W.E.B. DuBois (1868–1963) was an author, sociologist, historian, and civil rights leader. A brilliant writer and speaker, he was the first African American to receive a Ph.D. from Harvard. His lifelong efforts for racial equality resulted in the founding of the Niagara Movement and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). DuBois published more than four thousand books, articles, and essays before his death in 1963 at the age of ninety-five.