The Stark Reality of Stretching: For All Activities and Every Sport Focusing on the Weight Bearing Muscles of the Lower Extremities

Overview

A comprehensive operator’s manual for the body, this newly updated guide provides the science, anatomy, precise definitions, and illustrations necessary for the proper application of knowledge to help keep the body healthy. It provides a current and concise understanding of why people should stretch, what a stretch is, and how to stretch properly. The accurate, science-based stretching information provided here will help prevent dangerous muscle imbalances and common, incorrect stretches that often cause or ...

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Overview

A comprehensive operator’s manual for the body, this newly updated guide provides the science, anatomy, precise definitions, and illustrations necessary for the proper application of knowledge to help keep the body healthy. It provides a current and concise understanding of why people should stretch, what a stretch is, and how to stretch properly. The accurate, science-based stretching information provided here will help prevent dangerous muscle imbalances and common, incorrect stretches that often cause or contribute to functional damage of the feet, knees, hips, pelvis, and spine.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
“Dr. Stark, who specializes in biomechanics, is a savior to a range of active individuals.”  —Toronto Star

“Exposes the dangers of some well-known and often-used stretches.”  —Calgary Herald

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780968360736
  • Publisher: Dr. Steven D. Stark Podiatric Corp.
  • Publication date: 6/5/2012
  • Edition description: Fifth Edition
  • Edition number: 5
  • Pages: 192
  • Sales rank: 1,497,097
  • Product dimensions: 9.80 (w) x 7.90 (h) x 0.40 (d)

Meet the Author

Dr. Steven D. Stark was the first podiatrist appointed to the Sports Medicine Council of British Columbia. His medical practice specializes in the treatment and prevention of injuries that are the result of biomechanical problems caused by structural and functional changes. He lives in Surrey, British Columbia.

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Table of Contents

Dedication 3

Acknowledgements 4

Introduction 9-13

Section 1 (Chapters 1-6) Structure: How we are Designed Function: How Muscles Produce Motion Stretches: Definition and Mechanism

Chapter 1 Anatomical Structures 15

I Joints 15

A Definitions 10

B Purpose 16

C Potential Injuries 16

II Connective Tissue 17

A Composition of Connective Tissue 17

B Types of Connective Tissue 18

III Skeletal Muscle Anatomy 25

A Definition 25

B Structure 27

Chapter 2 How Muscles Function 29

I Pathways of Neuromuscular Control 30

A Voluntary Contractions 30

B Involuntary (Reflex) Contractions 30

C Types of Contractions 31

D Resting Length 34

E How Muscles Use Energy 35

Chapter 3 How Muscles "Stretch" 37

I Definition of a "Stretch" 37

II Mechanism of Stretching 38

A Initial Contraction 38

B Relaxation 38

C Sliding Elongation 39

III Maximum Length of Sarcomeres 40

Chapter 4 Properties of Muscles 41

I Muscle Strength 41

II Muscle Power 42

Chapter 5 Benefits of Stretching 43

I Benefits for Athletes: Performance 43

II Benefits for Children 44

III Benefits for Everyone 45

A Benefits of Maintaining Proper Muscle Length and Symmetry in the Lower Extremity 45

B Benefits from Relaxation of Muscle 47

IV Prevention of Injuries 47

Chapter 6 Summary 49

Section 2 (Chapters 7-12) Muscle Preparation How to Stretch Mistakes in Stretching

Chapter 7 Preparing to Stretch: Proper Warm-Up Exercises 53

I Definition 53

II Types of Warm-ups 54

A Walking 54

B Gentle Power Movements with Light Weights 54

C Other Warm-up Exercises 55

III Incorrect Warm-ups 55

IV Mechanisms of Shock Absorption 56

A Muscle Function 56

B Joint Range of Motion 57

C Horizontal Displacement of the Body Mass 57

V Summary 59

Chapter 8 Primary Stretches and Skill-Level Stretches 61

I Primary Stretches 61

II Skill-level Stretches 62

Chapter 9 How to Stretch 65

Chapter 10 The 5 Golden Rules of Stretching 69

I Isolate the Muscle Group 70

II Find Zero Tension 70

III Find the First Awareness 70

IV Less is Best 71

V Allow the Loss of Tension 71

Chapter 11 Mistakes in Stretching 73

I Timing 74

A How long to hold a stretch 74

B When to stretch 74

II Positioning 75

III Loading other Structures 75

IV Overstretching 77

V Good Soreness/Bad Soreness 78

A Good Soreness 79

B Bad Soreness 80

Chapter 12 Stretching Techniques 81

I Dynamic Stretches 82

II PNF Stretches 83

III Passive-active and Active-assisted Stretches 84

IV Static Stretches 85

Section 3 (Chapters 13-18) Primary Stretches for the Major Weight-Bearing Muscle Groups of the Lower Extremity

Chapter 13 Calf Muscles (Gastrocnemius and Soleus Muscles) 87

I Gastrocnemius Muscle 88

A Anatomy 88

B Biomechanics 89

C Normal Gait Cycle 89

II Midstance Phase of the Normal Gait Cycle 90

A Pronation 90

B Resupination 92

III Structural Damage Caused by Shortened Calf Muscles 94

A Stress on Ligaments of the Lower Extremity 94

B Bunions 97

C Asymmetry 99

IV Gastrocnemius Stretch: Both Legs at the Same Time 100

V Gastrocnemius Stretch: One Leg at a Time 103

VI Mistakes in the Gastrocnemius Muscle Stretch 105

A Overstretching 105

B Positioning Errors 106

C Loading Other Structures 108

VII Soleus Muscle 111

A Anatomy 111

VIII Soleus Muscle Stretch 112

IX Mistakes in the Soleus Muscle Stretch 113

A Positioning Errors 113

Chapter 14 Groin Muscles (Adductors) 115

I Groin Muscles (Adductors) 115

A Anatomy 115

B Biomechanics 115

II Sitting Groin Stretch: (Sitting Adductor Stretch) 117

III Mistakes in Groin Stretches 119

A Overstretching 119

B Ballistics or Pushing On the Legs 120

C Loading Other Structures 120

a Ligaments of the Pelvis 120

b Ligaments of the Spine 121

D Positioning Errors 121

Chapter 15 Quadriceps 123

I Quadriceps 124

A Anatomy 124

B Biomechanics 124

II Quadriceps Stretch: Lying on Your Side 126

III Standing Quadriceps Stretch 127

IV Mistakes in Quadriceps Stretches 128

A Positioning Errors 128

B Loading Other Structures 128

C Injuries 129

Chapter 16 Hamstrings 131

I Hamstrings 131

A Anatomy 131

B Biomechanics 133

II Sitting Hamstring Stretch 133

III Hamstring Stretch: Lying on the Back 136

IV The Wall Stretch 136

V Isolating the Medial or Lateral Hamstrings 137

VI Mistakes in Hamstring Stretches 140

A Positioning Errors 140

B Loading Other-Structures 141

C Incorrect Positioning Due to Involuntary Muscle Contraction 142

Chapter 17 Posterior Hip Muscles (Gluteus Maximus and External Hip Rotators) 145

I Gluteus Maximus Muscle 145

A Anatomy 145

B Biomechanics 146

II External Hip Rotator Muscles 147

A Anatomy 147

B Biomechanics 148

III Relationship of the Posterior Hip Muscles and the Sciatic Nerve Roots 148

IV Gluteus Maximus and External Hip Rotator Stretch 150

V Mistakes in Posterior Hip Muscle Stretches 154

A Overstretching 154

B Positioning Errors 154

C Loading Other Structures 155

Chapter 18 Hip Flexors (Psoas Major and Iliacus Muscles) 157

I Psoas and Iliacus Muscles 157

A Anatomy 157

B Biomechanics 159

II Hip Flexor Stretch 160

A Stretching Alone 160

B Stretching with a Partner 162

Section 4 Easy Reference to Correct Stretches 164

I Gastrocnemius Stretch: Both Legs at the Same Time 165

II Sitting Groin Stretch: (Sitting Adductor Stretch) 166

III Quadriceps Stretch: Lying on Your Side 168

IV Sitting Hamstring Stretch 169

V Gluteus Maximus and External Hip Rotator Stretch 171

Glossary 173

Bibliography 185

Biography 190

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