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RULES FOR HOUSEHOLD.
Food is anything that nourishes the body. Food is classified thus:
Average adult requires' daily : oz. proteid, 10 oz. starch, 3 oz. fat, 1 oz. salt, 5 pints water.
Relative Value of Foods—It has often been claimed that an egg was equal to a pound of beef in nutrition. Such is not the case, though eggs stand high on the list. The following comparison will no doubt be interesting:
Muscle Heat and
Water etc. Making. Fat Making
Beef 50.0 15.0 30.0
Turkey 44.7 22.9 16.1
Eggs in shell 79.0 15.0 27.0
Oysters (solid) 78.2 12.8 1.6
Milk 86.0 5.0 8.0
Butter ... ... all
Cheese 10.0 65.0 19.0
Potatoes 75.2 1.4 22.5
Oatmeal 13.6 17.0 66.4
Wheat Break 14.0 14.6 69.4
A half-pint cup is the standard. They can be had with fourths and thirds indicated.
A cupful is a cup filled LEVEL with the top.
A spoonful is a spoon filled LEVEL with the top. Run the back of a case knife along the bowl of spoon, to level off the top.
Half a spoonful is obtained by dividing through the middle lengthwise.
A speck of anything is what will lie within a space inch square.
3 teaspoons equal 1 tablespoon.
4 tablespoons equal cup.
2 cups granulated sugar equal 1 pound.
2 cups butter equal 1 pound.
4 cups sifted flour equal 1 pound.
2 cups solid meat equal 1 pound.
2 tablespoons butter, sugar, salt, equal 1 ounce.
1 tablespoon liquid equals ounce.
SETTING THE TABLE.
If possible, have a table with square ends. Use clean linen, no matter how coarse and cheap. Have the cloth long and wide enough to hang well around the table. Under the linen cloth have another cloth of some other soft and heavy material. Place the center of the table-cloth in the center of the table, smooth it into place, and have the folds straight with the edge of the table.
RULES FOR PLACING THE DISHES.
The table should look as neat and attractive as pos- sible. Place everything straight upon the table. Turn no dishes upside down. A waiter passes food to the left side of each person, except beverages, which should be placed at the right. In placing a dish in front of a person, the waiter should stand at the right. Food and dishes are removed from the right. To clear the table, remove all dishes from each place, then the meat and vegetables. Remove crumbs from the cloth before bringing in dessert.
RULES FOR WAITING ON THE TABLE.
Always heat the dishes in which warm food is served. Never fill the glasses and cups more than three-quarters full. When passing a plate, hold it so that the thumb will not rest on the upper surface. When refilling the glasses, take hold of them near the bottom and draw them to the edge of the table, then remove them from the table. In passing dishes from which a person is to help himself to a portion, pass it always from the left side, so that it may be taken with the right hand. Place the dish on a tray and hold it low and near to the person who is being served. In passing individual dishes from which the person does not help himself—such as coffee, etc.—set it down slowly and easily from the right hand side. When the dishes are being served by a person at the table, stand at the left hand of that person, hold your tray low and near the table, and take on the tray one plate at a time and place it before the person for whom it is intended, setting it down from the right side. Serve first the most honored guest. When one course is finished, take the tray in the left hand, and stand on the left side of the person you are waiting upon, and remove with your right hand the spoons, knives and forks. Then remove the plate and small dishes, never piling them on top of each other, but removing them one at a time. Fill the glasses before every course. Before the dessert is served, remove the crumbs from the cloth, either with a brush or crumb knife. Do not let the table become disordered during the meal. The hostess should serve the soup, salad, dessert and coffee, and, at a family dinner, the vegetables and entrées. The host serves the fish and meat.
TO CLEAR THE TABLE AFTER A MEAL.
Brush the crumbs from the floor. Arrange the chairs in their places. Collect and remove the knives, forks and spoons. Empty the cups and remove them. Scrape off the dishes— never set any food away on the dishes used for serving—pile them up neatly and remove to the place where they are to be washed. Brush the crumbs from the cloth and fold it carefully in the old crease, as it lays on the table. If the napkins are used again, place them neatly folded in their individual rings.
Have a pan half filled with hot water. If dishes are very dirty or greasy, add a little washing soda ot ammonia.
Wash glasses first. Slip them in sideways, one at a time, and wipe instantly.
Wash the silver and wipe at once, and it will keep bright.
Then wash the china, beginning with the cups, saucers, pitchers, and least greasy dishes, and changing the water as soon as cool or greasy.
Rinse the dishes in a pan of scalding water, take out and drain quickly.
Then wash the kitchen dishes, pots, kettles, pans, etc.
A Dover egg-beater should not be left to soak in water, or it will be hard to run. Keep the handles clean, wipe the wire with a damp cloth immediately after using.
Kitchen knives and forks should never be placed in dish water. Scour them with brick dust, wash with dish cloth, and wipe them dry.
Tinware, granite ironware should be washed in hot soda water, and if browned, rub with sapolio, salt or baking soda. Use wire dish cloth if food sticks to dishes.
Keep strainer in sink and pour all dish water, etc., in it, and remove contents of strainer in garbage pail.
Wash towels with plenty of soap, and rinse thoroughly every time they are used.
Hang towels up evenly to dry. Wash dish cloths.
Scrub desk boards with brush and sapolio, working with the grain of the wood, rinse and dry.
When scrubbing, wet brush and apply sapolio or soap with upward strokes.
Wash dish pans, wipe and dry.
Wash your hands with white (castile or ivory) soap, if you wish to keep smooth hands, and wipe them dry.
Scrub sink with clean hot suds.
TO BUILD A FIRE.
It is necessary to have:
1st, Fuel.—Something to burn.
2nd, Heat.—To make fuel hot enough to burn.
3rd, Air.—To keep the fire burning.
TO DUST A ROOM.
Begin at one corner and take each article in turn as you come to it. Dust it from the highest things to the lowest, taking up the dust in the cloth. Shake the duster occasionally in a suitable place, and when through, wash and hang it up to dry.
In sweeping a room, sweep from you, holding the broom close to the floor.CHAPTER 2
* * *
A beverage is any drink. Water is a beverage, and is an essential to life. All beverages contain a large percentage of water, and aid to quench thirst, to introduce water into the system and regulate the temperature ; to assist in carrying off waste; to nourish; to stimulate the nervous system and various organs. Freshly boiled water should be used for making hot beverages; freshly drawn water for making cold beverages.
COMPOSITION OF MILK.
Proteids, 3.4%. Mineral matter, 7%. Lactose, 4.9%. Fat, 4%. Water, 87%.
Vessels used for milk must be thoroughly cleansed ; they should be first washed in clear, cold water. Fill them with water in which a teaspoon of borax or bicarbonate of soda has been dissolved, and let stand one hour. Then scald, wipe thoroughly, and stand in the sun or near the stove to dry.
Cover milk with muslin and keep in a cold place. Milk may be sterilized or pasteurized to destroy disease germs.
In summer, milk should be sterilized twice a day, for babies or young children.
Sterilize milk bottles or jars by boiling them twenty minutes in water. Remove them, fill two-thirds full of milk, and cork with baked or absorbent cotton, or with rubber corks which have been sterilized. Place the bottle on a wire stand in a kettle of hot water, heat the water gradually, until a scum forms over the top of the milk. Keep it at that temperature forty minutes; then remove the bottles and cool them quickly by placing them in cold or iced water. Keep the bottles in a cool place.
1 cup coffee, finely ground,
6 cups freshly boiling
Place coffee in strainer, strainer in coffee pot and pot over slow fire. Add gradually the boiling water and allow it to filter or drip. Cover between additions of water. If desired stronger, refilter. Serve at once, with cut sugar, cream or scalded milk. Put sugar and cream in cup, then add the hot coffee.
1 heaping teaspoon ground
1 cup of freshly boiling
1 cup ground coffee to
1 qt, freshly boiling water.
Mix the coffee with a clean eggshell and a little cold water, and place in a well aired coffee pot. Add the freshly boiling water, and boil five minutes. Let stand on back of stove ten minutes, Add one-half cup cold water.
NOTE—CoSee should be freshly ground and kept in air-tight cans. A favorite coffee is 2-3 Java and 1-3 Mocha.
1 qt. milk, or
1 qt. milk and water
2 oz. chocolate.
NOTE—One ounce chocolate equals one small square.
Melt the chocolate over hot water, or in the oven, add the sugar, and then the hot liquid slowly. Boil five minutes directly over the heat; beat well and serve. If the sweet chocolate is used, omit the sugar.
1 cup milk,
1 cup cold water,
2 teaspoons cocoa,
2 scant teaspoons sugar.
Scald the milk. In a sauce pan put the cocoa, sugar and cold water. Boil one minute, then add it to the scalded milk. Taste, and add more sugar, if needed.
1 teaspoon tea,
1 cup freshly boiling
Pour the water on the tea in an earthen teapot. Let stand five minutes, strain and serve.
1 tablespoon flaxseed,
1 tablespoon sugar,
Juice of 1 lemon,
1 cup cold water.
Wash the flaxseed thoroughly, put it with the cold water into a sauce pan. Let it simmer one or two hours. Add lemon juice and sugar to taste. Serve hot.
* * *
Strain freshly made tea into glasses one-third full of cracked ice. Sweeten to taste. A slice of lemon may be added, seeds removed.
4 tablespoons sugar,
2 cups water.
Extract the juice of one lemon with a lemon squeezer. Add the sugar and water and stir till dissolved. Add chipped ice if desired.
NOTE—The water may be poured over the sugar boiling hot, in which case, cover and allow to stand until cool, and then add the lemon juice.
Follow same rule as for lemonade, adding a little lemon juice.
LEMONADE FOR 150 PEOPLE.
5 doz. lemons, squeeezd,
1 doz. oranges, sliced,
1 can or a fresh pineapple,
6 pounds sugar,
6 gallons water,
The rule is one pound of sugar to every dozen of fruit. If pineapple is fresh, add one more pound of sugar. Mix sugar with fruit and juice, and let stand. When ready to serve add water and ice, to keep cool.
NOTE—The sugar and some water may be boiled to a syrup, allowed to cool, and the fruit and juices added afterward.
1 cup hot milk,
2 teaspoons sugar,
1 small lemon.
Heat the milk in a double boiler, add the juice of the lemon. Cook until the curd separates, then strain through a cheese cloth. Add the sugar. Serve hot or cold.
Wash the rhubarb, cut in one-half inch lengths. Put into a bowl, add the peel, sugar and boiling water. Cover and set away to cool. Strain and serve cold. Pink stalks will give the water a pretty color.
¼ cup grape juice,
1 teaspoon lemon juice,
¾ cup cold water,
Sugar to taste.
Mix sugar with strained grape juice, add lemon juice and water. A slice of orange or pineapple may also be added.
½ cup milk.
White of 1 egg.
Put white of egg in a tumbler, add milk, cover tightly, and shake thoroughly until well mixed.
Beat the yolk of one egg, add one tablespoon sugar, and beat until light. Add one-half cup of milk. Beat the white of the egg well and fold it in lightly. Add one-half teaspoon vanilla or a little grated nutmeg.
1/3 whiskey (Sheridan rye),
1/3 Vermuth bitters,
And add a dash of angostura, apricotine and orange bitters, and a slice of lemon peel.
Sweeten to taste.
WASHINGTON PUNCH FOR 12 PEOPLE.
One-half pineapple, sliced fine and sprinkle liberally with granulated sugar. Add one-half bottle Rhine or Moselle wine, and set aside for twenty-four hours to ripen; then strain and add two bottles Rhine wine, one bottle claret, and the remainder of the pineapple, sliced fine. Just before serving, add one quart champagne. Either use a large piece of ice to cool, or have the wines ice cold before mixing.
EGG MILK PUNCH.
One egg, three teaspoons fine sugar, fill half full ice, one wineglass brandy, two tablespoons St. Croix rum, fill with milk, shake well and strain into large glass, grating nutmeg on top.
CHAMPAGNE PUNCH FOR 12 PEOPLE.
3 qts. champagne,
¼ pt. maraschino,
½ pt. imported brandy,
¼ lb. loaf sugar,
2 lemons, sliced fine,
2 oranges, sliced fine,
Or any fruit in season. If not sweet enough, add more sugar. Just before using, add a large piece ot ice.
CLARET CUP No. I.
3 lemons (juice),
6 tablespoons sugar,
1 sherry glass curacoa,
1 slice cucumber rind, and
a bunch of fresh mint,
3 pts. claret,
1 pt. apollinaris,
1 finely sliced orange.
CLARET CUP No. 2.
1 pt. claret,
1 cup sugar,
1 pt. sparkling Moselle,
Juice of 1 orange.
1 slice cucumber rind,
1 pt. apollinaris.
crême de café,
crême de menthe,
apricotine or vanilla.
Pour the café first and slowly add apricotine or vanilla and then the mint.
Peel very thin one-half fine orange rind, put it into a glass with a little finely chopped ice, two teaspoonfuls of powdered sugar. Stir two minutes to extract the oil. Fill the glass with chopped ice, two sprigs of fresh mint, one small teaspoon of crême de menthe, four tablespoonfuls good whiskey—Sheridan rye is the best.
Large Thin Julep Glass—Dissolve one teaspoon fine sugar in water, one dash Maraschino, one glass whis- key or brandy, as preferred, four or five sprigs mint held to side of glass, leaves up. Fill up with fine ice and do not bruise the mint. Trim with fruits. If preferred mint can be bruised, but above is the regular Southern julep.
Fruit syrups may be bottled and kept on hand when needed. They are made by boiling sugar and water to a syrup, then adding the fresh fruit juice; cooled and diluted with cold water, when served.
Equal parts of beeswax and resin. Melt them together, and dip the corked bottles into the hot mixture until the corks are covered.
1 cup sugar,
cup lemon juice,
1 pint water.
Boil sugar and water to a syrup twelve minutes without stirring after sugar is dissolved; add fruit juice; cool, and dilute with water to taste when serving. Lemon syrup may be bottled.
UNFERMENTED GRAPE JUICE.
10 pounds of Concord grapes,
3 pounds sugar,
1 cup water.
Heat grapes and water in kettle until stones and pulp separate. Strain through jelly bag; add sugar, heat to the boiling point and bottle. This will make one gallon of juice. Seal the bottles. When served, dilute one-half with water.
Or steam to the boiling point the raw pressed and strained grape juice in bottles and seal.
GRAPE JUICE CORDIAL.
Use Concord grapes. Wash the grapes and pick from stems. Cover with water and put them up to boil, stirring from time to time until the seeds are free. Pour into a cheese cloth bag, and press out the juice. To each quart of juice, add one pound of sugar; heat again, and when at the boiling point, pour into hot bottles, cork, and seal. More or less sugar may be used.
One case blackberries, add a little water and heat thoroughly, then strain through cheese cloth. To every quart of juice add one pound sugar, and whole cloves and cinnamon (in a small bag). Boil until it thickens, remove from fire and cool, and add whiskey or brandy, one cup to a quart of syrup. Bottle and seal.
Excerpted from The Settlement Cook Book 1903 by Simon Kander. Copyright © 2005 Dover Publications, Inc.. Excerpted by permission of Dover Publications, Inc..
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Posted January 31, 2014
Very disappointed in this book. Skimpy,small print. Not what I expected at all. I have an old Settlement Cookbook that I have worn out. I was hopeing to replace it with this.Was this review helpful? Yes NoThank you for your feedback. Report this reviewThank you, this review has been flagged.
Posted August 1, 2012
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