The Witch's Familiar: Spiritual Partnerships for Successful Magic


Since ancient times, witches and magicians have worked magic with the aid of Familiars, or helpful spirits. Familiars may take the form of a beloved pet, a totem animal, or even a helpful nonphysical entity.

Explore the fascinating history of Familiar spirits in The Witches' Familiar. Written by one of today's leading authorities on both Wicca and traditional hereditary Witchcraft, this book is your complete guide to finding and working with a ...

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Since ancient times, witches and magicians have worked magic with the aid of Familiars, or helpful spirits. Familiars may take the form of a beloved pet, a totem animal, or even a helpful nonphysical entity.

Explore the fascinating history of Familiar spirits in The Witches' Familiar. Written by one of today's leading authorities on both Wicca and traditional hereditary Witchcraft, this book is your complete guide to finding and working with a Familiar.

You'll read about the three types of Familiars: physical, astral, and spiritual. Learn how to call a Familiar to you, and how to choose an appropriate name. Discover how to use magical seals and sigils to command or release a nonphysical Familiar. Protect yourself and your loved ones by asking your Familiar to guard your home. Make your magic even more potent by enlisting your Familiar's aid in spellwork and ritual. Keep your bond strong, and find out how to release a Familiar when its work is done or it has passed from the physical plane.

This is the first book to present never-before-published traditional Craft methods for working with Familiars as well as historical examples from Western ceremonial magic. Your magic will be even more powerful when you combine forces with a Familiar face.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780738703398
  • Publisher: Llewellyn Worldwide, Ltd.
  • Publication date: 7/1/2003
  • Edition description: First Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 192
  • Sales rank: 599,459
  • Product dimensions: 6.02 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 0.51 (d)

Meet the Author

Raven Grimassi is a Neo-Pagan scholar and award-winning author of more than eighteen books on Witchcraft, Wicca, and Neo-Paganism. He has been devoted to the study and practice of witchcraft for over forty years. Raven is co-founder and co-director of the Ash, Birch, and Willow tradition.

Grimassi’s background includes training in old forms of witchcraft as well as Brittic Wicca, the Pictish-Gaelic tradition, Italian Witchcraft, and Celtic Traditionalist Witchcraft. Raven was also a member of the Rosicrucian Order, and studied the Kabbalah through the First Temple of Tifareth under Lady Sara Cunningham.

Raven currently lives in New England with his wife and co-author Stephanie Taylor-Grimassi. Together they direct The Fellowship of the Pentacle, a modern Mystery School devoted to preserving pre-Christian European spirituality.

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Read an Excerpt

History of the
Familiar Spirit
In this chapter we will explore the occult concept of the Familiar spirit in Witchcraft.
According to ancient lore, a spirit from the Otherworld was believed able to dwell within the physical body of an animal or creature. The traditional vessels for such spirits were the cat, mouse,
ferret, hare, bat, snake, hound, or bird—particularly a raven or an owl. The lore surrounding the
Familiar spirit indicates that a Witch received one following initiation into the Witches’ sect.
A magical connection between humans and animals has its roots in Paleolithic and Neolithic concepts, and is evident in old shamanic practices associated with animal guides. Various drawings and etchings in cave art depict ritualized scenes that are believed to represent magical themes. A variety of artifacts from these periods represent different animals and creatures carved and painted by ancient artisans. Many of these identical creatures later appear as Familiar spirits in the lore of Witchcraft.
This is highly suggestive of a survival theme related to ancient beliefs and practices.
In the earliest writings about Witches the creatures associated with Witchcraft all possess a chthonic nature. We find many of them to be creatures of woodlands, wetlands, and caves. This association links them to Underworld themes and to Underworld deities such as Hecate, Diana, Proserpina, Morrigan, Macha,
Badb, and Nemain. To our ancestors, the night and the moon were intimately linked to the Otherworld or Spirit World. Folk beliefs held that in the night many supernatural beings inhabited the dark and wooded places.
The Concept of a Familiar
The basic concept of a Familiar spirit most likely arose from a human need to communicate with the unseen world of spirits.
At first the Familiar spirit served as a type of mediator between the worlds. Later, the concept of a companion and ally evolved.
As we shall see later in this chapter, with the rise of Christianity the Church viewed the Familiar spirit as a servant given to the
Witch by the Devil of Judeo-Christian religion. In this biased and distorted view of the Familiar spirit the creature was portrayed as a “partner in evil” who aided the Witch in casting harmful spells.
As humankind became civilized, establishing farms, cities, and the supporting structures associated with such communities, a resulting loss of connection with Nature occurred. Instead of working in a “common cause” with Nature, humans set about trying to master Nature. All of Nature came to be viewed as a resource for the gain of humankind. In response, the spirits of Nature withdrew from the company of humans.
By contrast the Witch seeks to maintain rapport with Nature and to live his or her life in partnership. Wild animals, and some
“domesticated” animals such as the cat, are more in tune with
Nature in daily life than are the vast majority of human beings.
Establishing communication with such animals brings one closer to the source to which these creatures themselves are attuned.
Possessing a Familiar spirit allows the Witch to merge with the instincts of the animal and thereby interface with the intelligence
of Nature.
The physical senses such as hearing and smell are more acute in animals than in human beings. From an occult perspective,
the psychic senses of animals are stronger as well. A close rapport with the Familiar spirit enhances the psychic abilities of the
Witch. The Familiar also benefits from having a relationship with the Witch. Merging with human consciousness provides the
Familiar with an expanded view of reality, and intensifies the energy pattern of the Familiar. The alien worlds of human consciousness and “natural order” consciousness join together to form a magical consciousness. In this the Familiar becomes the mediator.
The magical consciousness of the Witch and the Familiar can open portals to other realms, and can accomplish works of magic in the material realm as well as the astral plane. This is the basis of legends in which we find the magical servant of the Witch,
and tales of shapeshifting by Witches. In reality the Familiar is a magical partner and companion for the Witch, and vice versa.
The oldest concept of the Witches’ Familiar was the spiritanimal belonging to the group consciousness of a specific type of animal. In other words, this was the spirit of the entire species delimited into a single form. In some cultures this is called a power animal or animal guide. Such an entity can be used as a doorway or link connecting to the higher animal spirit or nature.
In such cases the astral form of the animal becomes the vehicle for working with the greater consciousness.
The concept of the Witches’ Familiar is connected with shamanic practices and the lore of magical creatures from many cultures. One of the earliest and most clear signs of the relationship between humans and guardian animal spirits is reflected in the Ver Sacrum, the ancient Italic rite of the Sacred Springtime predating the rise of the Roman Empire. Every spring season ancient
Italic tribes observed a custom wherein a portion of the tribe was required to divide off and form new colonies. Their sacred animal guided each tribe in this endeavor, leading them to new lands in which to establish villages. The people known as the Sabellians were guided by a bull, the Piceni by a woodpecker,
the Lucani by a wolf, and so forth.
Many of the animals associated with various deities, such as
Diana and the hound, Hecate and the toad, Proserpina and the serpent, Pan and the goat, are animals that also appear as
Witches’ Familiars in the vast literature on Witchcraft. It is worthy of note to realize that the various types of Familiars mentioned in Witch trials are the same creatures associated with moon goddesses, mother goddesses, and ancient chthonic deities.
In particular these are the frog/toad, snake, bird, and lizard among many others. This is an indication of the antiquity of pre-
Christian themes found in Witchcraft, and demonstrates a longstanding mystical tradition.
Over the course of time humans personified various spirits and the forces of Nature. The concept of fairies and other supernatural beings blended together into a common mythos. Historian
Jeffrey Burton Russell, in his book Witchcraft in the Middle Ages
(London: Cornell University, 1972), writes, “The small demons that became the Witches’ Familiars of the later Middle Ages were originally dwarves, trolls, fairies, elves, kobolds, or the fertility spirits called Green Men. . . .” He adds that black and green were the favored colors of Witches, and that green was a fairy color. Historian Diane Purkiss (The Witch in History, London:
Routledge, 1996) comments on Familiars as being malevolent fairies. Viewing Familiars as remnants of earlier pagan spirits suggests a survival theme of pre-Christian religion within the folklore and folk magic traditions associated with Witchcraft of the
Middle Ages and early Renaissance periods.
Richard Baxter (1615–1619) was an earlier figure who viewed
Familiars as Nature spirits. Baxter was a Puritan cleric who wrote a treatise titled The Certainty of the World of Spirits, which was published in the year of his death. The treatise argued for the belief in “invisible powers and spirits.” Baxter believed that such things aided Witches in raising storms and casting spells. In his treatise Baxter wrote that it is uncertain whether the spirits that served Witches “are neither Angels, good or bad” or “whether those called Fairies and Goblins are not such.” The fact that the latter concept was even a consideration here demonstrates the survival of such Pagan beliefs into later periods.
Nonphysical Familiars
One of the persistent themes in the literature of Witchcraft is the tale of Witches being transported to the Sabbat through the aid of a Familiar spirit. In Fairy lore there are also many accounts of humans being transported into the Fairy Realm. This is suggestive of an Otherworld experience, a crossing between the realms of mortals and spirits by the intervention of a supernatural being. According to oral tradition, in order to avoid detection some Witches met within the astral realm to hold their Sabbats.
This often included the use of “flying ointment” smeared upon the skin. In Fairy lore either a magical dust or a potion is used.
According to the literature on Witchcraft, the Witches’ flying ointment was made from herbs: aconite (wolfsbane), belladonna,
hemlock, smallage, and cinquefoil. This was mixed with a paste made from the meal of fine wheat, or with fat or oil. In order to be nonlethal, such a recipe would have to be concocted under the guidance of a master herbalist, as even small amounts of some of these herbs are deadly. We know that the earliest word for Witch in Western literature was the Greek word pharmakis,
which means one who possesses the knowledge of herbs.
Inducing a trance, whether through meditation, chemicals, or other means, can link the Witch to other realms of existence and to altered states of consciousness. One ancient technique involved listening to the croaking of frogs as an aid to entering a trance. Here we see the connection of the animal spirit as a magical partner to the Witch figure. The fact that the frog moves back and forth between land and water perhaps suggested a supernatural power to lead the Witch to and from the spirit realm.
Nineteenth-century folklorists such as Charles Leland, Roma
Lister, and J. B. Andrews noted the incorporation of small bronze frog images used by Witches for spells and other works of magic,
which seems to indicate a magical connection and relationship between frogs and Witches.
From an occult perspective, trance (as an altered state of consciousness)
is conducive to astral projection, which allows the consciousness to leave the physical body and travel as desired.
Astral projection is a theme that appears in the literature on
Witchcraft even as late as the seventeenth century, where it is called “traveling in spirit” or “journeying without the body.”
Such tales appearing in Witch trial transcripts are consistent throughout Europe.
In some writings a Witch’s Familiar is a fairy or imp. Such creatures are said to dwell in spirit realms, and doorways from this world lead into the Otherworld. Traveling “in spirit” allowed the Witch to enter the Otherworld that exists beyond the physical world. Perhaps this is why the fairy and the Witch are often associated in folk beliefs throughout much of Europe and the
British Isles.
The Church and the Familiar Spirit
In 1318 Pope John XXII sent nine alleged Witches to be prosecuted for various magical practices, including contacting Familiar spirits with the aid of a polished glass. The Church employed several scriptures from the Old Testament concerning Familiar spirits, although it is unclear what the concept would have meant to ancient Hebrews in comparison to the Christian
Church of the Middles Ages and Renaissance periods. Many have used the story of the “Witch of Endor” from the Old Testament
(1 Samuel 28: 3–25) as a foundation stone concerning the
Church’s view on Familiars. However, there is nothing in the original language to indicate that the woman in question was a
Witch. Here she is referred to as a ba’alath ob, literally a “mistress of the Ob.” The Latin translation read mulierem habentem pythonem, which means “a woman possessing an oracle spirit.” It is the King James version that translated the later Latin rendering to mean “possessing a Familiar spirit.”
Sorcerers or necromancers who evoked the dead to answer questions were referred to in Hebrew as an ob. Some commentators have suggested that “ob” refers to a leather bottle, and therefore this nickname arose from the belief that a sorcerer’s body could serve as a vessel for a spirit from the Otherworld. Such commentators claim that the Greek word pytho was used in much the same regard to denote both the person and the spirit within the sorcerer. However, historian Frederick H. Ceyer, in his article “Magic in Ancient Syria-Palestine—and in the Old
Testament” (appearing in the book Witchcraft and Magic in Europe:
Biblical and Pagan Societies
, Ankarloo and Stuart, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001) states that the precise meaning of ob eludes us.
The King James Bible rendered the translation to read “Familiaris.”
This changed the meaning of the original scripture, and now indicated a “household servant.” This was done in order to portray such spirits as being the personal servants of a sorcerer.
The literal translations of the Bible do not actually address the
Familiar spirit; biblical scripture deals mainly with practitioners of the occult arts. The Book of Deuteronomy 18:10–11 admonished one not to keep company with any who is a fortuneteller,
soothsayer, charmer, diviner, spell-caster, a spirit medium, or anyone who seeks oracles from the dead. The Book of Leviticus
20:27 called for a strict penalty: “A man or a woman who acts as a medium or fortuneteller shall be put to death by stoning.” The
King James Bible replaced the original concept and inserted the word “witch.”
The Court and the Familiar Spirit
In the year 1563, Queen Elizabeth issued a Witchcraft statute that decreed a penalty for anyone who invoked or conjured “evill and wicked Spirites.” A later statute introduced by King James in
1604 was more specific:
That if any person or persons . . . shall use practise or exercise any Invocation or Conjuration of any evill and wicked Spirit, or shall consult covenant with entertaine employ feede or rewarde any evill and wicked Spirit
(they will be punished).*
Local court officials anxious to convict people of Witchcraft used coercion to shape the evidence in such a way that suspected
Witches were in clear violation of the law (i.e., feeding or entertaining evil spirits).
An interesting theme that appears in Witch trial transcripts is the mention of the inherited Familiar. Most scholars view the
* Used with permission, © Thomas Donaldson, 1995.
Familiar spirit as primarily part of English Witchcraft, although it appears in the Witch trial transcripts of other regions of Europe as well. One example is the Venetian trial of Elena Draga and
Maddalena la Greca, who claimed to possess a fada in the form of a chicken. A fada is a fairy-like creature, and in modern Italian is called a fata. The Familiar spirit also appears in the Salem
Witchcraft trials in New England.
In the Chelmsford trial (1556), the accused confessed to possessing a white-spotted cat named Sathan that was passed down from Witch to Witch. In another Chelmsford trial (1582), a twelve-year-old girl named Elizabeth Frauncis said she received a cat from her grandmother, but later gave it away to a woman named Agnes Waterhouse. In a trial held at St. Osyth (1582),
Margerie Sammon claimed she had inherited her Familiars.
English Witch trials contained accounts of suspected Witches having relationships with animal Familiars. The main period of such focus was between 1550–1650. Matthew Hopkins, the infamous
“Witch Finder General,” used the possession of a Familiar spirit as the primary criterion for proving a person guilty of practicing
Witchcraft. As a result many people were executed on the grounds that they kept animals or had a strange mark on their body, said to be the nipple used to feed the Familiar.
Thomas A. Donaldson, in his 1995 essay “The Role of the
Familiar in English Witch Trials” (
tad5/familiar.html), defines Familiars as “first and foremost, spirits.”
He states that:
These spirits usually had their own names, communicated to human beings through speech, and sometimes displayed distinct personalities and motives. Most of these spirits took on the physical form of a domestic animal and established a relationship with a particular person,
often a woman with evil intentions. They helped the “Witch” carry out her maleficia; in this respect the trial records depict them as having incredible, unearthly powers. The Familiar was by no means a subservient,
faithful helper who followed the Witch’s every command.
The relationship between the Familiar and the
Witch is better characterized as “give-and-take.” Some
Familiars played the role of little devils in that they requested a pact (often satanic in nature) before they would perform any services for the Witch. Furthermore,
almost all of them craved nourishment in the form of human blood. They would attach themselves to some part of the Witch’s body and suck blood out of her,
leaving a bruise that Witch hunters called the “Witch’s mark.” The Familiars and Witch’s mark acted as a strong evidence in the many trials.*
The trials held in Chelmsford, St. Osyth, Warboys, and Lancaster found a combined total of forty-six individuals guilty of practicing Witchcraft in connection with a Familiar spirit. Donaldson notes that the courts readily exchanged the term “Familiar spirit” with other words such “imp,” “devil,” or “demon.”
Therefore it is not surprising that the oldest concept of the Familiar spirit mutated under the direction of secular and ecclesiastical authority.
The courts extracted “evidence” that the Familiar typically initiated contact with the Witch. Once attached to the Witch, it appeared that he or she rarely had any choice but to keep it. Another interesting element that appears in trial transcripts is the account of each Familiar arriving with its own name already established.
In other words, reportedly the Witch did not name the
Familiar. Matthew Hopkins remarked that “no mortall could invent”
such names, which suggested to him something diabolical.
Donaldson states that the fact animal Familiars had their own pre-existing names fits with what is known of the general magi-
* Donaldson. Ibid.
cal beliefs in this time period. People of this era commonly believed that all spirits possessed names, and therefore it only made sense that Familiars had their own unique names.
Once established with the Witch, the Familiar served a variety of functions. Trial records reflect that Familiars inflicted injury or caused death to both humans and animals. Haunting or generally harassing people was also accredited to the Witches’
Familiar. In general this was limited to verbal assault, jeering, or threatening the targeted person. Perhaps some powerless individuals of this era fantasized the service of a spirit to vent their rage and anger at some real or imagined sense of oppression. No doubt there were some Witches who did invoke their Familiars to carry out magical attacks against their enemies.
Donaldson points out that when examining trial transcripts it is difficult to tell whether the Witch or the Familiar is the one in charge. It appears in most recorded accounts that Familiars often did perform services for the Witches. The relationship was not necessarily one of “mistress and servant” but involved a giveand-
take relationship. Each party had something to gain in the relationship. In some trials a formal pact or binding agreement between the Witch and the Familiar was required.
The Familiar sought nourishment from the Witch in either blood or breast milk. Witches reportedly sometimes fed milk and bread to their Familiars, but the Familiar craved human blood.
Occult theories of the period suggested that the Familiar required blood in order for it to maintain a corporal body, since it was actually a spirit. According to trial records the Familiars obtained blood from the Witch by pricking a place on his or her body and sucking out the blood. This left a mark on the body that was identified by Witch hunters as the “Witch’s mark” or the “Devil’s mark.”
In reality any mark, bruise, mole, or abnormality of the skin was enough to convince the Witch hunters that they had exposed a Witch. Commonly, with aging, the skin develops dark spots,
moles, and other growths, and most accused individuals were elderly.
To counter this, Witch hunters maintained that a Witch’s mark is usually found in “an unusual place” like the tailbone or genital region. Witch marks were said to be insensible to pain caused by a pin or a needle thrust into them.
Donaldson notes a commentary on the Lancaster trial written by G. B. Harrison in 1929. In the article Harrison proposes that
Familiars were not spirits but simply Witches in animal disguise:
But the spirits which appear now as men, now as animals,
are, at first sight, more difficult to explain until it is remembered that in the Witchcraft ritual the members of the coven disguise themselves as animals . . . [the Familiars]
are nothing more than the evil humans who were responsible for the whole business.*
The Modern Witch and the Familiar
Most modern Witches have their own unique view of what constitutes a Familiar spirit. No contemporary Witches accept the
Judeo-Christian view of the Familiar as accurate or valid. Many modern Witches tend to perceive the Familiar in much the same way that some American Indian traditions view animal guides or power animals. In this regard they are messengers to and from the Otherworld and are gifted to one by the Great Spirit. They are also healers and powerful allies for those with whom they form a relationship.
For the modern Witch there are essentially three types of Familiar spirit: the physical, the astral/spirit, and the artificial Familiar.
The physical Familiar can be a pet or any animal/creature
* Donaldson. Ibid.
to which you feel drawn. The astral/spirit Familiar is one that pre-exists as a conscious entity within the elemental realm or the
Otherworld, which lies beyond the world of the living. The artificial
Familiar is one that can be created through magic.
Familiars can assist the Witch in carrying energy for healing,
communication, or spell casting. The Familiar can also be used for protection of the home and/or personal property. During sessions of astral projection or dream work the Familiar can safeguard the Witch on many levels. The Familiar can also retrieve information on the planes, both inner and outer. These aspects are covered in the chapters that follow.
Let us turn now to the next chapter and explore how one obtains a Familiar, and the nature of the Familiar spirit.
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Table of Contents

List of Illustrations x
Publisher’s Note xii
Introduction xiii
1 History of the Familiar Spirit 1
The Concept of a Familiar 2
Nonphysical Familiars 5
The Church and the Familiar Spirit 7
The Court and the Familiar Spirit 8
The Modern Witch and the Familiar 12
2 Choosing Your Familiar 15
Part One: The Journey Quest 16
Part Two: Creating the Links 21
Using the Magical Cord 25
Part Three: Controlling the Familiar 26
The Genesis Seal 28
The Seal of Calling 30
The Seal of Departing 32
The Seal of Protection 34
The Seal of Dreaming 36
The Seal of Carrying a Spell 38
The Seal of Protection Against
Unwanted Familiars 40
The Seal of Severance 42
The Seal of Binding 44
The Seal for Controlling an Errant Familiar 46
The Seal of the Vortex 48
Using the Magical Seals 50
Ethics 54
3 Relationship with the Familiar 57
Merging with the Familiar 59
Working with the Nonphysical Familiar 62
Summoning the Familiar 62
Embracing the Familiar 63
License to Depart 63
Naming the Familiar 64
Working with the Familiar 65
For Healing 66
For Magic 66
Housing the Familiar 68
The Artifical Familiar 70
The Elemental Condensers 71
Absorption and Projection of Elements 72
Exercise/Techniques 72
4 The Guardian Familiar 75
Part One: Home Guardian 76
Personal Protector 78
Dream Guardian 82
The Plant Familiar 84
Method One 86
Method Two 88
For Extra Potency 89
Working with Plant Familiars 89
Magical Plants 91
Part Two: Magical Charges 95
The Odic Breath 96
Forming an Energy Sphere 97
Informing 98
Thought-Form Familiars 99
5 Parting with the Familiar 101
Part One: The Energy Bodies 102
Astral Doorways 115
Etheric Parasites 117
The Astral Substance 119
Part Two 120
Crossing-over Ritual 121
Ritual for Dissolving 122
The Vortex Ritual 124
Parting Words 127
Appendix 1: Keyword Associations for Familiars 129
Appendix 2: Concerning Classic Familiars 133
Appendix 3: Names of Familiars 149
Appendix 4: The Witches’ Alphabet 151
Bibliography 153
Index 155
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