The Theory of Knowledge: Classical & Contemporary Readings

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This is the most up-to-date and comprehensive reader in epistimology on the market. Containing 67 readings, the book is now organized into eleven parts which outline the subjects central to contemporary epistemology. Opposing positions are set forth for all issues and a brief synopsis introduces each reading.
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Editorial Reviews

A philosophy textbook on epistemology--the study of how we know that we know--that covers topics such as skepticism, perception, induction, and the ethics of belief. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780534178260
  • Publisher: Wadsworth
  • Publication date: 8/28/1992
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Pages: 556
  • Product dimensions: 7.60 (w) x 9.60 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Table of Contents

Pt. I The Theory of Knowledge 1
1 Plato: The Ascent to Knowledge (from the Republic) 6
2 Plato: Innate Ideas (from the Meno) 17
Pt. II Skepticism 25
1 Rene Descartes: Global Skepticism 28
2 David Hume: Skepticism Regarding the Senses 31
3 G. E. Moore: A Defense of Common Sense 41
4 Keith Lehrer: Why Not Skepticism? 48
5 Norman Malcolm: Two Types of Knowledge 56
Pt. III Our Knowledge of the External World 65
1 John Locke: A Representational Theory of Perception 69
2 George Berkeley: An Idealist Theory of Knowledge 83
3 W. T. Stace: Science and the Physical World: A Defense of Phenomenalism 91
4 C. H. Whiteley: Phenomenalism: Its Grounds and Difficulties 95
5 Bertrand Russell: A Defense of Representationalism 103
6 John R. Searle: The Intentionality of Perception 108
7 Charles Landesman: Why Nothing Has Color: Color Skepticism 121
Pt. IV The Analysis of Knowledge 129
1 Edmund L. Gettier: Is Justified True Belief Knowledge? 134
2 Alvin I. Goldman: A Causal Theory of Knowing 137
3 Keith Lehrer and Thomas D. Paxson, Jr.: Knowledge: Undefeated Justified True Belief 146
4 Gilbert Harman: Inference to the Best Explanation 151
5 Alvin I. Goldman: Discrimination and Perceptual Knowledge 163
6 William W. Rozeboom: Why I Know So Much More Than You Do 175
Pt. V Theories of Justification (I): Foundationalism and Coherentism 187
1 Rene Descartes: Classical Foundationalism 192
2 Robert Audi: Contemporary Foundationalism 206
3 Laurence BonJour: A Critique of Foundationalism 214
4 Laurence BonJour: Holistic Coherentism 226
5 Richard Fumerton: A Critique of Coherentism 241
6 Ernest Sosa: The Raft and the Pyramid: Coherence versus Foundations in the Theory of Knowledge 246
7 Robert Audi: Fallibilist Foundationalism and Holistic Coherentism 263
8 David Annis: A Contextual Theory of Epistemic Justification 280
Pt. VI Justification (II): Externalism and Internalism 289
1 Alvin I. Goldman: Reliabilism: What Is Justified Belief? 292
2 Keith Lehrer: A Critique of Externalism 306
3 W. V. Quine: Epistemology Naturalized 320
4 Jaegwon Kim: What Is "Naturalized Epistemology"? 329
5 John L. Pollock: Epistemic Norms 341
6 Alvin Plantinga: Justification in the 20th Century 351
Pt. VII A Priori Knowledge 369
1 Immanuel Kant: A Priori Knowledge 373
2 A. J. Ayer: An Empiricist Critique of a Priori Knowledge 381
3 A. C. Ewing: In Defense of A Priori Knowledge 389
4 W. V. Quine: Two Dogmas of Empiricism 395
5 H. P. Grice and Peter F. Strawson: In Defense of a Dogma 408
6 Roderick Chisholm: Truths of Reason 414
Pt. VIII The Justification of Induction 429
1 David Hume: The Problem of Induction 432
2 Bertrand Russell: On Induction 438
3 F. L. Will: Will the Future Be Like the Past? 442
4 Hans Reichenbach: The Pragmatic Justification of Induction 450
5 Peter F. Strawson: Dissolving the Problem of Induction 455
6 Nelson Goodman: The New Riddle of Induction 459
Pt. IX Other Minds 465
1 Bertrand Russell: The Analogy Argument for Other Minds 468
2 H. H. Price: The Argument from Language Understanding 471
3 Norman Malcolm: The Behavioral Criterion and the Problem of Other Minds 482
4 Michael Levin: Why We Believe in Other Minds 488
Pt. X The Ethics of Belief 499
1 W. K. Clifford: The Ethics of Belief 502
2 William James: The Will to Believe 506
3 Jack Meiland: What Ought We to Believe? 514
4 Louis P. Pojman: Believing, Willing, and the Ethics of Belief 525
5 Richard Feldman: Epistemic Obligations 544
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