The Wadsworth Handbook / Edition 8

The Wadsworth Handbook / Edition 8

by Laurie G. Kirszner, Stephen R. Mandell

With practical advice on topics ranging from writing effective essays, paragraphs, and sentences to documenting sources and designing Web pages, The Wadsworth Handbook is a resource that is essential to your success in college and your future career! This Eighth Edition offers the following resources: Easy access and answers to all your grammar and style questions.… See more details below


With practical advice on topics ranging from writing effective essays, paragraphs, and sentences to documenting sources and designing Web pages, The Wadsworth Handbook is a resource that is essential to your success in college and your future career! This Eighth Edition offers the following resources: Easy access and answers to all your grammar and style questions. From answers to Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) to Grammar Checker boxes, numerous checklists, and more, you'll find all the help you need! Models that show you how to document sources. This edition's newly designed documentation directories point you directly to models for documenting virtually any kind of source-printed book, magazine, Web page, online subscription service, and more. Guidance and strategies for critical thinking and argument writing. You'll learn to use the tools of logic and evidence in your essays, develop strong argumentative thesis statements, and write effective argumentative essays. Many ways to use visuals and technology to support your writing. You'll get tips on evaluating visuals; writing for effective electronic "resumes" and emails; creating effective visual formats; using tables, graphs, and photos; and much more. Success strategies for ESL students. This edition's new Chapter 62, "Adjusting to the US Classroom," as well as ESL Tips throughout this book give non-native speakers plenty of resources for becoming strong writers. Practical advice for today's students. The only comprehensive handbook to incorporate a section on developing strategies for academic success, including unique Chapter 27, "Ten Habits of Successful Students," The Wadsworth Handbook offers practical advice on how tomanage your time, use technology effectively, become a life-long learner, and more.

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Product Details

Cengage Learning
Publication date:
Available Titles CengageNOW Series
Edition description:
Revised illustrated
Product dimensions:
5.90(w) x 8.60(h) x 1.30(d)

Table of Contents

Note to Students     xi
Note to Instructors     xv
Writing Essays     1
Understanding Purpose, Audience, and Tone     2
Determining Your Purpose     2
Identifying Your Audience     9
Setting Your Tone     12
Reading Texts     15
Previewing a Text     15
Highlighting a Text     16
Annotating a Text     16
Reading Visuals     22
Interpreting a Visual     24
Previewing a Visual     25
Highlighting and Annotating a Visual     26
Planning an Essay     29
Understanding the Writing Process     29
Computers and the Writing Process     30
Analyzing Your Assignment     31
Choosing and Narrowing a Topic     32
Finding Something to Say     34
Using a Thesis to Shape Your Material     41
Understanding Thesis and Support     41
Developing a Thesis     42
Constructing an Informal Outline     46
Constructing a Formal Outline     47
Constructing a Storyboard     49
Drafting and Revising     52
Writing a Rough Draft     52
Moving from Rough Draft to Final Draft     55
Using Specific Revision Strategies     58
Editing and Proofreading     68
Preparing a Final Draft     71
Writing Paragraphs     78
Writing Unified Paragraphs     79
Writing Coherent Paragraphs     82
Writing Well-Developed Paragraphs     88
Patterns of Paragraph Development     90
Writing Special Kinds of Paragraphs     99
Thinking Critically and Writing Arguments     105
Thinking Critically     106
Distinguishing Fact from Opinion     106
Evaluating Supporting Evidence     108
Detecting Bias     109
Using Logic     113
Understanding Inductive Reasoning     113
Understanding Deductive Reasoning     115
Using Toulmin Logic     117
Recognizing Logical Fallacies     120
Writing Argumentative Essays     125
Planning an Argumentative Essay     125
Using Evidence Effectively     129
Organizing an Argumentative Essay     132
Writing and Revising an Argumentative Essay     133
Using Visuals to Support Your Arguments     142
Using Visuals     142
Evaluating Visuals     145
Writing Electronic Arguments     149
Considering Audience and Purpose     149
Shaping Electronic Arguments     150
Writing and Revising Electronic Arguments     151
Doing Research     153
Writing a Research Paper     154
Moving from Assignment to Topic     155
Doing Exploratory Research and Formulating a Research Question     158
Assembling a Working Bibliography     159
Developing a Tentative Thesis     162
Doing Focused Research     163
Taking Notes     164
Fine-Tuning Your Thesis     169
Constructing an Outline     171
Writing a Rough Draft     173
Revising Your Drafts     176
Preparing a Final Draft     180
Using and Evaluating Library Sources     181
Doing Exploratory Library Research     181
Doing Focused Library Research     187
Evaluating the Library's Print and Electronic Sources     193
Doing Research Outside the Library     196
Using and Evaluating Internet Sources     198
Understanding the Internet     198
Using the World Wide Web for Research     199
Using Other Internet Tools     207
Evaluating Internet Sites     208
Summarizing, Paraphrasing, Quoting, and Synthesizing Sources     213
Writing a Summary     213
Writing a Paraphrase     215
Quoting Sources     217
Integrating Source Material into Your Writing     219
Synthesizing Sources     223
Avoiding Plagiarism     224
Defining Plagiarism     224
Avoiding Unintentional Plagiarism     225
Revising to Eliminate Plagiarism     226
Documenting Sources: MLA Style     233
MLA Documentation Style     239
Using MLA Style     239
MLA-Style Manuscript Guidelines     264
Sample MLA-Style Research Paper     266
Documenting Sources: APA and Other Styles     281
APA Documentation Style     284
Using APA Style     284
APA-Style Manuscript Guidelines     294
Sample APA-Style Research Paper     297
Chicago Documentation Style     310
Using Chicago Style     310
Chicago-Style Manuscript Guidelines     321
Sample Chicago-Style Research Paper (Excerpts)      323
CSE and other Documentation Styles     330
Using CSE Style     330
CSE-Style Manuscript Guidelines     335
Sample CSE-Style Research Paper (Excerpts)     336
Using Other Documentation Styles     339
Writing in the Disciplines     341
Writing in the Humanities     342
Understanding Purpose, Audience, and Tone     342
Writing Assignments     343
Conventions of Style, Format, and Documentation     348
Avoiding Plagiarism     348
Using Visuals and Technology     348
Research Sources     349
Writing a Literary Analysis     352
Reading Literature     352
Writing about Literature     353
Sample Literary Analysis (without Sources)     355
Sample Literary Analysis (with Sources)     359
Writing a Literary Argument     366
Planning a Literary Argument     366
Supporting Your Literary Argument     368
Organizing a Literary Argument     371
Sample Literary Argument     372
Writing in the Social Sciences     380
Understanding Purpose, Audience, and Tone     380
Writing Assignments      381
Conventions of Style, Format, and Documentation     388
Avoiding Plagiarism     388
Using Visuals and Technology     388
Research Sources     389
Writing in the Natural and Applied Sciences     392
Understanding Purpose, Audience, and Tone     392
Writing Assignments     393
Conventions of Style, Format, and Documentation     397
Avoiding Plagiarism     398
Using Visuals and Technology     398
Research Sources     398
Developing Strategies for Academic Success     401
Ten Habits of Successful Students     402
Learn to Manage Your Time Effectively     402
Put Studying First     404
Be Sure You Understand School and Course Requirements     405
Be an Active Learner in the Classroom     407
Be an Active Learner Outside the Classroom     408
Take Advantage of College Services     409
Use the Library     410
Use Technology     411
Make Contacts     412
Be a Lifelong Learner     413
Writing Essay Exams     415
Planning an Essay Exam Answer     416
Shaping an Essay Exam Answer      419
Writing and Revising an Essay Exam Answer     420
Writing Paragraph-Length Essay Exam Answers     426
Writing for the Workplace     428
Writing Letters of Application     428
Designing Print Resumes     430
Designing Electronic Resumes     433
Writing Memos     438
Writing Emails and Sending Faxes     440
Designing Effective Documents     442
Creating an Effective Visual Format     442
Using Headings     445
Constructing Lists     447
Using Visuals     449
Using Desktop Publishing     453
Designing a Web Site     456
Planning Your Web Site     456
Creating Your Web Site     457
Selecting and Inserting Visuals     458
Planning Navigation     460
Linking Your Content     462
Editing and Proofreading Your Web Site     463
Posting Your Web Site     463
Making Oral Presentations     464
Getting Started     464
Planning Your Speech     465
Preparing Your Notes     466
Preparing Visual Aids     467
Rehearsing Your Speech      470
Delivering Your Speech     470
Sentence Style     473
Building Simple Sentences     474
Constructing Simple Sentences     474
Identifying Phrases and Clauses     477
Expanding Simple Sentences     479
Building Compound and Complex Sentences     488
Building Compound Sentences     488
Building Complex Sentences     491
Writing Varied Sentences     494
Varying Sentence Length     494
Combining Choppy Simple Sentences     495
Breaking Up Strings of Compound Sentences     497
Varying Sentence Types     498
Varying Sentence Openings     500
Varying Standard Word Order     501
Writing Emphatic Sentences     503
Conveying Emphasis through Word Order     503
Conveying Emphasis through Sentence Structure     506
Conveying Emphasis through Parallelism and Balance     509
Conveying Emphasis through Repetition     509
Conveying Emphasis through Active Voice     510
Writing Concise Sentences     513
Eliminating Wordiness     513
Eliminating Unnecessary Repetition     516
Tightening Rambling Sentences      517
Solving Common Sentence Problems     521
Revising Sentence Fragments     522
Recognizing Sentence Fragments     522
Revising Dependent Clause Fragments     524
Revising Phrase Fragments     525
Revising Compounds     529
Using Fragments Intentionally     530
Revising Run-ons     532
Recognizing Comma Splices and Fused Sentences     532
Revising with Periods     533
Revising with Semicolons     533
Revising with Coordinating Conjunctions     534
Revising with Subordinating Conjunctions or Relative Pronouns     534
Revising Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers     537
Revising Misplaced Modifiers     537
Revising Intrusive Modifiers     541
Revising Dangling Modifiers     542
Using Parallelism     544
Using Parallelism Effectively     544
Revising Faulty Parallelism     546
Revising Awkward or Confusing Sentences     548
Revising Unwarranted Shifts     548
Revising Mixed Constructions     551
Revising Faulty Predication     552
Revising Incomplete or Illogical Comparisons     553
Using Words Effectively     555
Choosing Words     556
Choosing an Appropriate Level of Diction     556
Choosing the Right Word     559
Using Figures of Speech     561
Avoiding Inappropriate Language     563
Avoiding Offensive Language     566
Using a Dictionary     570
Understanding a Dictionary Entry     570
Surveying Dictionaries     574
Improving Spelling     575
Understanding Spelling and Pronunciation     575
Learning Spelling Rules     577
Developing Spelling Skills     581
Understanding Grammar     583
Using Parts of Speech     584
Using Nouns     584
Using Pronouns     584
Using Verbs     586
Using Adjectives     588
Using Adverbs     589
Using Prepositions     590
Using Conjunctions     591
Using Interjections     592
Using Nouns and Pronouns     593
Understanding Case     593
Determining Pronoun Case in Special Situations     594
Revising Pronoun Reference Errors     596
Using Verbs      600
Understanding Verb Forms     600
Understanding Tense     604
Understanding Mood     609
Understanding Voice     610
Revising Agreement Errors     613
Making Subjects and Verbs Agree     613
Making Pronouns and Antecedents Agree     619
Using Adjectives and Adverbs     623
Understanding Adjectives and Adverbs     623
Using Adjectives     623
Using Adverbs     624
Using Comparative and Superlative Forms     625
Avoiding Illogical Comparatives and Superlatives     627
Understanding Punctuation and Mechanics     629
Using End Punctuation     630
Using Periods     630
Using Question Marks     632
Using Exclamation Points     633
Using Commas     634
Setting Off Independent Clauses     634
Setting Off Items in a Series     635
Setting Off Introductory Elements     637
Setting Off Nonessential Material     639
Using Commas in Other Conventional Contexts     643
Using Commas to Prevent Misreading     645
Editing Misused Commas     646
Using Semicolons      649
Separating Independent Clauses     649
Separating Independent Clauses Introduced by Transitional Words and Phrases     651
Separating Items in a Series     652
Editing Misused Semicolons     654
Using Apostrophes     656
Forming the Possessive Case     656
Indicating Omissions in Contractions     658
Forming Plurals     660
Editing Misused Apostrophes     661
Using Quotation Marks     663
Setting Off Quoted Speech or Writing     663
Setting Off Long Prose Passages and Poetry     665
Setting Off Titles     667
Setting Off Words Used in Special Ways     668
Using Quotation Marks with Other Punctuation     668
Editing Misused Quotation Marks     669
Using other Punctuation Marks     672
Using Colons     672
Using Dashes     674
Using Parentheses     675
Using Brackets     677
Using Slashes     677
Using Ellipses     678
Knowing When to Capitalize     681
Capitalizing the First Word of a Sentence     681
Capitalizing Proper Nouns     681
Capitalizing Important Words in Titles      685
Capitalizing the Pronoun I, the Interjection O, and Other Single Letters in Special Constructions     685
Capitalizing Salutations and Closings of Letters     686
Editing Misused Capitals     686
Using Italics     688
Setting Off Titles and Names     688
Setting Off Foreign Words and Phrases     689
Setting Off Elements Spoken of as Themselves and Terms Being Defined     689
Using Italics for Emphasis     690
Using Hyphens     691
Breaking a Word at the End of a Line     691
Dividing Compound Words     691
Using Abbreviations     695
Abbreviating Titles     695
Abbreviating Organization Names and Technical Terms     695
Abbreviating Dates, Times of Day, and Temperatures     696
Editing Misused Abbreviations     697
Using Numbers     700
Spelled-Out Numbers versus Numerals     700
Conventional Uses of Numerals     701
Bilingual and ESL Writers     705
Adjusting to the US Classroom     706
Understanding the Writing Process     706
Understanding English Language Basics     708
Learning to Edit Your Work      708
Grammar and Style for ESL Writers     713
Using Verbs     713
Using Nouns     720
Using Pronouns     723
Using Adjectives and Adverbs     726
Using Prepositions     727
Understanding Word Order     730
Glossary of Usage     733
Glossary of Grammatical and Rhetorical Terms     743
Credits     757
Index     761

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