Theory of Heat

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Overview

Though James Clerk Maxwell (1831–1879) is best remembered for his epochal achievements in electricity and magnetism, he was wide-ranging in his scientific investigations, and he came to brilliant conclusions in virtually all of them. As James R. Newman put it, Maxwell "combined a profound physical intuition, an exquisite feeling for the relationship of objects, with a formidable mathematical capacity to establish orderly connections among diverse phenomena. This blending of the concrete and the abstract was the ...

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Theory of Heat

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Overview

Though James Clerk Maxwell (1831–1879) is best remembered for his epochal achievements in electricity and magnetism, he was wide-ranging in his scientific investigations, and he came to brilliant conclusions in virtually all of them. As James R. Newman put it, Maxwell "combined a profound physical intuition, an exquisite feeling for the relationship of objects, with a formidable mathematical capacity to establish orderly connections among diverse phenomena. This blending of the concrete and the abstract was the chief characteristic of almost all his researches."
Maxwell's work on heat and statistical physics has long been recognized as vitally important, but Theory of Heat, his own masterful presentation of his ideas, remained out of print for years before being brought back in this new edition. In this unjustly neglected classic, Maxwell sets forth the fundamentals of thermodynamics clearly and simply enough to be understood by a beginning student, yet with enough subtlety and depth of thought to appeal also to more advanced readers. He goes on to elucidate the fundamental ideas of kinetic theory, and — through the mental experiment of "Maxwell's demon" — points out how the Second Law of Thermodynamics relies on statistics.
A new Introduction and notes by Peter Pesic put Maxwell's work into context and show how it relates to the quantum ideas that emerged a few years later. Theory of Heat will serve beginners as a sound introduction to thermal physics; advanced students of physics and the history of science will find Maxwell's ideas stimulating, and will be delighted to discover this inexpensive reprint of a long-unavailable classic.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780486417356
  • Publisher: Dover Publications
  • Publication date: 6/13/2001
  • Series: Dover Books on Physics Series
  • Edition description: Reprint
  • Edition number: 9
  • Pages: 352
  • Product dimensions: 5.39 (w) x 8.39 (h) x 0.76 (d)

Meet the Author

James Clerk Maxwell: In His Own Words — And Others
Dover reprinted Maxwell's Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism in 1954, surely one of the first classics of scientific literature over a thousand pages in length to be given new life and accessibility to students and researchers as a result of the paperback revolution of the 1950s. Matter and Motion followed in 1991 and Theory of Heat in 2001.

Some towering figures in science have to speak for themselves. Such is James Clerk Maxwell (1813–1879), the Scottish physicist and mathematician who formulated the basic equations of classical electromagnetic theory.

In the Author's Own Words:
"We may find illustrations of the highest doctrines of science in games and gymnastics, in traveling by land and by water, in storms of the air and of the sea, and wherever there is matter in motion."

"The 2nd law of thermodynamics has the same degree of truth as the statement that if you throw a tumblerful of water into the sea, you cannot get the same tumblerful of water out again." — James Clerk Maxwell

Critical Acclaim for James Clerk Maxwell:
"From a long view of the history of mankind — seen from, say, ten thousand years from now — there can be little doubt that the most significant event of the 19th century will be judged as Maxwell's discovery of the laws of electrodynamics. The American Civil War will pale into provincial insignificance in comparison with this important scientific event of the same decade." — Richard P. Feynman

"Maxwell's equations have had a greater impact on human history than any ten presidents." — Carl Sagan

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Table of Contents

CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION
  Meaning of the word Temperature
  The Mercurial Thermometer
  Heat as a Quantity
  Diffusion of Heat by Conduction and Radiation
  The three Physical States of Bodies
"CHAPTER II. THERMOMETRY, OR THE REGISTRATION OF TEMPERATURE"
  Definition of Higher and Lower Temperature
  Temperatures of Reference
  Different Thermometric Scales
  Construction of a Thermometer
  The Air Thermometer
  Other Methods of Ascertaining Temperatures
"CHAPTER III. CALORIMETRY, OR THE MEASUREMENT OF HEAT"
  Selection of a Unit of Heat
  All Heat is of the same Kind
  Ice Calorimeters
  Bunsen's Calorimeter
  Method of Mixture
  Definitions of Thermal Capacity and Specific Heat
  Latent Heat of Steam
CHAPTER IV. ELEMENTARY DYNAMICAL PRINCIPLES
  Measurement of Quantities
  "The Units of Length, Mass, and Time, and their Derived Units"
  Measurement of Force
  Work and Energy
  Principle of the Conservation of Energy
CHAPTER V. MEASUREMENT OF INTERNAL FORCES AND THEIR EFFECTS
  Longitudinal Pressure and Tension
  Definition of a Fluid-Hydrostatic Pressure
  Work done by a Piston on a Fluid
  Watt's Indicator and the Indicator Diagram
  Elasticity of a Fluid
CHAPTER VI. LINES OF EQUAL TEMPERATURE ON THE INDICATOR DIAGRAM
  "Relation between Volume, Pressure, and Temperature"
  Isothermal Lines of a Gas
  Isothermal Lines of a Vapour in Contact with its Liquid
  Steam Line and Water Line
  Continuity of the Liquid and Gaseous States-Experiments of Cagniard de la Tour and Andrews
CHAPTER VII. ADIABATIC LINES
  Properties of a Substance when heat is prevented from entering or leaving it
  The Adiabatic Lines are Steeper than the Isothermals
  Diagram showing the Effects of Heat on Water
CHAPTER VIII. HEAT ENGINES
  Carnot's Engine
  Second Law of Thermodynamics
  Carnot's Function and Thomson's Absolute Scale of Temperature
  Maximum Efficiency of a Heat Engine
  Thermodynamic Scale of Temperature
  Entropy
  Fictitious Thermal Lines
CHAPTER IX. RELATIONS BETWEEN THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF A SUBSTANCE
  Four Thermodynamic Relations
  The two Modes of Defining Specific Heat
  The two Modes of Defining Elasticity
CHAPTER X. LATENT HEAT
  Relation between the Latent Heat and the Alteration of the Volume of the Substance during a Change of State
  Lowering of the Freezing Point by Pressure
CHAPTER XI. THERMODYNAMICS OF GASES
  Cooling by Expansion
  Calculation of the Specific Heat of Air
CHAPTER XII. ON THE INTRINSIC ENERGY OF A SYSTEM OF BODIES
  Intrinsic Energy defined
  Available Energy
  Dissipation of Energy
  Mechanical and Thermal Analogies
  Prof. Gibbs' Thermodynamic Model
CHAPTER XIII. ON FREE EXPANSION
  Theory of a Fluid rushing through a Porous Plug
  Determination of the Dynamical Equivalent of Heat
  Determination of the Absolute Scale of Temperature
CHAPTER XIV. DETERMINATION OF HEIGHTS BY THE BAROMETER
  Principle of the Barometer
  The Barometer in a Diving Bell
  Height of the ' Homogeneous Atmosphere'
  Height of a Mountain found by the Barometer
CHAPTER XV. ON THE PROPAGATION OF WAVES OF LONGITUDINAL DISTURBANCE
  Waves of Permanent Type
  Velocity of Sound
CHAPTER XVI. ON RADIATION
  Definition of Radiation
  Interference
  Different Kinds of Radiation
  Prevost's Theory of Exchanges
  Rate of Cooling
  Effects of Radiation on Thermometers
CHAPTER XVII. ON CONVECTION CURRENTS
  How they are Produced
  Joule's Determination of the Point of Maximum Density of Water
CHAPTER XVIII. ON THE DIFFUSION OF HEAT BY CONDUCTION
  Conduction through a Plate
  Different Measures of Conductivity
  Conduction in a Solid
  Sketch of Fourier's Theory
  Harmonic Distributions of Temperature
  Steady and Periodic Flow of Heat
  Determination of the Thermal Conductivity of Bodies
  Applications of the Theory
CHAPTER XIX. ON THE DIFFUSION OF FLUIDS
  Coefficient of Diffusion
  Researches of Graham and Loschmidt
CHAPTER XX. ON CAPILLARITY
  Superficial Energy and Superficial Tension
  Rise of a Liquid in a Tube
  Evaporation and Condensation as Affected by Capillarity
  Table of Superficial Tension
CHAPTER XXI. ON ELASTICITY AND VISCOSITY
  Different Kinds of Stress and Strain
  Coefficient of Viscosity
CHAPTER XXII. MOLECULAR THEORY OF THE CONSTITUTION OF BODIES
  Kinetic and Potential Energy
  Evidence that Heat is the Kinetic Energy of the Molecules of a Body
  Kinetic Theory of Gases
  Deduction of the Laws of Gases
  Equilibrium of a Vertical Column
  "Diffusion, Viscosity, and Conduction"
  Evaporation and Condensation
  Electrolysis
  Radiation
  Limitation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics
  The Properties of Molecules
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