Theories of Counselling and Psychotherapy: An Introduction to the Different Approaches / Edition 2

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This authoritative overview of the main approaches to counselling and psychotherapy offers a uniquely concise and systematic framework for understanding and comparing different models of working.

Bringing together the philosophical and practical elements of a wide range of psychological therapies, Stephen Joseph examines the assumptions and values that underpin different understandings of mental distress and the various approaches to psychological assessment and treatment. He sets his discussion in the context of the contemporary drive towards evidence-based practice.

In particular, he:

shows how the psychological therapies are affected by philosophy and theory

brings together psychodynamic, cognitive-behavioural and humanistic ideas in one clear and easily navigable structure

features well-chosen case studies that are revisited in each theoretical model

includes handy summary charts, new 'topics for reflection', and a full glossary.

This is a versatile and approachable text which offers an essential starting-point for students on counselling and psychotherapy courses; those training to work in psychological therapy services; or students taking counselling psychology, clinical psychology or mental health courses at advanced and postgraduate level.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
Praise for the first edition:
“What a find this book is! For me, certainly, but also for any student, practitioner, teacher, or researcher in the field...perhaps even for the thoughtful consumer, or indeed any onlooker interested in the state of the art today.” —Healthcare Counselling and Psychotherapy Journal

"It fills a real gap for all who would like a straightforward introduction… regardless of whether they adopt a psychodynamic, humanistic or cognitive behavioural approach… Clearly and accessibly written, with case examples that bring the theory to life, this is a highly recommended book." —Counselling and Psychotherapy Journal

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780230576377
  • Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
  • Publication date: 5/11/2010
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 240
  • Product dimensions: 6.10 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 0.50 (d)

Meet the Author

STEPHEN JOSEPH is Professor of Psychology, Health and Social Care at the University of Nottingham, UK, where he is co-director of the Centre for Trauma, Resilience and Growth, and an Honorary Consultant Psychologist in Psychotherapy in Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust. He is a senior practitioner member of the British Psychological Society's Register of Psychologists specializing in Psychotherapy.

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Table of Contents

List of Figures and Tables xi

Preface xii

Acknowledgements xiv

1 Introduction 1

The nature of counselling and psychotherapy 3

Social support 3

Defining counselling and psychotherapy 6

Setting the scene 9

Distress, deviance, dysfunction, and dangerousness 10

Different therapeutic approaches 11

Eclectic and integrated approaches 17

Research mindedness 18

Conclusion 20

Summary points 20

Topics for reflection 21

2 Biomedical and Medical Approaches 22

Introduction 22

History of the biomedical model 23

Scientific medicine 25

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 26

Scientific use of DSM 28

Some criticisms of DSM 33

Biomedical approaches 34

Therapies based on the biomedical model 38

Treatment-aetiology fallacy 42

Conclusion 43

Summary points 44

Topics for reflection 45

3 Psychoanalytic and Psychodynamic Approaches 46

Introduction 46

Sigmund Freud and the psychoanalytical model 46

Psychoanalytical theory 47

Criticisms of psychoanalysis 55

Psychoanalysis 58

Psychodynamic therapy 60

Neo-Freudian psychodynamic models 60

Jung and analytical psychology 60

Individual psychology Alfred Adler 62

Object relations Melanie Klein 64

Attachment theory John Bowlby 65

Ego psychology Erik Erikson 66

Does psychodynamic therapy work? 69

Conclusion 69

Summary points 70

Topics for reflection 71

4 Behavioural and Cognitive Approaches 72

Introduction 72

Behavioural model 72

Classical conditioning Ivan Pavlov 73

Psychology as the behaviourist views it 75

Operant conditioning B.F. Skinner 76

Mowrer's two-factor theory 77

Behaviour therapy 77

Systematic desensitization Joseph Wolpe 79

Flooding 80

Aversion therapy 81

Modelling Albert Bandura 81

Reinforcement-based techniques 82

Cognitive model Albert Ellis Aaron Beck 84

Rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT) Albert Ellis 85

Cognitive therapy Aaron Beck 88

Cognitive-behavioural approaches 90

Does CBT work? 93

Criticisms of cognitive-behavioural approaches 93

Conclusion 94

Summary points 95

Topics for reflection 96

5 Humanistic and Transpersonal Approaches 97

Introduction 97

The person-centred approach Carl Rogers 98

Criticisms of the client-centred approach 104

Humanistic attitudes towards the medical model 106

Does client-centred therapy work? 106

Current directions 107

Pre-therapy 107

Process-experiential approach 108

Motivational interviewing 108

Other humanistic-existential approaches 109

Gestalt therapy Fritz Perls 109

Transactional analysis Eric Berne 111

Existential approaches 114

Transpersonal psychotherapy 115

The hierarchy of needs Abraham Maslow 116

The transpersonal Stanislav Grof 118

Levels of consciousness Ken Wilber 120

Conclusion 122

Summary points 123

Topics for reflection 123

6 Sociological and Social Approaches 124

Introduction 124

Social construction of therapy 124

Berger and Luckmann and the sociology of knowledge 124

The myth of mental illness Thomas Szasz 125

Structuralism, mental health, and therapy 127

How social factors cause problems 129

Cultural worldviews 130

Challenging medicalization 132

Labelling 135

Social approaches 136

Social systems 138

Conclusion 140

Summary points 141

Topics for reflection 141

7 Developments in Eclectic and Integrative Approaches 142

Introduction 142

Commonalities across therapeutic approaches 143

Self-disclosure 143

Therapeutic relationship 144

Non-specific factors 145

Drawing it all together 148

Putting it into practice 152

Eclectic approaches 152

Integrative approaches 155

Narrative approaches 156

Pluralistic approaches 157

Is a unified theory possible? 157

Basic assumptions 158

Where next? 159

Evidence-based therapy 159

Values-based therapy 160

Conclusion 162

Summary points 163

Topics for reflection 163

References 164

Index 181

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