The Sun from Space / Edition 1

The Sun from Space / Edition 1

by Kenneth R. Lang
     
 

ISBN-10: 3540669442

ISBN-13: 9783540669449

Pub. Date: 09/28/2000

Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York, LLC

This volume is a comprehensive, up-to-date account of solar astrophysics and how our perception and knowledge of this star have evolved as mankind has elucidated ever more of its mysteries. The emphasis of this second edition of The Sun from Space is on the last decade, which includes the findings of the SOHO, Ulysses, and Yohkoh solar spacecraft missions over an

Overview

This volume is a comprehensive, up-to-date account of solar astrophysics and how our perception and knowledge of this star have evolved as mankind has elucidated ever more of its mysteries. The emphasis of this second edition of The Sun from Space is on the last decade, which includes the findings of the SOHO, Ulysses, and Yohkoh solar spacecraft missions over an entire 11-year cycle of solar activity, the results of the RHESSI solar spacecraft launched during this interval, the early findings of the recently launched Hinode and STEREO solar spacecraft, and the ACE and Wind spacecraft that extend our investigations of the Sun to its varying input to Earth over the past ten years.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9783540669449
Publisher:
Springer-Verlag New York, LLC
Publication date:
09/28/2000
Series:
Astronomy and Astrophysics Library Series
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
357
Product dimensions:
6.27(w) x 9.45(h) x 0.82(d)

Table of Contents

1 Instruments for a Revolution 1

1.1 Solar Mysteries 1

1.2 Yohkoh Detects Unrest on an Awesome Scale 7

1.3 Ulysses Moves into Unexplored Territory 11

1.4 Wind Investigates the Sun's Varying Input to Earth 16

1.5 The Sun Does Not Set for SOHO 20

1.6 ACE Measures the Composition of High-Energy Particles Bombarding Earth 28

1.7 TRACE Focuses on Fine Details of the High-Temperature Gas 30

1.8 High-Energy Solar Outbursts Observed with RHESSI 34

1.9 Hinode Observes How Varying Magnetic Fields Heat the Corona and Power Explosive Outbursts There 37

1.10 STEREO Observes Coronal Mass Ejections in Three Dimensions from the Sun to Earth 44

1.11 Summary Highlights: Modern Solar Space Missions 46

2 Discovering Space 51

2.1 Space Is Not Empty 51

2.1.1 Auroras and Geomagnetic Storms from the Sun 51

2.1.2 The Main Ingredients of the Sun 53

2.1.3 The Hot Solar Atmosphere 55

2.1.4 Discovery of the Solar Wind 61

2.2 Touching the Unseen 64

2.2.1 The First Direct Measurements of the Solar Wind 64

2.2.2 Properties of the Solar Wind at Earth's Orbit 66

2.3 Cosmic Rays 68

2.4 Pervasive Solar Magnetism 72

2.4.1 Magnetic Fields in the Photosphere 72

2.4.2 The 11-Year Magnetic Activity Cycle 75

2.4.3 Magnetic Fields in the Corona 77

2.4.4 Interplanetary Magnetic Fields 80

2.5 X-rays from the Sun 83

2.6 Solar Outbursts Send Energetic Radiation and Particles into Space 89

2.6.1 Solar Flares 89

2.6.2 Erupting Prominences 91

2.6.3 Coronal Mass Ejections 93

2.7 Summary Highlights: Discovery of Space 94

2.8 Key Events in the Discovery of Space 97

3 Exploring Unseen Depths of the Sun 105

3.1 What Makes the Sun Shine? 105

3.1.1 The Sun's Size,Mass, and Temperature 105

3.1.2 Nuclear Reactions in the Sun's Central Regions 106

3.1.3 Solving the Solar Neutrino Problem 110

3.2 How the Energy Gets Out 116

3.3 Taking the Sun's Pulse 122

3.4 Looking Within the Sun 128

3.5 How the Sun Rotates Inside 131

3.6 Waves in the Sun's Core 135

3.7 Internal Flows 137

3.7.1 Early Work and New Methods 137

3.7.2 Poleward Flows 139

3.7.3 Zonal Flow Bands 139

3.7.4 Internal Changes Over the 11-year Cycle of Magnetic Activity 141

3.8 Three-Dimensional Views of Sunspots and Active Regions 142

3.8.1 Looking Beneath Sunspots 142

3.8.2 Swirling Flows Beneath Active Regions 143

3.8.3 Detecting Active Regions on the Far Side of the Sun 144

3.9 The Solar Dynamo 146

3.10 Summary Highlights: Exploring the Inside of the Sun 150

3.11 Key Events in the Understanding of the Internal Constitution of the Sun 152

4 Solving the Sun's Heating Crisis 161

4.1 Mysterious Heat 161

4.2 Wave Heating 164

4.3 Heating Coronal Loops in Active Regions 170

4.4 Heating the "Quiet" Corona 177

4.4.1 Heat from Jets, Bright Points, Blinkers, Explosive Events, and Interacting, Non-Flaring Loops 177

4.4.2 Nanoflares 182

4.4.3 The Magnetic Carpet 183

4.5 How Hot Is a Coronal Hole? 186

4.6 Summary Highlights: The Sun's Heating Crisis 188

4.7 Key Events in Coronal Heating 190

5 Winds Across the Void 197

5.1 The Fullness of Space 197

5.2 The Two Solar Winds 201

5.3 Where Do the Sun's Winds Come From? 205

5.3.1 Source Regions of the Solar Winds Near Solar Activity Minimum 205

5.3.2 Source Regions of the Solar Winds Near Solar Activity Maximum 211

5.3.3 Fast Wind Sources in Coronal Holes 214

5.4 Getting Up to Speed 217

5.5 Riding the Waves 224

5.6 Magnetic Connections 226

5.6.1 Flowing Wide Open 226

5.6.2 Unexpected Behavior 228

5.7 Ingredients of the Sun's Winds 231

5.7.1 Different Sources, Varying Ionization 232

5.7.2 Shocking Times 233

5.7.3 Pick-Ups Near and Far 234

5.7.4 Super-Hot and Undemocratic 236

5.8 Edge of the Solar System 236

5.9 Summary Highlights: The Sun's Expanding Corona 240

5.10 Key Events in Studies of the Solar Wind 243

6 Our Violent Sun 253

6.1 Solar Outbursts of Awesome Power 253

6.2 Flare Ribbons 259

6.3 X-Ray Flares 261

6.3.1 Soft X-Rays and Hard X-Rays from Solar Flares 261

6.3.2 A Model of Flaring X-Ray Emission 267

6.4 White-Light Flares 269

6.5 Gamma Rays from Solar Flares 271

6.6 Solar Radio Bursts 276

6.7 Filaments Lift Off, Prominences Erupt 282

6.8 Coronal Mass Ejections 287

6.8.1 Coronagraph Observations of Coronal Mass Ejections 287

6.8.2 Physical Properties of Coronal Mass Ejections 289

6.9 After the Blast 296

6.9.1 Solar Flares Excite Coronal Loop Oscillations 296

6.9.2 Sunquakes 298

6.9.3 Coronal Dimming After Coronal Mass Ejections 299

6.9.4 Large Flares Excite Global Waves 299

6.10 Explaining Why Solar Outbursts Happen 301

6.10.1 What We Do Not Know About Solar Outbursts 301

6.10.2 Magnetic Reconnection During Solar Flares 303

6.10.3 Extension of Magnetic Reconnection to Coronal Mass Ejections 309

6.10.4 Flares, Avalanches, and Earthquakes 313

6.10.5 All Twisted Up 314

6.11 Summary Highlights: Solar Flares, Erupting Prominences, and Coronal Mass Ejections 320

6.12 Key Events in Understanding Solar Outburst 324

7 Space Weather 337

7.1 The Space Weather Concept 337

7.2 Forecasting Space Weather 342

7.3 Solar Energetic Particles 345

7.3.1 Energetic Particles Accelerated by Solar Flares or Coronal Mass Ejection Shocks 345

7.3.2 Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections, Interplanetary Shocks, and Magnetic Clouds 349

7.3.3 Observations of Solar Energetic Particles with Contemporary Spacecraft 352

7.3.4 Two Classes of Solar Energetic Particles 353

7.4 Impacting Planet Earth 356

7.4.1 Our Protective Magnetic Cocoon 356

7.4.2 Earth's Magnetic Storms 359

7.4.3 The Auroras-Cosmic Neon Signs 362

7.4.4 High-Flying Humans at Risk 364

7.4.5 Failing to Communicate 365

7.4.6 Satellites in Danger 366

7.4.7 Varying Solar Radiation and Earth's Changing Atmosphere 367

7.5 Sun-Climate 369

7.5.1 An Inconstant Sun 370

7.5.2 Solar Variability and Climate Change Over the Past 1,000 Years 374

7.5.3 The Earth's Rising Fever 377

7.5.4 Climate Change Over Millions and Billions of Years 381

7.6 Summary Highlights: Space Weather 386

7.7 Key Events in the Discovery of Solar-Terrestrial Interactions 391

Appendix 407

I Solar Space Missions 407

II Helioseismology 408

III Space Weather 409

IV Solar Observatories and Groups 409

V Virtual Observatories 409

VI Educational 409

VII NASA 410

References 411

Author Index 523

Subject Index 533

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