chemical Properties 62

Vitamin A Group 62

Vitamin D Group 63

Adolf Windaus 64

Vitamin E Group 64

Vitamin K Group 65

Functions 65

Metabolism 66

Vitamin-Like Substances 67

Choline 67

Myo-Inositol 68

Para-Aminobenzoic Acid 68

Carnitine 69

Lipoic Acid and Bioflavinoids 69

Determination of Vitamin Sources 69

Physicochemical Methods 70

Microbiological Assay 70

Animal Assay 70

Determination of Vitamin Requirements 72

Ch. 4 The Food Groups and Regulation of Food Intake 74

The Food Groups 74

Cereals 74

Ellen Swallow Richards 75

Starchy Roots 78

Legumes 79

Vegetables and Fruits 79

Getting the most from fruit 80

Sugars, Preserves, and Syrups 80

Meat, Fish, and Eggs 81

Milk and Milk Products 82

Fats and Oils 85

Beverages 86

Regulation of Food Intake 87

Specific Hungers 87

Caloric Regulation 88

Appetite 91

Satiety 91

Dieting 92

Ch. 5 Nutritional Irregularities 93

Malnutrition 93

Protein-Energy Malnutrition 95

Kwashiorkor Syndrome 96

Marasmus 97

John Boyd Orr 98

Carbohydrate Deficiency 99

Deficiencies in Essential Fatty Acids 100

Mineral Deficiencies 101

Iron Deficiency 101

Iodine Deficiency 103

Zinc Deficiency 105

Calcium Deficiency 106

Fluoride Deficiency 107

Sodium Deficiency 108

Chlorine Deficiency 108

Potassium Deficiency 109

Mineral Toxicity 110

Dehydration 113

Ch. 6 Vitamin Deficiency and Toxicity 117

Vitamin A Deficiency 117

Vitamin D Deficiency 119

Rickets 120

Osteomalacia 124

Vitamin E Deficiency 124

Vitamin K Deficiency 125

Deficiencies in B Vitamins 126

Thiamin Deficiency 126

Beriberi 127

Riboflavin Deficiency 128

Niacin Deficiency and Pellagra 129

Vitamin B6 Deficiency 130

Folic Acid Deficiency and Anemia 130

Vitamin B12 Deficiency 133

Pantothenic Acid and Biotin Deficiencies 135

Vitamin C Deficiency 136

James Lind 137

Vitamin Toxicity 138

Ch. 7 The Role of Diet in Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer 141

Cardiovascular Disease 142

Hypertension 144

Metabolic Syndrome 146

Dean Ornish 147

Blood Lipoproteins 149

Dietary Fat 150

Dietary Cholesterol 153

Other Dietary Factors 153

Other Factors 154

Cancer 156

Colorectal Cancer 160

Prostate Cancer 160

Breast Cancer 161

Ch. 8 The Role of Diet in Diabetes and Gastrointestinal Health 163

Diabetes Mellitus and Metabolic Disorders 163

Hypoglycemia 168

Obesity and Weight Control 170

Eating Disorders 172

Anorexia Nervosa 173

Bulimia Nervosa 177

Heartburn and Peptic Ulcer 179

Bowel Conditions and Diseases 180

Tooth Decay 181

Ch. 9 Food and Environmental Factors 184

Food-Drug Interactions 184

Food Allergies and Intolerances 185

Toxins in Foods 189

Chemicals and Food Safety 191

Acrylamide Toxicity 192

Misuse of Melamine 193

Foodborne Illnesses 195

German E. coli Outbreak of 2011 196

Conclusion 200

Appendix: Tables 201

Glossary 212

Bibliography 214

Index 218

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