The Undead: Organ Harvesting, the Ice-Water Test, Beating-Heart Cadavers--How Medicine Is Blurring the Line Between Life and Death

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Overview

An important and provocative examination of why the line between life and death, consciousness and unconsciousness, is a blurred one, even with the tools of advanced technology, and especially in light of the business of organ harvesting.

In this fascinating look at how the determination of death has become complicated and bewildering, Dick Teresi introduces us to brain-death experts, hospice workers, undertakers, coma specialists and those who have recovered from coma, organ ...

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The Undead: Organ Harvesting, the Ice-Water Test, Beating Heart Cadavers--How Medicine Is Blurring the Line Between Life and Death

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Overview

An important and provocative examination of why the line between life and death, consciousness and unconsciousness, is a blurred one, even with the tools of advanced technology, and especially in light of the business of organ harvesting.

In this fascinating look at how the determination of death has become complicated and bewildering, Dick Teresi introduces us to brain-death experts, hospice workers, undertakers, coma specialists and those who have recovered from coma, organ transplant surgeons and organ procurers, anesthesiologists who study pain in legally dead patients, doctors who have saved live patients from organ harvests, nurses who care for beating-heart cadavers, ICU doctors who feel subtly pressured to declare patients dead rather than save them, and many others. Teresi writes about how death has been determined through the ages, beginning with the ancient Egyptians, and about the 1968 Harvard Medical School paper that officially stated that death was not cardiopulmonary failure or cell death but a "loss of personhood"—i.e., brain death. And throughout, he makes clear that organ harvesting has become big business, while the medical establishment has become less and less clear about who is truly dead or alive.

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Editorial Reviews

Publishers Weekly
Suddenly, death doesn’t seem so certain after all. In this brutally honest look at how doctors determine the moment of death, skeptical science writer and Omni magazine cofounder Teresi (The God Particle) relishes ripping into the 1968 Harvard team that formulated new criteria for determining death: “loss of personhood,” or brain death. Doctors, Teresi says, can now “declare a person dead in less time than it takes to get a decent eye exam” by testing reflexes: “a flashlight in the eyes, ice water in the ears, and then an attempt to gasp for air” when the respirator is disconnected. Teresi interviews scientists who question the finality of brain death when the heart is still beating, and even the concept that personhood is located solely in the brain. More alarming, Teresi charges that the brain-death revolution is driven by the billion-a-year organ transplant business. Teresi will scare readers to death with examples of how undependable brain-death criteria can be—one organ donor began to breathe spontaneously just as the surgeon removed his liver. But the more powerful effect of this scathing report should be the start of an uncomfortable but necessary conversation between doctors and potential organ donors. Agent: Janklow and Nesbit. (Mar.)
Library Journal
Few if any of the numerous recent books on end-of-life care combine humor, learning, and insight as Teresi (Lost Discoveries: The Ancient Roots of Modern Science) does here. By exploring how death has been determined from ancient times through modern Western medicine, he shows that some tests for death are not always foolproof. He argues that the possibility of organ donation has changed how we define death and shows the sometimes forceful recruitment tactics of procurement agencies. While the book discusses how the 1968 Ad Hoc Committee of Harvard Medical School influentially defined brain death, several other works have covered it in more depth. Teresi also includes sometimes moving personal stories of friends who struggled with end-of-life issues, putting a human face on the debates. VERDICT By combining learning and humor in an accessible format, this book is a good introduction to the medical, biological, and social conditions related to end-of-life care. Teresi will make you laugh, groan, and question what you think you know. An accessible but illuminating introduction to current questions in end-of-life care. [See Prepub Alert, 9/11/11.]—A.W. Klink, Duke Univ., Durham, NC
Kirkus Reviews
Science writer Teresi (Lost Discoveries: The Ancient Roots of Modern Science--From the Babylonians to the Maya, 2002, etc.) claims that the rights of organ donors are being violated by the medical profession. "In 2010," writes the author, "there were an estimated 28,144 transplant operations in the United States"--with 111,530 candidates on the waiting lists as of June 2011. His stated purpose is to call attention to what he sees as a subtle shift in medical emphasis from saving lives to declaring patients dead prematurely in order to preserve their organs for the lucrative organ-transplant business. Like a real-life version of Robin Cook's medical thriller Coma, Teresi paints a grisly picture of organ harvesting and raises uncomfortable questions: Is the donor actually dead rather than at the point of death? Might he or she be revived given time and proper medical attention? Might the donor feel pain during the process of organ extraction even though seemingly brain dead? Citing reports of out-of-body experiences, the locked-in syndrome portrayed in The Diving Bell and the Butterfly and evidence that comatose patients who are apparently unresponsive are sometimes fully aware of conversations held in their presence, Teresi expresses skepticism about the medical definition of brain death. The author searches out experts, including, among others, "undertakers, cell biologists, coma specialists (and those who have recovered from coma), organ transplant surgeons," in an effort to penetrate the boundaries between life and death. "The unborn, fetuses, have plenty of political clout," he writes. "No one speaks for donors," and the press has abdicated its responsibility for investigative journalism. However, some of Teresi's writing verges on sensationalism--e.g., his lurid account of modern executions. A provocative, if one-sided, examination of important ethical issues and the still-unresolved question of what constitutes death.
From the Publisher
“Strong stuff. . . . This disturbing, often hilarious book raises many critical questions about deadness.”
The New York Times Book Review
 
“Reading Dick Teresi’s book is like discovering that your college class has been hijacked by the spitball-lobbing kid in the back row—and that the kid is twice as smart as the prof ever was. . . . Taking on biologists, philosophers, and the medical establishment, Teresi zestfully skewers our confused thinking about life, death, and the states in between. A pleasure to read.”
—Charles C. Mann, author of 1493 and 1491
 
“An indefatigable researcher and fluid writer, Mr. Teresi provides a good long riff on death past and present.”
The New York Times
 
“Charting historical definitions of death, the thinking of research greats and debates over near-death experiences, Teresi notes that the ethical challenges are immense, asking, for instance, whether all organ donors are unrevivable.”
Nature

“The simple question Teresi asks is: ‘When exactly is a person dead?’ Prepare to have your assumptions shattered.”
The Globe and Mail (UK)
 
 “Chilling, controversial, and, at times, comical commentary on physical death…All sorts of experts—on coma, animal euthanasia, and execution—as well as undertakers, organ transplant staff, neurologists, ethicists, and lawyers weigh-in on the death debate.”
Booklist
 
“As I was pulled into this startling, informative account of death-defying and death-defining, I couldn’t help putting a checkmark in the margin next to every line that made me gasp—or laugh—or marvel at Dick Teresi’s bold, inimitable reporting style. On some pages I made as many as four checkmarks. The book left me reeling at the welter of uncertainty that surrounds the certainty of death.”
—Dava Sobel, author of Longitude and A More Perfect Heaven
 
“Like a real-life version of Robin Cook’s medical thriller Coma, Teresi paints a grisly picture of organ harvesting and raises uncomfortable questions: Is the donor actually dead rather than at the point of death? Might he or she be revived given time and proper medical attention?. . . . Provocative. . . . [An] examination of important ethical issues and the still-unresolved question of what constitutes death.”
Kirkus Reviews

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780375423710
  • Publisher: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group
  • Publication date: 3/13/2012
  • Pages: 368
  • Product dimensions: 5.90 (w) x 8.54 (h) x 1.20 (d)

Meet the Author

Dick Teresi is the coauthor of The God Particle and the author of Lost Discoveries: The Ancient Roots of Modern Science, both selected as New York Times Book Review Notable Books. He has been the editor in chief of Science Digest, Longevity, VQ, and Omni, and has written for The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, and The Atlantic, among other publications.

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Read an Excerpt

Prologue
 
“B” Pod of the intensive care unit (ICU) at Baystate Medical Center is very bright: intense lights, everything painted in primary colors. Cabinets, counters, and chairs are a sparkling blue, obviously intended to be cheery, not sepulchral. A blue central stripe on the grayish linoleum floor leads us from room to room. There are three ICU pods at this Springfield, Massachusetts, hospital, each with three rooms arranged like spokes around a central station filled with computer terminals. Doctors and nurses come and go.
 
The patients in their separate rooms, like sickly fish in glass tanks arranged for observation, are largely slack-mouthed and gray or pale yellow in color. Most are fitted with clear plastic tubes the diameter of vacuum-cleaner hoses attached to their mouths. Most are old and gnarled, with sallow, sickly complex-ions. Sometimes one can see a bare concave chest or a yellowed foot sticking out from beneath a sheet. None is conversing.
 
We are not here to see them. We have come for the star of “B” Pod. We will call her Fernanda, a fifty-seven-year-old woman of Portuguese descent, who looks as though she might have just come back from a day at the mall. Her dark olive skin appears healthy against the sheets. Her features do not show the ravages of suffering or pain. Her eyes are closed beneath the heavy arched eyebrows. She has thick black eyelashes. Her wiry black hair with strands of gray is arranged neatly on the pillow. She has delicate legs and exquisite feet. Her face is serene; her chest rises and falls with the familiar rhythm of normal human breathing. She looks as if she had been put to sleep by a wicked queen in a fairy tale and needs only to be reanimated. Her vital signs, displayed on a monitor in squiggles the bright green of coloring books, are normal. She looks better than I do.
 
We are all there, including a group of medical students and interns, to watch Dr. Thomas Higgins pronounce Fernanda brain dead. She had been at work when coworkers found her on the fl oor and threw water on her face, a tactic that doesn’t work well against ischemic stroke. She probably had a brief headache, says Higgins, then fell unconscious. The ICU doctors at Baystate feel she will not recover. The brain-death team is about to make it official.
 
Those expecting space-age equipment, sophisticated brain scans, and the like, won’t find it. The exam is conducted mostly with tools you could find around your home: a flashlight, a Q-tip, some ice water. Her reflexes are tested. A light is shined in her eyes. Her head is turned from side to side. Cold water is squirted into an ear. She is disconnected from her ventilator to make sure she can’t breathe on her own. In less time than my ophthalmologist took to prescribe my last pair of bifocals, Fernanda is declared brain dead. That means she is legally dead, just as dead under the law as if her heart had stopped beating. Fernanda is then hooked back up to her ventilator to keep her organs fresh for transplant. Her heart continues to beat; her lungs continue to breathe. Though dead, she remains the best-looking patient in the ICU. The declaration of her death was more philosophical than physiological. A nurse says, “Whatever it was that made her her isn’t there anymore.”
 
 
ONE
 
Death Is Here to Stay
 
For all the accomplishments of molecular biology, we still can’t tell a live cat from a dead cat.
—Lynn Margulis
 
ARE YOU dead or alive? A dumb question, it would seem. If you’re reading this book, you are most likely alive. You know it, but do those in control know it? Will they acknowledge it? These are no longer stupid questions. The bar for being dead has been lowered. The bar for being considered alive has been raised. The old standards for life—Are you breathing? Is your heart beating? Are your cells still intact, not putrifying?—have been abandoned by the medical community in favor of a more demanding standard. Are you a person? Is what makes you you still intact? Can you prove it? Such concepts were previously the domain of philosophers and priests, but today it is doctors who determine our legal humanity. The dead are also not immune from judgment. A presidential council on bioethics recently determined that some dead people are less “healthy” than others. It is a different world.
 
This is a book about physical death. It began as a simple magazine article more than a decade ago, a report on the state of the art of death determination. I assumed I would find hightech medical equipment and techniques that would tell us when a human being had stopped living, that would pinpoint the moment that “what made her her” was gone. I eventually abandoned this goal and the article itself. Humans have long lived in denial about their own deaths, but I discovered that this denial has spread to the medical establishment, even to our beliefs about who is dead and who is alive. Our technology has not illuminated death; it has only expanded the breadth of our ignorance. Technology indicates that many of our assumptions about life and death, consciousness and unconsciousness, are wrong. Technology is telling us a great deal about our ignorance, but we are ignoring the information. My focus is scientific information about physiological death, but science and cultural factors often compete in an unproductive manner, canceling each other out. Though we have made technological advances, they often remain unused when it comes to dealing with the dying and dead, so cultural factors—philosophy, ethics, economics, religion—cannot be ignored.
 
Death, for most people, is not a comforting topic, and thus in the great mass of nonfiction literature devoted to the topic, death is treated as something that happens to someone else. My temptation is to write this as if I were narrating a dirigible explosion (“Oh, the humanity!”). Someone far away, perhaps in New Jersey, is dying. You, the audience, and I, the announcer, are merely witnesses. Let us reject that fiction. You, the reader, will die. If it is any consolation, keep in mind that I will also die. At my age, sooner rather than later.

###

During my research, I have spoken about death before groups of people on several occasions: to classes of college students, to groups of senior citizens, to people at dinner parties and other social gatherings. For the most part, those discussions have been disastrous. When I was talking at a dinner about the vagaries of brain death and the fact that our technology cannot ascertain the condition of most of the brain, one woman, a medical doctor, actually rose from her seat and yelled at me. She said that writing about this topic was “irresponsible,” that it would set organ donation back decades. She threatened to “call your editor.” In an undergraduate honors class at the University of Massachusetts, a senior premed major became angry with me when I spoke about patients in persistent vegetative state who show signs of consciousness. Her grandmother was in a comatose state, and her family was confused about what to do. The woman’s estate was dwindling because of her care, and, I gathered, so were the student’s hopes of paying for medical school. The premed student said that her grandmother was no longer “useful.” Those were two remarkable cases, but in general I made people uneasy, even angry. They defended their traditional ideas of life and death to me passionately, forcefully. My protestations that I was merely a journalist reporting facts as I found them, not making moral judgments, was of no consolation. I told the angry doctor that she could yank as many organs as she pleased out of people, and I would not stop or condemn her. I told the student that she and her family could pull the plug on Grandmother and I would not say a word. This just made them angrier. Not everyone was upset with the facts I presented. But those who were, were livid.
 
It was years before I figured out my apparent mistake. I assumed the information I was presenting, which threatens traditional views of death, was upsetting them. I now believe that it was something simpler: I was reminding people that they were going to die. Not someone else. Them.
 
In 1973, the cultural anthropologist Ernest Becker put forth an unusual thesis. In The Denial of Death, his Pulitzer Prize–winning book, Becker said that humans are like other animals, with an evolutionary drive to survive. “Live! Live! Live!” our genes are screaming at us. Unlike other animals, however, said Becker, we humans know we cannot ultimately survive, that we will die. This dilemma, he believed, drives us mad. The awareness of our inevitable annihilation combined with our evolutionary program for self-preservation holds the potential for evoking paralyzing terror. Becker stated, “The result was the emergence of man as we know him: a hyperanxious animal who constantly invents reasons for anxiety even where there are none.” Becker wrote that man is terrified of death, and deals with this terror by denying death and keeping it unconscious. He felt that this terror directs a “substantial portion of human behavior,” according to one researcher.
 
Becker’s hypothesis was wide-sweeping. Death terror, he said, was the primary reason that humans created culture. Our religions, our political systems, our art, music, and literature—all this we have constructed “to assure ourselves that we have achieved something of lasting worth.” Becker said that “everything that man does in his symbolic world is an attempt to deny and overcome his grotesque fate. He literally drives himself into a blind obliviousness with social games, psychological tricks, personal preoccupations so far removed from the reality of his situation that they are forms of madness—agreed madness, shared madness, disguised and dignified madness, but madness all the same.” Those who delude themselves into believing they have achieved something of lasting worth would include, I assume, people who write books.
 
Becker’s theory was intriguing, plausible, and explained much of human behavior. Its only fl aw was that Becker had no concrete evidence. As a matter of fact, how would one even go about testing the hypothesis? Terror management was the superstring theory of anthropology—fascinating but not testable.
 
Help came long after Becker had resolved, by dying, his own death terror. In the late 1970s, three graduate students on an intramural bowling team at the University of Kansas began discussing death terror while the pins were being reset. Through the years, Jeff Greenberg, Tom Pyszczynski, and Sheldon Solomon translated Becker’s ideas into a formal theory that could be examined empirically. Their work culminated in a series of remarkable “mortality salience” experiments detailed in a 1997 paper.
 
Subjects were not told the true purpose of the experiment. Irrelevant questions and reading passages were included to mislead them. Embedded in an opening questionnaire, however, were these directions: “Please describe the emotions the thought of your own death arouses in you. Jot down, as specifically as you can, what you think will happen to you physically as you die and once you are physically dead.”
 
Greenberg, Pyszczynski, and Solomon used this and other techniques in different experiments, such as asking subjects to write their own obituaries or flashing the word “death” intermittently on a computer screen for twenty-eight milliseconds. In another case, the researchers used no verbal signals. They simply interviewed subjects in front of a funeral home. Control groups received no such death signals.
 
At the heart of the experiment were essays, pro-American and anti-American, supposedly written by foreign students studying in the United States but actually written by the psychologists. The pro essays stated that the United States was the greatest country in the world, the land of opportunity and freedom, and so on. The anti essays stated that American ideals were phony and the rich were getting richer, the poor poorer. Those subjects who were subjected to “mortality salience” ranked the pro essayist as extremely likable, and the anti essayist as extremely unlikable. The control group was not nearly so adamant. Greenberg et al. say that those who are made aware of their mortality need to offset their inner terror by defending their worldview and will praise to extremes those who hold the same worldview and denigrate those who hold different values.

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Table of Contents

Acknowledgments vii

Prologue ix

1 Death Is Here to Stay 3

2 A History of Death 50

3 The Brain-Death Revolution 89

4 The New Undead 141

5 Netherworlds 170

6 The Near-Death Experience 198

7 Postmodern Death 224

8 The Moment of Death and the Search for Self 26

Notes 293

Selected Bibliography 331

Index 335

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Customer Reviews

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Sort by: Showing all of 6 Customer Reviews
  • Anonymous

    Posted March 14, 2012

    Poorly written.

    One of the most poorly researched and written books about such an important issue. I returned the book at B&N after reading the first chapter. There are Writers and there are Authors. Mr. Teresi, you are no Author. I do not recommend anyone purchasing this book.

    3 out of 5 people found this review helpful.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted April 2, 2012

    I really liked Mr. Teresi's Lost Discoveries: The Ancient Roots

    I really liked Mr. Teresi's Lost Discoveries: The Ancient Roots of Modern Science-- from the Babylonians to the Maya and thought I would like this as well. I have to say, I feel as if I wasted my gift card on this book. It felt trashy and sensationalistic. He was trying to capture the reader with "gripping" stories of misdiagnosis but I think he himself was misunderstanding the medical process. Wish I could get my gift card back.

    0 out of 1 people found this review helpful.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted March 17, 2012

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    Posted April 1, 2012

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    Posted January 1, 2013

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    Posted April 28, 2012

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