The Young Turks in Opposition

Overview

In 1908, the revolution of the Young Turks deposed the dictatorship of Sultan Abdulhamid II and established a constitutional regime that became the major ruling power in the Ottoman empire. But the seeds of this revolution went back much farther: to 1889, when the secret Young Turk organization the Committee of Union and Progress was formed. M. Sukru Hanioglu's landmark work is the story of the power struggles within the CUP and its impact on twentieth-century Turkish politics and culture. At once an in-depth ...

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Overview

In 1908, the revolution of the Young Turks deposed the dictatorship of Sultan Abdulhamid II and established a constitutional regime that became the major ruling power in the Ottoman empire. But the seeds of this revolution went back much farther: to 1889, when the secret Young Turk organization the Committee of Union and Progress was formed. M. Sukru Hanioglu's landmark work is the story of the power struggles within the CUP and its impact on twentieth-century Turkish politics and culture. At once an in-depth history of an ideological movement and a study of the diplomatic relationships between the Ottoman Empire and the so-called great powers of Europe at the turn of the century, it analyzes the influence of European political thought on the CUP conspirators, and traces their influence on generations of Turkish intellectual and political life.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"The great empirical value of Hanioglu's book makes it an important contribution to the field."— iddle East Journal

"The research base of Young Turks in Opposition deserves comment, being one of the most prodigious this reviewer has seen...This heroic scholarly apparatus is by no means for show purposes; quite the contrary, it closely undergirds the author's weighty and original study."—Middle East Quarterly

"[The author's] study is based on exhaustive primary research; his is the first history of the Committee for Union and Progress based on the private papers, journals, and newspapers of its members. This archival research will surely delight spcialists and is clearly the greatest strength of the text."—The Historian

"...quite refreshing...Hanioglu has achieved all he attempted in writing a complete study of the intellectual basis and politics of the Young Turk opposition."—Middle East Studies Association Bulletin

"This book is an important contribution to our understanding of modern Turkey..."—American Historical Review

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780195091151
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • Publication date: 3/28/1995
  • Series: Studies in Middle Eastern History Series
  • Pages: 408
  • Sales rank: 1,351,173
  • Product dimensions: 6.46 (w) x 9.50 (h) x 1.28 (d)

Table of Contents

Note on Transliteration
1 Introduction 3
2 Ideological Roots of the Young Turks 7
Westernization as an Instrument of Change 7
Contemporary Science and Its Impact on Ottoman Thinking 10
The Tug of War between Conservatives and Modernists 13
The Young Turks and Modernization 16
How Contemporary Science Colored Young Turk Thinking 18
Bureaucracy Challenged: Loyally versus Merit 23
Constitutionalism, "Parliament," and the Young Turks 28
3 The CUP, Other Opposition Forces, and the Sultan 33
Relations between the Freemasons, the Young Turks, and the CUP 33
Le Parti Constitutionnel en Turquie and Its Relations with the CUP 41
Le Comite Turco-Syrien and Its Relations with the CUP 44
The Role of the Ulema and the Sufi Orders in the Opposition Movement - Their Relations with the CUP 49
The Supporters of a Palace Coup d'Etat and Their Connections with the CUP 58
Individual Initiatives and the CUP 67
4 The Rise of the CUP in Ottoman Politics: The Formative Years of the Committee 71
The Founding of the CUP and Its Early Activities 71
The CUP as a Political Organization, 1895-1897 78
The CUP Organization in Europe and in Egypt, 1895-1896 78
The Istanbul Branch and tbe 1896 Coup d'Etat Attempt 84
The CUP Organization in the Regions 86
Establishment of the CUP Network in the Balkans, 1895-1896 89
The CUP under the Direction of Murad Bey 90
The European Organization 90
The Egyptian Branch 101
The Istanbul Center 104
The Provincial Organization of the CUP and the 1897 Coup d'Etat Attempt in Syria 105
The Balkan Organization 109
5 Petty Intrigue and Conspiracy: The CUP, 1898-1900 110
The Reorganization of 1898 110
The European Organization 110
The Egyptian Branch 119
The Istanbul Center and the CUP Nenvork within the Empire 120
The Balkan Organization 122
The Activities of the Geneva Center in Late 1898 and Negotiations with the Palace 124
The CUP and the Young Turks until the Flight of Darnad Mahmud Pasha 126
The Geneva Center and the Paris Branch 126
The Egyptian Branch 136
The CUP Organization within the Empire 138
The Balkan Organization, New Branches in North Africa and Central Asia, and the CUP in Cyprus 140
6 The CUP in the Hands of the High-Ranking Conspirators 142
The Flight of Damad Mahmud Pasha and Its Consequences 142
Damad Mahmud Pasha and the Geneva Center 145
The Rise of the Pro-British Group under Damad Mahmud Pasha and the CUP Center in England 146
The Paris Branch of the CUP 156
The "Activists" in Geneva 158
The Young Turks in Egypt 162
The CUP Center in Istanbul and Activities in the Empire 164
The Balkan Organization 165
The CUP and the Ottoman Opposition prior to the 1902 Congress 166
7 Organizational Transformation of the Cup, 1889-1902 167
8 The First Congress of Ottoman Opposition in Paris and Its Consequences 173
Final Activities before the Congress 173
The Organization of the Congress 180
The First Congress of Ottoman Opposition 188
Consequences of the Congress 197
9 The Political Ideas of the Young Turks 200
Islam as a Tool of Modernization 200
The Young Turks and Positivism 203
The Young Turks and Elitism 205
Materialism, Race, and Nationalism 208
10 Conclusion 213
Abbreviations 217
Notes 219
Selected Bibliography 359
Index 381
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