The\Law of Hazardous Wastes and Toxic Substances in a Nutshell / Edition 1

The\Law of Hazardous Wastes and Toxic Substances in a Nutshell / Edition 1

by John G. Sprankling, Gregory S. Weber
     
 

ISBN-10: 0314211667

ISBN-13: 9780314211668

Pub. Date: 07/01/1997

Publisher: West Academic Publishing

Risk and Scientific Uncertainty; Regulating the Production and Sale of Toxic Substances; Regulating Toxic Pollution Under the Clean Water, Clean Air and Safe Drinking Water Acts; Regulating Disposal of Hazardous Wastes: Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA); Introduction to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA);

Overview

Risk and Scientific Uncertainty; Regulating the Production and Sale of Toxic Substances; Regulating Toxic Pollution Under the Clean Water, Clean Air and Safe Drinking Water Acts; Regulating Disposal of Hazardous Wastes: Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA); Introduction to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); CERCLA: Cleanup Performed by Government; Cost Recovery Actions Brought by Government; Cleanup Mandated by Government; Actions Brought by Private Parties; Additional Hazardous Waste Cleanup Options Under RCRA and CERCLA; Common Law Approaches to Hazardous Wastes and Toxic Substances; Avoiding Liability for Hazardous Substance Cleanup Costs.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780314211668
Publisher:
West Academic Publishing
Publication date:
07/01/1997
Series:
Nutshell Series
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
527
Product dimensions:
5.12(w) x 7.87(h) x (d)
Age Range:
18 Years

Table of Contents

PREFACE V(22)
TABLE OF CASES
xxvii(16)
TABLE OF STATUTES AND REGULATIONS
xliii
Chapter 1. Introduction
1(13)
A. Regulatory Background: A Toxic Legacy
1(4)
1. Widespread Exposure to Chemicals
3(1)
2. Insufficient Data on Effects of Chemicals
4(1)
B. Defining "Hazardous Wastes" and "Toxic Substances"
5(2)
1. What Are "Toxic Substances"?
6(1)
2. What Are "Hazardous Wastes"?
7(1)
C. Regulation of Hazardous Wastes and Toxic Substances
7(7)
1. Regulatory Structure: A Life Cycle Approach
8(2)
2. Other Regulatory Themes
10(4)
Chapter 2. Risk and Scientific Uncertainty
14(22)
A. Overview
14(3)
B. The Common Law Approach to Risk
17(3)
C. The Regulatory Approach to Risk
20(13)
1. The Risk Assessment Process
21(6)
a. Hazard Identification: Does the substance adversely affect human health or the environment?
23(2)
b. Dose-Response Assessment: What level of exposure to the substance ("dose") produces adverse effects ("response")?
25(1)
c. Exposure Assessment: To what extent are humans and the environment actually exposed to the substance?
26(1)
d. Risk Characterization: What is the overall nature of the risk?
27(1)
2. Risk Management: How Safe Is Safe?
27(6)
a. Health-Based Standards
28(2)
b. Feasibility Standards
30(1)
c. Cost-Benefit Standards
31(2)
D. The Judicial Reaction to Risk Regulation
33(3)
Chapter 3. Regulating the Production and Sale of Toxic Substances
36(41)
A. Overview
36(2)
B. Pesticides: The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)
38(18)
1. Introduction
38(3)
2. What Is a "Pesticide"?
41(2)
3. The Registration Process
43(4)
a. Registration Procedure
43(2)
b. New Registrations
45(1)
c. Reregistration
46(1)
4. Registration Standards
47(3)
a. Product Composition
47(1)
b. Labeling
48(1)
c. Effect on the Environment
49(1)
5. Terminating Registrations
50(3)
a. Suspension
50(2)
b. Cancellation
52(1)
6. Reporting Requirements
53(1)
7. Enforcement
54(1)
8. Evaluating FIFRA
55(1)
C. Pesticides: State and Local Regulation
56(2)
D. Other Chemical Substances: The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)
58(18)
1. Introduction
58(1)
2. What Is a "Chemical Substance"?
59(1)
3. Regulated Persons
60(1)
4. The Testing Program
61(3)
5. Regulation of Existing Chemical Substances
64(6)
a. Existing Substances Presenting an "Unreasonable Risk of Injury"
64(5)
b. "Imminently Hazardous" Substances
69(1)
c. "Significant New Uses" of Existing Substances
69(1)
d. Special Rules for PCBs
70(1)
6. Regulation of New Chemical Substances
70(3)
a. Premanufacture Notice
71(1)
b. Restrictions on New Chemical Substances
72(1)
7. Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements
73(1)
8. Enforcement
74(1)
9. Evaluating TSCA
75(1)
E. Other Chemical Substances: State and Local Regulation
76(1)
Chapter 4. Regulating the Use of Toxic Substances
77(21)
A. Overview
77(1)
B. Consumer Protection
78(9)
1. Hazardous Substances and Consumer Products: The Hazardous Substances Act (HSA)
78(2)
a. Labeling Requirements
79(1)
b. Product Bans
79(1)
2. Consumer Products Generally: The Consumer Product Safety Act (CPSA)
80(2)
a. Consumer Product Safely Rules
81(1)
b. Case Study: The Formaldehyde Saga
81(1)
3. Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics: The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA)
82(5)
a. Food Additives
83(3)
b. Pesticide Residues
86(1)
C. Employee Protection: The Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
87(4)
1. Occupational Safety and Health Standards
87(1)
2. Permissible Exposure Limits for Toxic Materials
88(3)
D. Public Protection Generally
91(4)
1. Warning the Public: Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRTKA)
91(3)
a. Emergency Planning
91(2)
b. Public Information
93(1)
2. Transportation of Toxics: The Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA)
94(1)
E. State Regulation
95(3)
Chapter 5. Regulating Toxic Pollution Under the Clean Water, Clean Air and Safe Drinking Water Acts
98(63)
A. Introduction
98(3)
1. Relationship to Other Laws
98(1)
2. Current Releases of Toxic Pollutants
99(2)
B. Regulation of Toxics Under the Clean Water Act
101(23)
1. Introduction
101(1)
2. History
102(4)
a. Pre-1972 Approaches
102(4)
b. Post-1972 Developments
106(1)
3. Contemporary Scheme
106(17)
a. Technology Based Elements
107(8)
i. Sources of Pollutants
107(1)
ii. Types of Pollutants
108(1)
iii. Discharge Restrictions and Permits
109(1)
iv. Timetables for Required Reductions
110(1)
v. Implementing Technology Based Standards
111(4)
b. Water Quality Based Elements
115(5)
c. Additional Provisions
120(3)
i. Harm Based Criteria
120(1)
ii. Alternative Criteria
121(1)
iii. Point Source BMPs
121(1)
iv. Prohibitions on Certain Toxic Discharges
122(1)
v. Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution
122(1)
4. Evaluation
123(1)
C. Regulation of Toxics Under the Clean Air Act
124(15)
1. Introduction
124(1)
2. History and Overview
125(5)
3. Current Provisions
130(8)
a. Technology Based Standards
130(5)
i. Toxic Substances
130(1)
ii. Emissions Sources
131(1)
iii. Emissions Restrictions
132(2)
iv. Permit System
134(1)
b. Harm Based Elements
135(2)
c. Other Provisions
137(1)
i. Emergency Releases
137(1)
ii. Incinerator Provisions
138(1)
4. Evaluation
138(1)
D. Regulation of Toxics under the Safe Drinking Water Act
139(14)
1. Introduction
139(1)
2. History
140(1)
3. Structure of the Act
141(11)
a. Introduction
141(1)
b. "Public Water Systems"
142(1)
c. The Threshold Criteria
142(1)
d. The Listing Process
143(1)
e. The Regulations
144(3)
f. Required Cost/Benefit Analyses
147(1)
g. Variances and Exemptions
148(2)
h. Enforcement
150(1)
i. Public Notification
150(1)
j. Other Provisions
151(1)
4. Evaluation
152(1)
E. Common Features of the Acts
153(8)
1. Relationship of Federal and State Law
153(2)
a. Preemption
154(1)
b. Implementation
154(1)
c. Federal Facilities
155(1)
2. Monitoring, Record Keeping and Reporting Requirements
155(1)
3. Enforcement Provisions
156(3)
a. Public Enforcement Provisions
156(2)
b. Citizens' Suits
158(1)
4. Research Programs and Outside Advisory Groups
159(2)
Chapter 6. Regulating Disposal of Hazardous Wastes: The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)
161(95)
A. Introduction
161(9)
1. "Cradle to Grave" Regulation
161(1)
2. Hazardous Waste Statistics
162(2)
3. History
164(2)
4. Relationship With Other Laws
166(3)
a. RCRA and CERCLA
166(1)
b. RCRA and Other Environmental Laws
167(2)
5. Organizational Structure
169(1)
B. "Hazardous Wastes"
170(29)
1. Introduction
170(4)
2. Solid Wastes
174(12)
a. Is the Substance Excluded From the Definition of "Solid Waste"?
176(3)
i. Is There an Express Exclusion?
177(1)
ii. Does the "Derived From" Rule Exclude the Materials?
178(1)
iii. Has a Variance Been Granted?
179(1)
b. Is the Material a "Solid Waste" Because It Has Been "Discarded"?
179(7)
i. Is the Material a Solid Waste Because It Was "Abandoned"?
180(1)
ii. Is the Material a Solid Waste When "Recycled"?
181(4)
[a] Table 1
181(2)
[b] Conditional Exemptions
183(1)
[c] Litigation Involving Recycling
184(1)
iii. Is the Material a Solid Waste Because It Is "Inherently Waste-Like"?
185(1)
3. Hazardous Wastes
186(13)
a. Is the Material Excluded From the Hazardous Waste Definition?
187(4)
i. Is There an Express Exclusion?
187(3)
ii. Does the "Derived From" Rule Exclude the Waste?
190(1)
iii. Has EPA Granted a Site Specific Exclusion for the Waste?
190(1)
b. If Not Excluded, Is the Material a Hazardous Waste?
191(5)
i. Is the Waste a "Listed" Hazardous Waste?
192(2)
ii. Does the Waste Exhibit a "Characteristic" of Hazardous Waste?
194(2)
c. Is the Waste Hazardous Under the "Derived From" or "Mixture" Rules, or the "Contained In" Policy?
196(2)
d. Is the Waste Excluded From the Hazardous Waste Regulations Because It Is Being Recycled?
198(1)
C. Regulation of the Generation, Transportation, Treatment, Storage, and Disposal of Hazardous Wastes
199(31)
1. Regulation of Generators
200(3)
a. Classes of Generators
200(1)
b. Duties of Generators and the Manifest System
201(2)
2. Regulation of Transporters
203(2)
3. Regulation of TSD Facilities and the "Land Ban"
205(22)
a. TSD "Facilities"
207(2)
b. The Permit System
209(2)
i. Exclusions and Special Circumstances
209(1)
ii. The Process
210(1)
c. Interim Status Facilities
211(4)
d. Permitted Status Facilities
215(4)
i. General Provisions
215(2)
ii. Provisions Applicable to Specific Facilities
217(2)
e. The "Land Disposal Restrictions," a.k.a. the "Land Ban"
219(8)
4. State and Federal Relationships Under Subtitle C
227(3)
a. History
227(1)
b. State Regulatory Authority Under RCRA
228(2)
D. Special Provisions for Underground Storage Tanks (USTs)
230(3)
1. Introduction
233(1)
2. Basic Elements
231(2)
E. Public and Private Enforcement
233(20)
1. Introduction
233(1)
2. Obtaining Information
234(3)
3. Federal Enforcement
237(10)
a. Administrative Enforcement
237(2)
b. Civil Enforcement
239(2)
c. Criminal Enforcement
241(6)
i. Introduction
241(1)
ii. "Knowing" Offenses
242(4)
iii. "Knowing Endangerment"
246(1)
4. Citizens' Suits
247(4)
5. Special Problems With Overlapping State Enforcement
251(2)
F. Additional Provisions of Selected State Programs
253(3)
Chapter 7. Introduction to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA)
256(26)
A. Overview
257(1)
B. Enactment of CERCLA
258(8)
1. Background: The Love Canal Tragedy
258(2)
2. Pre-CERCLA Regulation
260(1)
3. The Original Statute
261(2)
4. Amendments to CERCLA
263(2)
a. Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA)
263(1)
b. Asset Conservation, Lender Liability, and Deposit Insurance Protection Act of 1996
264(1)
5. Judicial Interpretation of CERCLA
265(1)
C. Major Provisions of CERCLA
266(14)
1. Key CERCLA Definitions: Section 101
266(9)
a. A "Release" or Threatened Release
267(2)
b. Of a "Hazardous Substance"
269(3)
i. The Petroleum Exclusion
271(1)
ii. Municipal Solid Waste: Included?
272(1)
c. At a "Facility" or "Vessel"
272(1)
d. "Removal Action"
273(2)
e. "Remedial Action"
275(1)
2. Cleanup Performed by Government: Section 104
275(1)
3. Cleanup Mandated by Government: Section 106
276(1)
4. Cost Recovery Actions: Section 107
276(1)
5. The Superfund: Section 111
277(3)
a. Superfund Uses
278(1)
b. Superfund Sources
279(1)
D. The Future of CERCLA
280(2)
Chapter 8. CERCLA: Cleanup Performed by Government
282(24)
A. Overview
282(2)
B. Section 104 Cleanup Authority
284(2)
C. Locating Contaminated Sites
286(2)
1. Release Reporting by Facilities
286(1)
2. Employee "Whistleblowers"
287(1)
3. Reports From the Public
287(1)
D. Planning the Response: The National Contingency Plan (NCP)
288(1)
E. Evaluating the Site
289(5)
1. Preliminary Assessment and Site Inspection (PA/SI)
289(2)
2. National Priorities List (NPL)
291(1)
a. Listing Sites on the NPL
292(1)
b. Challenging NPL Listings
293(1)
F. Interim Site Cleanup: Removal Action
294(2)
G. Permanent Site Cleanup: Remedial Action
296(3)
1. Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (RI/FS)
296(2)
2. The Remedy Selection Process
298(1)
3. Implementing the Remedy
299(1)
H. How Clean Must the Site Be? ("How Clean Is Clean?")
299(7)
1. The Section 121 Framework
300(2)
2. EPA's Response: Nine Criteria
302(4)
Chapter 9. CERCLA: Cost Recovery Actions Brought by Government
306(61)
A. Overview
306(1)
B. Section 107 Liability Standards
307(39)
1. In General
307(1)
2. What Does "Causes the Incurrence of Response Costs" Mean?
308(3)
3. Who Are "Potentially Pesponsible Parties"?
311(22)
a. Current Owners or Operators
312(1)
i. Owners
313(1)
ii. Operators
314(2)
b. Past Owners or Operators "at the Time of Disposal"
316(3)
c. Persons Who "Arranged for Disposal or Treatment"
319(4)
d. Transporters Who "Selected" Disposal or Treatment Site
323(1)
e. Special Cases
324(9)
i. Corporate Officers and Employees
324(2)
ii. Parent Corporations
326(1)
iii. Successor Corporations
327(2)
iv. Lenders
329(1)
v. Fiduciaries
330(1)
vi. Governmental Entities
331(2)
4. What Does "Liable" Mean?
333(4)
a. Strict Liability
333(1)
b. Joint and Several Liability
333(3)
c. Retroactive Liability
336(1)
5. What Are PRPs Liable for?
337(9)
a. "All Costs of Removal or Remedial Action"
337(4)
i. "All Costs"
337(2)
ii. Inconsistency With the NCP
339(2)
b. Declaratory Relief re Future Costs
341(1)
c. Natural Resource Damages
342(4)
d. CERCLA Liens
346(1)
C. Defenses and Exclusions
346(12)
1. Section 107(b) Defenses
346(10)
a. Act of God
347(1)
b. Act of War
348(1)
c. Third Party Defense
348(4)
i. Act or Omission of Third Party
349(1)
ii. Due Care
350(1)
iii. Precautions Against Foreseeable Acts or Omissions
351(1)
d. Innocent Landowner Defense
352(4)
2. Statute of Limitations
356(1)
3. Exclusions From CERCLA Coverage
357(1)
D. Enforcement
358(9)
1. Settlement
358(8)
a. Settlement Procedures Generally
360(1)
b. Major Party Settlements
361(2)
c. De Minimis Settlements
363(2)
d. De Micromis Settlements
365(1)
2. Litigation
366(1)
Chapter 10. CERCLA: Cleanup Mandated by Government
367(14)
A. Overview
367(2)
B. Section 106 Liability Standards
369(3)
1. In General
369(1)
2. "Imminent and Substantial Endangerment"
370(2)
C. Defenses to Liability
372(1)
D. Enforcement by Administrative Order
373(5)
E. Enforcement by Injunction
378(3)
Chapter 11. CERCLA: Actions Brought by Private Parties
381(37)
A. Private Actions Under XXX 107 to Recover Response Costs
382(14)
1. Introduction
382(4)
a. Typical Circumstances
382(1)
b. Comparison of Private Cost Recovery and Contribution Actions
383(2)
c. Judical Splits Over Rights to Proceed under XXX 107
385(1)
2. Basic Elements
386(5)
a. "Any * * * Person"
387(1)
b. "Necessary Costs of Response"
388(1)
c. "Consistent With the National Contingency Plan"
389(2)
3. Remedies
391(3)
a. "Necessary Response Costs"
391(2)
i. Recovery Allowed
391(1)
ii. Recovery Disallowed
392(1)
b. Equitable and Declaratory Relief
393(1)
4. Defenses
394(2)
a. Statutory Defenses
394(1)
b. Non-Statutory Defenses
394(1)
c. Constitutional Defenses
395(1)
B. Action for Contribution Under XXX 113
396(14)
1. Introduction
396(4)
a. Contribution and Section 107 Actions
397(1)
b. Contribution and Section 106 Remedies
397(3)
i. Existence of Remedy
397(2)
ii. Elements of Claim
399(1)
2. Procedural Options for Raising Contribution Claims
400(1)
3. Elements
401(2)
a. Basic Requirements
401(1)
b. "Necessity" and "Consistency"
402(1)
4. Defenses
403(3)
a. Statutory Defenses
403(2)
b. Equitable Defenses
405(1)
c. Constitutional Defenses
406(1)
5. Apportionment
406(4)
a. General Provisions
406(2)
b. Voluntary Apportionment
408(1)
c. Allocation of Orphan Shares
408(1)
d. Reduction for Effect of Settlement
409(1)
C. Citizens' Suits
410(8)
1. General Provisions
412(1)
2. Limitations on Review
413(5)
a. Challenges to Regulations
413(1)
b. Challenges to Site Cleanup Decisions
414(4)
Chapter 12. Additional Hazardous Waste Cleanup Options Under RCRA and CERCLA
418(24)
A. "Imminent and Substantial Endangerment" Actions: RCRA XXX 7003 and 7002(a)(1)(b)
419(7)
1. History and Overview
419(2)
2. Elements
421(5)
a. Key Terms
421(2)
b. Public Enforcement
423(1)
c. Private Enforcement
424(2)
B. "Corrective Actions:" RCRA XXX 3004(u) and 3008(h)
426(8)
1. Introduction
426(1)
2. Key Terms
427(4)
a. "Hazardous Waste or Constituents"
428(1)
b. "Release"
429(1)
c. "Solid Waste Management Unit" and "Facility"
430(1)
3. Process and Standards
431(2)
4. Interim Status Facilities
433(1)
C. Areas of Overlap Between RCRA and CERCLA
434(8)
1. Jurisdictional Overlap
435(3)
2. Remedial Choices and Limitations
438(3)
a. EPA Policy
438(1)
b. Does RCRA Limit CERCLA?
439(1)
c. Does CERCLA Expand RCRA?
440(1)
3. Other Interactions
441(1)
Chapter 13. Common Law Approaches to Hazardous Wastes and Toxic Substances
442(50)
A. Claims and Defenses
445(16)
1. Claims for Property Damage
446(11)
a. Nuisance
446(9)
b. Trespass
455(2)
2. Personal Injury Claims
457(4)
a. Negligence
457(2)
b. Strict Liability in Tort
459(1)
c. Infliction of Emotional Distress
459(2)
B. Causation
461(10)
1. Introduction
461(2)
2. Proof of Toxicity
463(2)
3. Proof of Exposure Pathway
465(1)
4. Indeterminate Plaintiff
466(5)
C. Multiple Defendants
471(5)
1. Joint and Several Liability
471(2)
2. The "Indeterminate Defendant"
473(3)
D. Remedies
476(5)
1. Damages
476(4)
a. Compensatory Damages
476(3)
i. Real Property Contamination
476(1)
ii. Personal Injury
477(2)
b. Punitive or Exemplary Damages
479(1)
2. Equitable Relief
480(1)
E. Procedural Responses
481(11)
1. Introduction
481(1)
2. "Polyfircation"
482(2)
3. Case Management Orders
484(2)
4. Case Consolidation
486(2)
5. Test Cases
488(1)
6. Class Actions
488(4)
Chapter 14. Avoiding Liability for Hazardous Substance Cleanup Costs
492(13)
A. Overview
492(1)
B. Indemnity and Hold Harmless Agreements
493(1)
C. Insurance
494(7)
1. Comprehensive General Liability Insurance
495(4)
a. "Damages"
495(1)
b. "Occurrence"
496(1)
c. Owned Property Exclusion
497(1)
d. Title Insurance
499(1)
3. Environmental Impairment Liability Insurance
500(1)
D. Bankruptcy
501(4)
1. Discharge of Debtor
502(1)
2. Abandonment of Facility
503(2)
TABLE OF ACRONYMS 505(4)
INDEX 509

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