The Treaty of Versailles: A Reassessment after 75 Years

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The essays in Anticipating Total War: The German and American Experiences, 1871-1914 explore the discourse on war in Germany and the United States between 1871 and 1914 - in the era bounded by the midcentury wars in Europe and North America and World War I. The concept of "total war," which was prefigured in aspects of the earlier conflicts and realized in 1914, provides the analytical focus. The essays reveal vigorous discussions of warfare in several forums - among soldiers, statesmen, women's groups, and educators - on both sides of the Atlantic. Predictions of long, cataclysmic wars were not uncommon in these discussions, while the involvement of German and American soldiers in colonial warfare suggested that future combat would not spare civilians. Despite these "anticipations of total war," virtually no one foresaw the practical implications in planning for war in the early twentieth century.
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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"Representing as it does the best in contemporary scholarship, this volume should deal a death blow to the older view.... An important work that should be in all academic libraries." Choice

"For those seeking to understand the tough realities of building a new world order, this volume will be fascinating to explore." Foreign Affairs

"This is an altogether admirable purpose, and the essays in this volume are for the most part models of scholarship, their arguments backed up by voluminous footnotes based on government and private archives and the vast amount of published evidence that has become available over the past half century." Norman Rich, Central European History

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Product Details

Table of Contents

List of Contributors
Introduction 1
Pt. 1 Germany, the United States, and Total War
1 Total War: The Use and Abuse of a Concept 13
2 Different Path to War: A Comparative Study of Militarism and Imperialism in the United States and Imperial Germany, 1871-1914 29
Pt. 2 War and Society
3 The Political Economy of Warfare in America, 1865-1914 57
4 Hugo Stinnes and the Prospect of War Before 1914 77
5 War Preparations and Ethnic and Racial Relations in the United States 97
6 Religion and War in Imperial Germany 125
7 Socializing American Youth to Be Citizen-Soldiers 137
8 Preparing German Youth for War 167
9 Heroes and Would-Be Heroes: Veterans' and Reservists' Associations in Imperial Germany 189
10 Mobilizing Philanthropy in the Service of War: The Female Rituals of Care in the New Germany, 1871-1914 217
Pt. 3 Memory and Anticipation: War and Culture
11 The American Debate over Modern War, 1871-1914 241
12 Whose War? Whose Nation? Tensions in the Memory of the Franco-German War of 1870-1871 281
13 War Preparations and National Identity in Imperial Germany 307
14 Military Imagination in the United States, 1815-1917 327
15 Dreams and Nightmares: German Military Leadership and the Images of Future Warfare, 1871-1914 343
16 "A Calamity to Civilization": Theodore Roosevelt and the Danger of War in Europe 377
Pt. 4 The Experience of War
17 Total War on the American Indian Frontier 399
18 "The Fellows Can Just Starve": On Wars of "Pacification" in the African Colonies of Imperial Germany and the Concept of "Total War" 415
19 Was the Philippine-American War a "Total War"? 437
20 An Army on Vacation? The German War in China, 1900-1901 459
Index 477
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