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Theories of Development: Concepts and Applications / Edition 6

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Overview

Round-the-clock access to reliable content for Internet research projects includes thousands of full articles from the EBSCO ContentSelect database, census data from Social Explorerâ„¢, daily news feeds from The Associated Press, and primary and secondary source documents from the Pearson bookshelf.

Step-by-step tutorials present complete overviews of the research and writing process.

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Our exclusive online handbook provides grammar and usage support.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205810468
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 8/20/2010
  • Series: Pearson Custom Library: Psychology Series
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 6
  • Pages: 448
  • Sales rank: 59,259
  • Product dimensions: 5.90 (w) x 8.90 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Meet the Author

William Crain is professor of psychology at The City College of New York. A social activist, Dr. Crain served nine years on the Teaneck, NJ, school board and works for student access to higher education and the protection of nature and animals. He and his wife Ellen F. Crain, a pediatrician, have three grown children.

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Table of Contents

Preface xiii

Introduction 1

Chapter 1 Early Theories: Preformationism, Locke, and Rousseau 3

Preformationism 3

Locke's Environmentalism 6

Rousseau's Romantic Naturalism 12

Chapter 2 Gesell's Maturational Theory 22

Biographical Introduction 22

Principles of Development 23

Philosophy of Child Rearing 29

Evaluation 31

Chapter 3 Ethological Theories: Darwin, Lorenz and Tinbergen, and Bowlby and Ainsworth 35

Darwin and the Theory of Evolution 35

Modern Ethology: Lorenz and Tinbergen 39

Bowlby and Ainsworth on Human Attachment 47

Evaluation 67

Chapter 4 Montessori's Educational Philosophy 71

Biographical Introduction 71

Theory of Development 72

Early Education in the Home 76

The Montessori School 77

Evaluation 89

Chapter 5 Werner's Organismic and Comparative Theory 93

Biographical Introduction 93

Werner's View of Development 95

Some Comparative Studies 100

Symbol Formation: An Organismic View 105

Theoretical Issues 108

Practical Applications 112

Evaluation 115

Chapter 6 Piaget's Cognitive-Developmental Theory 118

Biographical Introduction 118

Overview of the Theory 120

Period I. Sensorimotor Intelligence (Birth to 2 Years) 122

Periods II and III. Preoperational Thought (2 to 7 Years) and Concrete Operations (7 to 11 Years) 127

Period IV. Formal Operations (11 Years to Adulthood) 138

Theoretical Issues 140

Implications for Education 143

Evaluation 147

Chapter 7 Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development 157

Biographical Introduction 157

Piaget's Stages of Moral Judgment 158

Kohlberg's Method 159

Kohlberg's Six Stages 160

Theoretical Issues 166

Gilligan on the Feminine Voice 174

Implications for Education 176

Evaluation 179

Chapter 8 Learning Theory: Pavlov, Watson, and Skinner 180

Pavlov and Classical Conditioning 180

Watson 183

Skinner and Operant Conditioning 187

Evaluation 201

Chapter 9 Bandura's Social Learning Theory 204

Biographical Introduction 204

Basic Concepts 205

Socialization Studies 208

Self-lifftcacy 213

Abstract Modeling and Piaget's Stages 215

Practical Implications 219

Evaluation 221

Chapter 10 Vygotsky's Social-Historical Theory of Cognitive Development 224

Biographical Introduction 224

Marx's Views on Human Nature 226

Vygotsky'a Theory of Psychological Tools 228

Memory Aids 232

Speech 232

Play 239

Schooling 240

Practical Applications 245

Evaluation 248

Chapter 11 Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory 253

Biographical Introduction 253

The Stages of Psychosexual Development 256

The Agencies of the Mind 268

Practical Implications 276

Evaluation 277

Chapter 12 Erikson and the Eight Stages of Life 281

Biographical Introduction 281

Erikson's Stage Theory 282

Theoretical Issues 297

Practical Implications 302

Evaluation 304

Chapter 13 Mahler's Separation/Individuation Theory 306

Biographical Introduction 306

Overview of Concepts and Methods 307

Phases of Normal Development 309

Practical Applications 315

Evaluation 316

Chapter 14 A Case Study in Psychoanalytic Treatment: Bettelheim on Autism 320

Biographical Introduction 320

The Autistic Syndrome 321

Therapy 322

Evaluation 327

Chapter 15 Schachtel on Childhood Experiences 329

Biographical Introduction 329

Basic Concepts 329

Implications for Education 333

Evaluation 334

Chapter 16 Jung's Theory of Adulthood 338

Biographical Introduction 338

Personality Structure 341

Theory of Development 344

Practical Implications 348

Evaluation 349

Chapter 17 Chomsky's Theory of Language Development 351

Biographical Introduction 351

Basic Concepts 352

Notes on the Growth of Grammar 358

Chomsky and Learning Theory 362

Chomsky and Piaget 368

Implications for Education 369

Evaluation 371

Chapter 18 Conclusion: Humanistic Psychology and Developmental Theory 373

Humanistic Psychology 373

Developmentalists as Humanists 379

Epilogue: A Developmental Perspective on the Standards Movement 385

References 396

Name Index 417

Subject Index 423

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